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said all, Tolstoy remains the most potent voice of the age. His denunciation of idleness, unearned extravagance, artificiality, and inhumanity are needed in America, as in Russia. Science, philosophy, and industry, against which Tolstoy urges the spiritual meaning of life, are European forces, preeminently strong in America, where the deeper meaning of life awaits re-enforcement. Self-culture and self-realization degenerate under wealth to self-indulgence, and the message of renunciation through sympathy and for service is needed by all. Privileges of nations, classes, or individuals, resting on force, not on nature, are of questionable advantage, and certainly unjust, for which non-resistance may not be the full remedy, but certainly a worthy element in the social ideal. With class warfare, fostered by industrial interests, the deeper fraternity must be forcefully portrayed as the greatest corrective of social and personal selfishness. The conditions prevalent in this country, as revealed in the frequency of divorce, and other signs, call for a new affirmation of the sanctity of marriage, and the place of the true home in any sound and healthy society.

TOPICS. 1. Eastern and western influences in Russian life. 2. The meaning of romanticism and realism in Russia. 3. Leading experiences in Tolstoy's life, and their effect upon his

writings. 4. Comparative study of “Anna Karenina” and “Kreutzer Sonata.” 5. Comparison of Tolstoy and Carlyle as social prophets. 6. Tolstoy as an interpreter of character or of life. 7. Statement and criticism of Tolstoy's social views.

READINGS. * Sergyeenko, P. A., How Tolstoy Lives and Works. Translated by

I. F. Hapgood. (C New York.) * Behrs, C. A., Recollections of Count Leo Tolstoy. Translated by

C. E. Turner. (Wm. Heinemann, London, 1893.) Ellis, H. Havelock, The New Spirit. (Alice B. Stockham Company, Chicago.)

Tolstoy. Edinburgh Review, Vol. 16 (July-October, 1901). ** Chubb, Percival, Tolstoy's Resurrection, Ethical Addresses. (Ś.

Burns Weston, Arch street, Philadelphia. 5 cents.). White, A. D., Walks and Talks with Tolstoy. McClure's Magazine, Vol.

16 (April, 1901).

* Howells, W. D., Tolstoy. In Warner's Library of Best Literature. * Long, E. C., Count Tolstoy in Thought and Action. The English

Review of Reviews, Vol. 23 (May, 1901). * Perris, G. H., The Russia of Count Tolstoy. Forum, Vol. 29.

WORKS. Tolstoy's Complete Works. (T. Y. Crowell, New York. 12 vols.,

$12.00.) For special study: Childhood, Boyhood, Youth; My Confessions; What

Is To Be Done; Resurrection.


Joseph Mazzini (1805-1872) and the Affirmation

of Nationality and Humanity. “My work is not a labor of authorship, but a sincere and earnest mission of apostolate.”—Faith and the Future.


I. Italy in the nineteenth century.--Division and dependence. Austrian, Papal and Spanish dominion. Napoleon destroyed feudalism and awakened desire for unity. Following reaction. Discontent expressed in secret revolutionary societies. Revolutions of 1820–1821. Austrian intervention. Rise of “Young Italy.” Papal efforts towards reform. Revolution of 1848. Sardinian leadership against Austria, unsupported by united action. Roman republic of 1849, crushed by Austria. Rise of Victor Emmanuel. Labors of Garibaldi and Cavour. Successes of 1859–1870. Unity and independence.

II. Mazzini represents not so much Italy's victories as unfulfilled hopes; a potent factor in the one, he is the noblest expression of the other.

Formative influences: Democratic parents; Italian tradition; study of Dante; effect of Piedmontese refugees in Genoa; association with ardent youth at the university.

First expression, in literary criticism-political agitation under literary cover. Turning to direct revolutionary effort. The Carbonari. Taken prisoner. Maturing life plans. Exiled. Residence at Marseilles: Organizes “Young Italy.” Its aims. Distinct from the other three parties of reform. Publication of the organ of “Young Italy.” Banishment. Unsuccessful expedition to Savoy.

In Switzerland: Organizes “Young Switzerland” and “Young Europe. Publications. Again exiled.

Residence at London: Period of depression. Literary labors. Agitation continued. Workingmen's Association: its journal, “Apostolato Popolare.” Evening school for Italian children.

Participation in the revolution of 1848: At Milan, Florence, and Rome. Work as triumvir at Rome.

