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In Religion.-Elizabeth hopes to end religious schism. Impossibility of uniformity. The tolerance of rulers out of harmony with the conviction of the people. First beginning of the Puritan spirit. Puritanism stands at the parting of the ways between the past and future.

Literature.—The philosophy of Bacon. Contrast between Baconian and Aristotelian philosophy. The outcome of the philosophy of the schools and the starting-point for a new system.

Sir P. Sidney.-Versatility of the men of that age. Dreams of social perfection. The Utopia and the Arcadia.

Renaissance of History.—Sir Thomas More's Henry VII and Richard III. Sir W. Raleigh's History of the World.

'To study Raleigh's character is to study the tendencies of his age. There was no field of activity then open to men into which he did not enter; there was no work undertaken in which he did not share. In an age remarkable for its varied forms of intellectual vigour, he represents with wonderful many-sidedness the different interests which then absorbed men's minds.'-L. CREIGHTON.

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Shakspere painted human nature as he saw it in his time.


Shakspere represents (a) the new learning, which seeks its inspiration in the past, applies it to the present, and constructs upon it the aspirations for the future.

Julius Caesar and Coriolanus exhibit the modern view of the classical past. Reflections of the Elizabethan age in the classical plays.

(6) The Italian influences of the Renaissance, e.g. Romeo and Juliet.

(c) The new spirit of adventure. Fairy lands. Romantic tales of travellers. The Tempest, Othello, Midsummer Night's Dream.

(d) The Historical Renaissance, which is associated with the ardent patriotism of his age. The English Historical Plays.

(e) The Social Life of England in all its phases. Examples can be taken from the plays generally.

Shakspere as a Dramatist.

Origins of the Drama. Miracle Plays and Masks. Play actors and their reputation. The stage in Shakspere's time. Mise en scène and character representation. Shakspere's materials. His treatment of them.


Last representative of the age of chivalry. Ariosto and Cervantes. Failure of Spenser to reanimate the past. His transitional position between the old order and the new.

His conception coloured by his own surroundings. The Faërie Queene as the embodiment of the spirit of his times. Essential beauties and defects of the poem. "The delight of every accomplished gentleman, the model of every poet, the solace of every soldier.'

Spenser, as representing the religious impulses of his time. 'His poem strikes the note of the coming Puritanism.' Spenser and the Bible. Spenser and Milton. "Spenser was his original.' The

very incongruities of the story of Arthur and his knighthood, strangely as it had been built up out of the rival efforts of bard and Jongleur and priest, made it the fittest vehicle for the expression of the world of incongruous feeling which we call the Renaissance.'—GREEN.


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No. 228

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Copyright, 1903, by
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111 South Fifteenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

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