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Lathrop, A Study of Hawthorne (Osgood, 1876). Leslie Stephen, Hours in a Library, Vol. I (Putnams, 1894). R. H. Hutton, Essays Theological and Literary (Strahan, 1871). G. W. Curtis, Literary and Social Essays (Harpers, 1895). G. B. Smith, Poets and Novelists (Appleton, 1875). T. W. Higginson, Short Studies in American Authors (Lee and Shepard, 1886). W. D. Howells, My Literary Passions (Harpers, 1895).


Fanshawe, 1828. Twice-Told Tales, 1st Series, 1837; 2d Series, 1842. Grandfather's Chair, 1841, 1842. Biographical Stories for Children, 1842. Mosses from an Old Manse, 1846. The Scarlet Letter, 1850. The House of the Seven Gables, 1851. True Stories from History and Biography, 1851. A Wonder Book, 1851. The Snow Image and Other Tales, 1851. The Blithedale Romance, 1852. Life of Franklin Pierce, 1852. Tanglewood Tales, 1853. The Marble Faun, 1860. Our Old Home, 1863. The Dolliver Romance, 1864. American Note Books, 1868. English Note Books, 1870. French and Italian Note Books, 1872. Septimius Felton, 1872. Tales from the White Hills, 1877. Dr. Grimshawe's Secret, 1883.

Hawthorne's complete works are published in the Riverside Edition in 12 vols.

REQUIRED READING. The University Extension examination will cover the following works of Hawthorne: Tales from the White Hills, The Snow Image, The Old Manse, Scarlet Letter, and The House of the Seven Gables. All of these are published in numerous convenient (and cheap) editions, as well as in the standard edition.

LECTURE OUTLINE. I. Hereditary and Early Life Influences.- Hawthorne's ancestry. Puritanism and witchcraft. Boyhood of Nathaniel spent in comparative retirement. Preparation for college. Mistakes regarding Hawthorne's temperament. After graduating, a period of seclusion and solitude. Hawthorne and the Brook Farm experiment (see Am. Note Books, and Blithedale Romance). Personal traits of Hawthorn? as reflected in his


II. From Fanshawe to the Scarlet Letter (1828–1850).-Hawthorne a man of single definite aim. How his Puritanic tendencies reinforced this aim. The influence on him of the mystery-and-terror school of writers. Hawthorne not an imitator of these; he added to his work a spiritual insight and human interest. Difficulty attending the publication of the first tales. Twice-Told Tales (1837). Life in the Salem Custom House, and the inception of The Scarlet Letter.

III. The Scarlet Letter.-The greatest imaginative and spiritual work of art that has yet appeared in American literature. Evil, in the Puritanic sense, with its effects on the soul, Hawthorne's theme. Wholesomeness and depth of impression of The Scarlet Letter. Though Puritanic in spirit, Hawthorne was a true artist and approached his problem through an imaginative medium. In the treatment and development of the plot the author's magic eludes us. The discernible elements: a romantic setting, opposition and juxtaposition of light and shade in moral relations (Dimmesdale and Hester, Chillingsworth and Dimmesdale, Hester and Pearl, etc.), blending of the borderlands of the natural and preternatural, subtle foreshadowings and imperceptible transitions, masterly handling of delicate relations, beauty of style, abiding human interests. Plot interest secondary to the psychological analysis. A study of the characters reveals Hawthorne's moral intent.

IV. Hawthorne's other Romances and Tales.-His relation to the development of the short story. Leading characteristics of the tales similar to those of the longer romances.House of Seven Gables. A reminiscence of an ancestral episode projected into the spiritual world. A delicately but perfectly constructed story. The climax and other great incidents of the book. Use of contrast and symbolism. All in all the effect of the romance is cheerful and elevating.-The Blithedale Romance. Less imaginative, less infused with the informing spirit than the other romances. An echo of Brook Farm.The Marble Faun. Even more ambitious in range of thought, surpassing in ideal beauty The Scarlet Letter. Subtleties less clearly mastered and the development less forceful and sustained,

V. General Estimate of Hawthorne's Work.—Thought, spirit, and the artistic sense in perfect harmony. Though the special phase (the supernatural as evinced in witchcraft, heredity, alchemy, etc.) which Hawthorne's idealism assumed was a necessarily limited one, the intensity with which it was worked upon, the success in humanizing the spirit world,-in harmonizing the outer and inner life, and the detailed beauty of the execution, combine to place Hawthorne in the first rank of 19th century authors.

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“The novelty of Hawthorne's work is in his treatment. Like Shakespeare, he offers only a partial explanation of his unusual phenomena or none at all.

The supernatural world was with Hawthorne but the inner world of the conscience.”—W. L. Cross, Development of the English Novel, p. 164.

“Of all our writers the least imitative, the most surely individual. The circumstances of his life combined with the sensitiveness of his nature to make his individuality indigenous. Beyond any one else

he expressed the deepest temper of that New England race which brought him forth."-Barrett Wendell, A Literary History of America, p. 435.

Hawthorne is pre-eminent among imaginative writers for the number and originality of his plots, his only equal in this respect, perhaps, being Robert Browning."-M. D. Conway, Life of Nathaniel Hawthorne, p. 71.

“The 'Scarlet Letter' is not alone an interpretation of personality: It is the first suggestion and forerunner of the Novel of Purpose and of the Novel of Problem. It is the convincing proof of the greatness of the art of Hawthorne that the 'Scarlet Letter' is thus at once a presentation and a prophecy.”—F. H. Stoddard, The Evolution of The English Novel, p. 83.

