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consistent. His message, matured in "The Maid of Orleans": and “William Tell," is to be traced through all his works.

IX. Schiller's social message.—Patriotic, but not political; national, but not concerned with form of government; ethical in all beneficent ruler, people free through ideals; outcry against tyranny, conventionality, hypocrisy, and selfish ambition; recognition of the dignity, worth, and meaning of all human life.

X. Meaning of Schiller's message to the twentieth century.— Democracy but a potent incident. Reactions upon it. Freedom not yet universal. Imperialistic tendencies. The message of nationality still potent. Undue emphasis upon forms of government. The ethics of government a needed call. Social programs. Schiller's tragedy of great-man reforms. Success of national movements.

TOPICS. 1. Events and experiences of Schiller's life, and their reflection in his

social and political attitude. 2. The influences of men and books as blended and fused in Schiller's

personality and creations. 3. Schiller's relation to the Storm and Stress movement, and to

Romanticism. 4. Abstract and criticise the, to you, most interesting play. 5. Criticism of Schiller's social ideals in the light of his own day and

of the present. 6. Comparison of Schiller and Goethe respecting social and political

ideals. 7. An estimate of Schiller's understanding of the social movements

among other nations than the German. 8. Character study of Posa, Joan d'Arc, and William Tell.

READINGS. * Thomas, Calvin, The Life and Works of Schiller. (Henry Holt & Co.,

New York, 1902.) ** Nevinson, Henry W., Life of Friederich Schiller. (Walter Scott,

London; A. Lovell & Co., agents, New York. 40 cents.) Boyeson, H. H.,

Goethe and Schiller. (Scribners, New York.) Palleske, Emil, Schiller's Life and Works. Translation by Lady WalWORKS. Complete Works of Schiller. (Bohn Library, Dana Estes & Co., and

lace. 2 vols. (Longman Green, London.) ** Carlyle, Thomas, The Life of Schiller. * Evans, É. P., Schiller. In Warner's Library of World's Best Litera

ture. * Francke, Kuno, Schiller. In A History of German Literature, as

determined by social forces. (Holt & Co., New York, 1901.)

others.) ** Schiller's William Tell, and The Maid of Orleans, Translated by

Patrick Maxwell. (Walter Scott, London; A. Lovell & Co.,

agents, New York. 40 cents each.) For special study: William Tell, The Maid of Orleans, Don Carlos

and Wallenstein.


Victor Hugo (1802-1885) and the Rising of

the People.

“The people now are little, but they will be great."-Victor Hugo.

OUTLINE OF THE LECTURE. I. Introductory.- Proper attitude for the student of literature. Errors of the critic and of the mere reader. Hugo suffers from both. The purpose of literature-art the carrier of thought, deeper interest concerns that which is borne. Hugo as an artist and as a message-bearer; the latter should be kept clearly in view.

II. The France of Hugo's lifetime is the France of the nineteenth century. Wavering and uncertainty after the revolution of 1789. Napoleon's consulate 1799–1804. Napoleon's Empire 1804-1814. Restoration of the Bourbon 1814– 1830. Revolution of July, 1830. Louis Philippe, “King of the French," 1830-1848. The Revolution of 1848. Louis Napoleon, President of the Republic, 1848–1851; Emperor, 1852-1870. The Third Republic, 1870

III. The story of France is the story of Victor Hugo. Born amid conservative influences, reared by a royalist mother; various influences in education. Youthful attitude is explained. Works to 1828 of little import. Awakening under Romanticism, 1829 a significant year. “The Last Days of a Condemned Man” shows one of Hugo's constant interests.

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" Orientals” and “Hernani.” In 1831 came “Notre Dame." A literary before a social liberal. “Claude Gueux” reveals effects of the revolution of 1830. Poetry of this period. Ending of Hugo's first period, like the ending of a life, in sadness.

Dramatic period: Sudden triumph, unsustained. The artist predominates, yet social interest is shown in choice and treatment of themes.

Political period: Unproductive, yet significant in his development as a social leader. Elected to the Academy, raised to peerage, and becomes member of Constituent Assembly of 1848; a conservative republican, becoming more radical; driven by the revolution of 1848 to ardent democratic views. The coup d'etat of 1851; resistance and exile.

Period of exile: Restored to literature. First works of bitterness against the enemies of liberty. “History of a

. ' Crime,” “Napoleon, the Little," and "Chastisements."

