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Bible, that the death we incurred in Adam was eternal torment in hell-fire; but we imagine that, in order to be an orthodox son of the church of England, or of any church which regulates its belief by our thirty-nine articles, it is not necessary to hold this most repulsive of all the tenets which compose the Calvinistic creed. In relation, again, to the characteristic doctrine of the Pelagian heresy--independence of the grace of God in working out our salvation-no charge was ever more groundless than that which Mr. Wilkinson has been pleased to insinuate on the present occasion: for, if we understand aright the views which are set forth in this edition of Stackhouse, the whole history of human redemption, every act on the part of Almighty God, from the first promise of a Redeemer made to Adam and Eve in Paradise, till the ascension of our Blessed Lord into heaven, where he carried captivity captive, is founded in free grace; whilst at the same time, the necessity of the co-operation of the Divine Spirit, in order to render that redemption effectual, is most distinctly recognised. Speaking of justification, for example, by which he means our acquittal or absolution from the effects of the first transgression, and our restoration to that life with all its privileges, which was forfeited by the fall of our first parents, he says that it is an act of the Divine philanthropy, proceeding through Christ, and performed without any co-operation of ours, either by our faith or by our obedience; that it is wholly of grace, and depends not in the smallest degree on the faith, or piety, or virtue of men; "it is the gift of God."

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"Our present state," he likewise observes, "is but a state of probation in which we have a steady course to pursue, though we are liable to deviate from it both to the right hand and to the left. To encourage us to work out our salvation with fear and trembling, we are assured that the Comforter, even that Blessed Spirit whom our Lord sent from his Father on the apostles, shall remain with the church for ever, to enable every individual member, who in earnest endeavours to obey the gospel, to work and to do according to his good pleasure; that to every Christian who devoutly asks his aid, that aid will be granted by our heavenly Father more readily than any one of us gives good gifts to his children; that the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, dwelleth with the church, and is in every good Christian; and that it is by the influence of the Holy Ghost that we are received in the spirit of our minds, and have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him.' We are taught by God," he continues, "externally in the Holy Scriptures and internally by the Holy Ghost, speaking in the still small voice to our minds, as well to enlighten our understandings as to purify our hearts. Even faith itself is the gift of God, for as one of our old divines (Pearson) well observes, Christ is not only given unto us, in whom we may believe, but it is also given us on the behalf of


Christ to believe in him; and this last gift is the gift of the Holy Ghost working an assent unto that which by the word is propounded unto us. But we, he further observes, are not only enlightened by the Spirit of God operating on our intellectual powers, but also directed by the same Spirit in our conduct; for we are assured that as many, and only sas many, as are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of God; that the Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit that we are the children of God; and that if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none 9fchis no strumieni of herofq, need self noentalW AM daidw of 918 It is impossible to express more explicitly, or in stronger terms, the necessity of Divine grace to enable the human being to perform his duty, and to work out his eternal salvation; and it is only because Mr. Wilkinson published his sermon before he had Seen more than one half of the performance which had suggested his strictures, that the idea of Pelagianism could have occurred to his thoughts. We do not, however, invest ourselves with the office of eulogizing or defending Bishop Gleig. On the contrary, We have no hesitation in saying, that in several instances, he has shown too little deference to the phraseology of our Articles, guiding himself rather by the meaning or object of the compilers, than by the strict letter and grammatical acceptation of the words. We will confess, too, that in regard to the taint or pollution which children bring with them into the world, he seems not to have written with his usual openness and precision; and, indeed, according to the direct bearing of his hypothesis, we know not well how that taint can be accounted for, or of what it could be said to consist. On all theories, we grant, this is a very difficult point but it is very obvious that our church, in her baptismal offices, and in other parts of her Liturgy, proceeds upon the ground, that some infection or pollution attaches to every infant at its birth the language put into the mouths of her ministers carrying in it an immediate and unequivocal reference to such a predicament. But, whatever may be said of the Bishop's opinions, we are certain that they do not symbolize with the doctrine of Pelagius, that new-born infants are in the same state in which Adam was before the fall;' for Adam before the fall, at least when placed in the garden of Eden, was in possession of a conditional immortality, which he afterwards forfeited; whereas newborn infants, we should imagine, agreeable to the views we are now considering, are regarded, prior to baptism, as being liable to the death which was denounced upon our first parent allcomplete extinction of conscious existence. In fact, it is on this very ground that the Bishop would find it most difficult to sustain the attacks of an opponent, equally qualified with himself in respect of talents and logical acumen. For example, he admits, father avowedly declares it as his fixed opinion, that

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justification, as explained by St. Paul, consists in our restoration to the life and privileges which we forfeit in Adam, and “that it is by baptism alone that infants, as well as those of riper years, can. be admitted into the church, or justified; that such is certainly the doctrine of the church of England, and as it appears to me, of Christ and his apostles." Now, it occurs as a very natural question, what is the condition, in respect of immortality and the future state, of these countless myriads who have never been baptized, that is, never justified, or released from the penalty attached to the first transgression? Are we not brought by such considerations to almost the same conclusion which was drawn from similar reasoning by the celebrated author of the "Guide to the Church;" namely, that all who are not regularly baptized shall fail to be clothed upon with immortality, but sink at death into eternal annihilation. In truth, we do not see how the Bishop, without rejecting the ordinance of baptism as the essential and indispensable means of justification, can extend the effects of that justification-viz. the restoration to immortality-to the whole human race, baptized and unbaptized. This, however, is not Pelagianism, nor is it Semi-pelagianism: perhaps Mr. Wilkinson, who has kindly informed us, on the authority of the late Dr. Heys, that the whole church of England is semi-pelagian, holding a course equally distant from the horrible system of Calvin and the philosophic plan of Pelagius, will be able, in his next critical sermon, to expose fully all the errors, and point out all the inconsistency into which the Scottish Prelate has fallen.