“Probably in no one point is Hawthorne's peculiarity so obviously marked as in the persistency with which he clings to a physical image, vividly impressing it upon the mind, like a text which gathers atmosphere and discloses significance under the special treatment of the preacher.

This power of such an object to ecome the medium of thought and emotion as well as to convey merely allegorical meaning he gradually discovered; and doubtless he especially valued its function to afford by its crude definiteness a balance to the tenuous and impalpable, the vagueness, refinement and mystery, to which it is the complement, in his art; he gains reality by its presence for what else, as a whole, might seem too insubstantial, too much a part of that shadow world in which he dreaded to dwell altogether.”—George E. Woodberry, Nathaniel Hawthorne, pp. 143, 144

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Walt Whitman (1819-1892).

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. Whitman was born at West Hills, L. I., May 31, 1819. He attended school until he was thirteen years of age, when he was apprenticed to the printer's trade. Whitman's education never went beyond the elementary schools, so far as the formal side of learning is concerned. Like Whittier, he was a self-made man, as may be seen from his habits of life and his characteristic works, both in action and in letters. Much of his youth was spent in close contact with the rush and bustle of the American metropolis, with workingmen of all ranks and callings, with ferry-boat hands, and the life which such surroundings furnished. Thus an acquaintanceship and sympathy with toiling fellow-men and a knowledge of the sea at first hand was formed, which blended to constitute the essential principle of his life and of his verse. But the busy haunts of men did not prevent Whitman from learning the value of good books. He found time to read carefully, Homer, Shakespeare, Scott, The Arabian Nights, Ossian, Aeschylus, and others, but especially the Bible. In 1836–37 he was a printer in New York City, then taught school for two or three years. In 1839–40 he published a paper, The Long Islander, at Huntington, L. I. The next eight years were spent in New York and Brooklyn as printer, writer, and public speaker. (Whitman essayed first to write when only twelve years of age.) He edited the Brooklyn Daily Eagle in 1847–48. The following year he made a trip through the West and South, serving, for a short time, on the staff of the New Orleans Daily Crescent, and returned home by way of the Great Lakes and Canada. A varied life was spent for the next six or seven years—carpenter, printer, editor, author. In 1855 Whitman brought out his Leaves of Grass, doing the work of the compositor with his own hands. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil Wai, the serious illness of his brother (caused by being wounded) called Whitman to the South, and from 1862 to the close of the Rebellion he was a self-appointed nurse to the sick and wounded in the army hospitals at Washington. His unwearying attendance upon the sick brought on a serious illness from which he never fully recovered. The experience of these years may be traced through Drum Taps (1865), Memoranda During the War (1875), Specimen Days (1882), and other works of Whitman. At the close of the war Whitman had an appointment in the Department of the Interior at Washington, but was discharged, it is said, by the Secretary on account of the alleged indecencies of Leaves of Grass. In 1874 Whitman was again given a governmental position, in the office of the Attorney-General; but a stroke of paralysis, the same year, compelled him to relinquish his work. The remainder of Whitman's life was spent in Camden, N. J., a cheerful and patient invalid. Whitman was acquainted with numerous literary men of his time, including Longfellow and Emerson. He never realized much from his publications—nor does he seem to have wished to do so—and died in comparative poverty on the twentysixth of March, 1892, at Camden, where he had designed and built his own tomb.


John Burroughs, “ Biographical and Personal,” in Whitman: A Study (H. M. & Co., 1896). J. A. Symonds, “Life of Walt Whitman,” in Walt Whitman: A Study (London, 1893). A. G. Newcomer, “Walt Whitman,” in American Literature (Scott, Foresman & Co., 1901). T. Donaldson, Walt Whitman the Man (F. P. Harper, 1896). W. S. Kennedy, Reminiscences of Walt Whitman (McKay, 1896). Letters from Washington During the War (Century Magazine, Oct., 1893). W. Clarke, Walt Whitman (Macm. Co., 1892).


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E. Dowden, “The Poetry of Democracy: Walt Whitman,” in Studies in Literature (London, 1883). R. L. Stevenson, "Walt Whitman,” in Familiar Studies of Men and Books (Scrib., 1888). J. A. Symonds, Walt Whitman: A Study (Lond., 1893). John Burroughs, Whitman: A Study (H. M. & Co., 1896). R. M. Bucke, A Study of Walt Whitman (McKay, 1883). O. L. Triggs, Browning and Whitman (Macm., 1893). A. C. Swinburne, Studies in Prose and Poetry (Chatto & Windus, 1897). H. Ellis, The New Spirit (Scott, 1890). J. J. Chapman, Emerson and Other Essays (Scrib., 1898). In re Walt Whitman, ed. by H. L. Traubel and others (Philadelphia, 1893).


Leaves of Grass, 1855, 1856, 1860, 1867, 1871, 1876, 1881, 1882. Drum Taps, 1865. Passage to India, 1870. Democratic Vistas, 1870. Memoranda During the War, 1875. Specimen Days and Collect, 1882. November Boughs, 1888. Good-bye My Fancy, 1891.

Whitman's works are published complete in 2 vols. by McKay, Philadelphia. Leaves of Grass, edition of 1860–1, by Thayer & Eldridge, Boston. Letters to his Mother, by Small Maynard & Co., New York,

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