London and return: Co-operation with Victor Emmanuel.

Later years: Continued republican agitation. Writings of closing years.

Illness and death: Honored by Italian government and people.

III. Mazzini's aim is well voiced in his writings. These may be classed, for study, as patriotic, historical, critical, religious, and autobiographic. In all he is the prophet of a new social order.

Writings of 1829 and 1830 emphasize new social conditions as the proper material for literature. 1830-1837 unproductive, except “The Philosophy of Music" and articles in his journals.

London period: Discusses French, English and Italian writers: mainly a search for signs of the new age in contemporary literature:

The Duties of Man" (1858–begun in 1844) an ethical system based on duty versus the rights of man.

Other and later writings, especially “Autobiographic Notes.” From first to last the same general conceptions are expressed, with wider outlook and undiminished fervor.

IV. Messages of Mazzini.—The permanent to be distinguished from the temporal. Religious and moral faith at the basis of all. Point of view—the future, faith in the people. Nationality: the content of his idea, how far realized by Italy.


Solidarity, or humanity, the proclamation of the future federation of the world. Progress, the movement of the nineteenth century towards an unknown future. Morality, as the necessary means of social betterment. Faith, as essential to aim, unity and consecration. Duty, as opposed to the rights of man, and individualism. Life a mission. The people, popular sympathies and aims, opposition to merely class and national movements.

V. Criticism.-Mazzini failed to realize the evolutionary method in progress, so depreciated the utility of existing institutions, and exaggerated that of revolution. Over-confidence in the power of education and political privilege to develop the latent capacity of the people.

VI. Messages to the twentieth century.Nationality, and the present imperialistic movements and tendencies. Solidarity, and current militarism, class warfare and race strife. Progress and the complacency and contentment too often born of conditions favorable only to the few. Morality, an emphasis needed when violence, crime, vice and indifference to justice are unchecked, if not even on the increase. Faith, increasingly needed as destruction gives place to social reconstruction. The people, whose interests began the new epoch, and must carry it to fulfillment.

TOPICS. 1. The personal and political life of Mazzini. 2. The unity and independence of Italy. 3. Comparison of Mazzini with Cavour and Garibaldi. 4. Mazzini as a literary critic. 5. A study of “ An European Literature,” and “Europe; Its Condition

and Prospects.” 6. Comparison of Mazzini with Tolstoy or Carlyle. 7. Statement and criticism of Mazzini's social views.

READINGS. ** King, Bolton, Mazzini. (E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $1.50.) Venturi, Mrs. E. A., Joseph Mazzini. (Henry S. King & Co., London.) ** Clarke, William, Introduction to Essays (Camelot Series, see below). Myers, F.'W. H. Myers, Mazzini, in Essays Àodern.

WORKS. Life and Writings: Autobiographical, Critical, Political and Literary.

New Edition. 6 vols. (Scribners, New York. Imported, $10.80.) ** Essays: Selected from the Literary, Political and Religious Writings.

Edited, with Introduction by William Clarke. (Walter Scott,

London; A. Lovell & Co., New York, agents. 40 cents.) For special study: Lamennais; Genius and Tendency of Carlyle's Writ

ings; Carlyle's French Revolution; Europe: Its Conditions and Prospects (In Clarke's Edition of Essays); On the Poems of Victor Hugo (In Vol. II of Works).


Walt Whitman (1819-1892) and the Hope of


“The words of my book nothing, the drift of it everything,

A book separate, not link'd with the rest nor felt by the intellect,
But you ye untold latencies will thrill to every page.

-Leaves of Grass.

OUTLINE OF THE LECTURE. I. The undercurrents of recent American life. The result of democracy in the development and emphasis upon the individual; the scientific movement and its effect upon man's spiritual contact with nature; the rebirth of democracy into social idealism, through the struggle of the Civil War; the industrial movement and its effect upon the attitude of man towards labor. Whitman should be studied in relation to such movements rather than as the interpreter of culture, political or other external aspects of nineteenth century life.

II. Whitman's life.-A participation in the undercurrents which he interprets. Formative factors: English, and especially Dutch antecedents; Quaker influences from his mother's side; environment during formative years; the Civil War, as a test of his spirit and inspiration. Early years, studies, and apprenticeship as printer. School-teaching and “boarding round the district." Editor and journalist to 1848. Western and Southern travels. Editor of “The Freeman.” Carpenter


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