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LECTURE IV.

THE CONSTITUTION.

A new constitution implies: (1) a work of destruction (i. e., abolition of the old régime); (2) a work of construction (i. e., formation of a new system to replace it).

The Session of August 4, 1789. Hasty and ill-considered action of the Assembly. Protest of Mirabeau.

Principles underlying the new Constitution.

The Rights of Man. Influence of Rousseau and of the American Revolution seen in the Declaration of the Rights of Man.

The moment inopportune to discuss these theoretical rights.
Examination of the Constitution in its relation-
(a) To the position of the monarch.
The veto question-right of the monarch to declare

peace or war.
Anomalous position assumed by Louis XVI under the

new Constitution. (6) To the legislative and executive authority. Single chamber arrangement. No minister to have a

seat in the legislative body. No member of the States General to have a seat in the

next legislative body. Transfer of authority and re

sponsibility from the executive to the legislative. (c) In relation to Local Government. Position of Mirabeau towards the new Constitution. His view of the functions of the monarch, and of the executive government in a state.

Unstable foundations of Mirabeau's influence. He is distrusted by the Court and the Assembly. His recommendation to the Court.

Louis XVI takes his own line and attempts to escape from the position by flight.

The Flight to Varennes.

Effects upon the position of the monarchy. Completion of the new Constitution. Louis XVI signifies his adhesion to it.

Dissolution of the States General.

LECTURE V.

THE FALL OF THE MONARCHY.

General attitude of Foreign Powers towards the Revolution. Unwillingness to intervene. Causes of this.

Causes of this. The Emigrations, and influence of the Emigrés on foreign powers. Their action exposes the King to suspicion in France.

Meeting of the Legislative Assembly, Oct., 1791. State of parties in the Legislative. Aims and ideals of the Girondists. Their attitude towards the monarchy.

Difficulties of the Legislative Assembly, and of the King. Experiments of Louis in executive government. He is thrown back upon the Girondists. .

Foreign powers see the cause of monarchy in Europe threatened.

The Girondists declare war against Austria. Coalition of Austria and Prussia.

Analysis of the King's position towards the Revolution and the

war.

The Legislative Decrees affecting the Emigrés, the Church, and national defence.

Louis imposes his veto. Deepening suspicion of the King. Intimidation of the monarch, June 20, 1792. Momentary reaction in favor of Louis.

The march of the allies on Paris. The federals—among them the Marseillése--march to Paris. Cry of "la patrie en danger-revolutionary measures of defence.

Manifesto of the Duke of Brunswick, the allied Commander. Nature of this manifesto. Its fatal effect on the monarchy.

Insurrectionary attack on the monarchy, August 10, 1792. Fall of the French monarchy.

LECTURE VI.

THE REPUBLIC.

Proclamation of the Republic, Sept., 1792.

It is confronted by (a) the danger from the allied armies; (b) disorganization of the French military forces; (c) internal disunion.

The Girondists, now in control of the government, unequal to the tasks imposed on them.

Situation in Paris after August 10. The massacres of September, their cause, meaning and influence.

Situation on the frontier. Dumouriez and Kellerman check the allies at Valmy.

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“A new epoch begins for Europe from this day."

GOETHE.

The French Revolution becomes an armed propagandist movement. It threatens the stability of all existing institutions and international obligations. Edict of Fraternity and of December. England is drawn into the war.

The need for drastic methods in the conduct of the war, and in restoring unity to France, forces the Jacobin party to the front.

Points of divergence between Girondins and Jacobins. The Girondins are to this stage of the Revolution what the Constitutional party was to the last. Attack on the Girondins follows the course of the attack on the monarchy.

The fate of the King involves the fate of the Girondins.
Execution of Louis XVI, January, 1793.

Attempted overthrow of the Girondins, March. Girondist leaders arrested, June.

Provincial rising against the Jacobins.

Defection of Dumouriez to the Austrians and check to the French arms.

Assassination of Marat adds to Jacobin alarm. Jacobin organization and the Reign of Terror.

The rising in La Vendée increases Jacobin stringency.
Jacobin methods of administration.
The Revolutionary Tribunal.
The Committees of Public Safety and Security.
The Guillotine.

As the Jacobins attain their ends, the need for them as a political party tends to disappear. Reaction against the Terror. Reaction concentrates on Robespierre, who seems to represent it. Sectional movement in the Jacobin party.

The Atheists-Hébert, Chaumelle, etc.
The Indulgents-Danton, Camille Desmoulins, etc.
The Committee indifferently destroys both sections.
Robespierre as a constructive statesman.

Festival of the Supreme Being. He increases the stringency of the Revolutionary Tribunal. He becomes an object of alarm among the Terrorists. He is charged with aiming at a Dictatorship.

Revolution of Thermidor, July, 1794.
Fall of Robespierre.

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