“ Spending of his rage seen in “Contemplations” and “Legends of the Ages.” Social import of the verse of this period. Return to the novel in “Les Miserables," Hugo's greatest work, in which his message is most adequately stated. Characters portrayed, social questions treated. The value of “William Shakespeare" partly that of self-revelation. Other works of this period. “Songs of the Streets and Woods," “ Toilers of the Sea,” “The Man Who Laughs," are fraught

" with social import.

Return to France: Hugo took part in the siege of Paris. Member of the Assembly. Radical social sympathies.

Works of his later years: “The Year Terrible," "Ninetythree," "Deeds and Words," other "Legends of the Ages," etc. Value and significance of these later works. Last years, death, and fame.

IV. Hugo's social messages.-Political theories a dispensable background. The time-spirit confused with the human, France with the world. Hugo's republicanism due to his humanity. His real messages: a large and charitable


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humanity; a heralder of progress; the voice of humanity uprising; a prophet of human dignity; society responsible for human failure; Hugo's contribution not so much original thought as ardent enthusiasm and unfailing optimism.

V. Hugo's value to the twentieth century.—Republicanism in the light of evolutionary principles. Need of humanitarian enthusiasm in a scientific era. The people's need of continual

a awakening. Value of Hugo's human ideals to a society increasingly practical. Social responsibility for human failure, even in a republic. The use of enthusiasm and optimism in the world's work.

TOPICS. 1. Formative influences in Hugo's life. 2. Romanticism: Hugo's relation to it, and its place in his development. 3. “Notre Dame de Paris” as an exposition of social teachings. 4. The social messages of " Les Miserables. 5. Criticism of Hugo's social teachings in the light of his own day and

of the present. 6. Comparison of Hugo and Schiller respecting social and political

ideals. 7. A character study of Quasimodo and Claude Frolo, or of Marius and Jean Valjean.

READINGS. * Cappon, James, Victor Hugo, a Memoir and a Study. (Blackwood,

Edinburgh and London.) Hugo, Mde. V., Victor Hugo: A Life, Related by One Who Has Wit

nessed It. 2 vols. Translated. (William H. Allen & Co., Lon

don.) ** Marzials, Frank T., Life of Victor Hugo. Walter Scott, London;

A. Lovell & Co., agents, New York. 40 cents.) Dowden, Edward, The Poetry of Victor Hugo. In Studies in Litera

ture. (Kegan Paul Company, London.) * Harper, G. McL., The Fame of Victor Hugo. Atlantic Monthly, Vol.

89 (February, 1902). * Schell, Stanley, Victor Hugo. Werner's Magazine, Vol. 26 (1901). Gosse, Edmund, The Influence of Victor Hugo. Cosmopolitan, Vol. 32

(April, 1902). * Cohn, Adolphe, Victor Hugo. In Warner's Library of Best Litera

ture. * Mazzini, Joseph, The Poetry of Victor Hugo.

WORKS. The Works of Victor Hugo. (T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. 8 vols.,

$8.00.) For special study: Les Miserables, Notre Dame de Paris, History of a

Crime, Hernani (Bohn Library), The Chastisements.



Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) and the Worth

of Man

“Ballot-boxes, Reform Bills, winnowing machines: all these are good, or are not so good;-alas, brethren, how can these, I say,

I be other than inadequate, be other than failures, melancholy to behold? Dim all souls of men to the divine, the high and awful meaning of Human Worth and Truth, we shall never, by all the machinery in Birmingham, discover the True and the Worthy.- Past and Present.



I. Introductory.Carlyle belongs not to mere literature, but to social literature. Hugo freighted literature with social meaning; but Carlyle spoke directly. Conscious of a mission as a social prophet, his writings are all to be interpreted by his social views. Conditioned by nationality and epoch, he can only be estimated in the England and Scotland of the first half of the nineteenth century.

II. The England of Carlyle's day was characterized by the industrial revolution; religious indifference to social life, against which Christian socialism was a significant protest; and the movement of political reform. These and similar movements gave content to Carlyle's message, even when he was most in opposition.

III. Education and preparation. Born of Scotch working people. Poverty and hard discipline in childhood. Schooling for the ministry. Difficulty in choosing vocation. German studies as a post-college course. Influence of Goethe and German literature upon him that of broadening his views and giving steadying force.

IV. Literary career.—First work that of German translation and interpretation. Tended to remove him from English sympathies, and so affected his social views. In his first creative work, “Signs of the Times," and "Characteristics,” his social attitude and views are almost fully formed.

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