We have not time to do more than mention the titles of the other Dissertations with which Bishop Gleig has enriched this edition of Stackhouse; among which, besides the Essays on "Original Sin," and on the Principal Doctrines of Christianity," we have to particularize those on the "Three First Gospels," and on "Miracles." The last is a very able performance-a perfect specimen indeed of close and unanswerable reasoning; constructed, too, as a confutation of, or reply to, a most insidious article on the doctrine of Chances, which appeared some time ago in a celebrated Northern Journal. Since Campbell's book on Miracles, we can safely say that we have not seen any thing worthy of being compared to the "Supplementary Dissertation" on that interesting subject, now furnished by the Right Reverend Editor.

As to the Essay on the Priority and Comparative Originality of the Three First Gospels, we have only to observe, that it is written with the same talent and knowledge of the point at issue, which characterize the Dissertation on Miracles; and our theological readers require not to be told of the high interest attached to these questions, since the publication of the several works of

Marsh and Churton. Indeed, the Dissertations we have named appear to us so extremely valuable that we fondly cherish the hope, that the author will be induced to publish them in a separate form; adding what, upon a revisal of the whole, may seem wanting to fortify particular conclusions, or to obviate unforeseen objections.

There is also much useful matter introduced occasionally throughout the work, both with the view of supplying information not accessible to the original author, and of confuting the arguments, or exposing the ignorance, of infidels, whose cavilling he had only the industry to transcribe, without the ability to answer it. Indeed we have already suggested that Stackhouse's "objections," as he very significantly calls them, ought to be left out, or at least greatly modified in their expression; for he not only enables the enemy to fight to the best advantage, but admits him into the very fortress of our faith, and puts poisoned weapons into his hand. In pointing out, too, such things as we should wish to be omitted in any subsequent publication of the original articles now before us, we are inclined to mention the occasional use which is made by the Bishop of physical laws, with the view of explaining events avowedly miraculous. We agree with Bruce, the traveller, that in such matters we have nothing to do with physical laws; for when an occurrence, whatever it may be, stands on record in Holy Scripture, as a supernatural manifestation of Divine power or goodness, it ought to be received as such, without any attempt either to explain or defend it. We allude more particularly at present to the standing still of the sun, as mentioned in the book of Joshua, and the distant pect which Moses was allowed to obtain from the top of Pisgah of the promised land; both of which facts are attempted to be accounted for by an extraordinary atmospherical refraction of the solar rays. This, it is worthy of remark, is the notion of Le Clerc, which was so severely condemned by Reeves, the translator of the " Apologies."" Quod (meaning the solstice) fieri potuit," says the Frenchman, " insolitis refractionibus, quibus, ut notum est, sol nobis supra horizontem esse videtur, cum nondum ortus sit, et jam occiderit. In commenting upon which, our zealous countryman is certainly more out of temper than the occasion called for. "To naturalize miracles," says he, "and thereby to undermine the authority of Scripture which expressly asserts them, and is built upon them, he (Le Clerc) has recourse to refractions; the nature of which had he but tolerably understood, he would have known how very little serviceable it is to the wretched purpose for which he allegeth it. For by the natural laws thereof, as opticians give them, it is impossible to make the sun seem to stand still for a whole day, as Joshua ex


pressly saith it did. To make an object in a very swift and oblique motion to the eye, to appear quiescent for a whole day, or, which in effect is the same, to make that which is seen under different angles, and in divers places, to appear, by refraction, as if for many hours it still kept the same place, is a problem in dioptrics yet unknown to the masters of that science." * We are aware that when Bishop Gleig adopts such opinions, it is not to diminish the credibility of the miracle considered as such, but merely to point out the particular laws of nature which were employed by the Almighty to effect his purpose; still, as all miracles are alike violations or interruptions of the established constitution of things, it is perhaps adviseable in a divine to regard them simply as supernatural events, not to be accounted for on any known physical principle; more especially in these times, when half learned philosophists busy themselves, amid their experiments or speculations, to reduce all the wonders of revealed religion to certain classes of natural phenomena. On the whole, however, we regard this edition of Stackhouse as a most valuable accession to the literature, the philosophy, and the sacred criticism of the present age; as worthy not only of Dr. Gleig's high talents and reputation, but also of the enlightened church and people of England to whom it is more particularly addressed. What is original in it is written with that freedom, without which there could be no discussion of doctrinal topics, and no separation of truth from error-with that intimate acquaintance with all that has been maintained by authors of eminence, without which plausible novelties could not be distinguished from ancient heresy, and, above all, with that critical knowledge of the original language in which the Holy Scriptures were composed, without which it is extremely difficult to ascertain the dictates of Inspiration from the interpolations and scholia of fallible


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1. The Basis of National Welfare: considered in reference chiefly to the Prosperity of Britain, and Safety of the Church of England: with an Examination of the Parliamentary Reports on Education, the Police, the Population of Parishes, and the Capacity of Churches and Chapels: and a further Illustration of the Chief Facts noticed in "The Church in Danger." In a Second Letter to the Right Hon. the Earl of Liverpool, K. G. By the Rev. Richard Yates, B. D. 8vo. pp. 374. Rivingtons. London, 1817.

Reeves' Apologies, vol. ii. p 176.

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