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You too, who hurry me away
Alas for him, who hears her cries!
Still half-way down the steep he stands,
By the cold moon have just consign'd
To the bleak flood they leave behind; And on the deck still lingering stay, And long look back, with sad delay, To watch the moonlight on the wave, That ripples o'er that cheerless grave." The "Light of the Haram," which is the fourth and last of the poems recited by the minstrel youth to the young princess of Delhi, does not demand much observation. The story has no interest, being simply a relation of a reconcilement between a Sultan and his mistress, effected by a supernatural power of song imparted by a fairy to the fair Nourmahal, who seems to be for some reason or other under a temporary disgrace. The young Sultana is called the Light of the Haram, and is invested with all the charms in which Mr. Moore knows so well how to dress the favourites of his muse. The scene in which the quarrel of these lovers is made up is the vale of Cashmere, at that season of annual festivity,-the feast of roses. This litpoem is tame and cloying with its sweetness, after the brilliant tale of the "Fire-worshippers: " but there is a pretty passage in it which may convey some useful instruction to young lovers, and others linked in affection by relationship or friendship, and for their sakes we will finish our extracts with transcribing it, "Alas-how light a cause may move Dissension between hearts that love! Hearts that the world in vain has tried, And sorrow but more closely tied;
That stood the storm, when waves were rough,
Like ships, that have gone down at sea,
A word unkind or wrongly taken-
A breath, a touch like this has shaken.
As though its waters ne'er could sever,
Breaks into floods, that part for ever." (P. 304, 305.)
Whether Mr. Moore will see this hasty criticism we do not know; if he should chance to peruse it we are sure he will not now approve of it, any more than probably Lord Byron has approved of the many frank admonitions we have from time to time, and especially in the first Article of our Number for February last, ventured to offer him. Hereafter, possibly, they may both alter their views of the proper ends of poetry, and of the duties which accompany God's precious but dangerous gifts of popular and persuasive talents. What other Journals may say about these poems of Mr. Moore, we can in a great measure anticipate. Our part on all subjects, affecting the moral principles of our countrymen, was decisively taken at the commencement of our labours, and have never been departed from. We cannot,we dare not,-be inconsistent; we must always raise our voice against all writings, in poetry or prose, in which we perceive a tendency to emasculate the British mind; to melt down its robust virtue, and to dissolve the chaste hardihood of its ancient character, by delusive exaggerations of vicious delights.
ART. III.-Karamania, or a Brief Description of the South Coast of Asia-Minor, and of the Remains of Antiquity, with Plans, Views, &c. collected during a Survey of that Coast, under the Orders of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, in the Years 1811 and 1812. By Francis Beaufort, F. R. S. 8vo. pp. 299. Hunter. London, 1817.
THE Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, being desirous to fill up a very important chasm in hydrographical knowledge, appointed Capt. Beaufort, who then commanded the Frederikssteen frigate, stationed in the Archipelago, to make a nautical survey of the Southern Coast of Asia Minor. On this service Capt. Beaufort sailed from Smyrna in the month of July, 1811. The operations, which were begun at the Seven Capes, experienced an interruption when they had been carried on as far as Cape Avova; in the following summer they were renewed, and completed as far as the Gulf of Scanderoon and the confines of Syria. A set of charts (as we are informed in the Preface), have been laid down from the results of this survey, and are now engraving for the use of the navy. That they will prove a valuable addition to the collections of the hydrographer and practical seaman cannot be doubted. We have the testimony of an enlightened traveller,* that the delineations of this coast, to be found on the best maps hitherto published, are not to be relied on; and, except some casual notices by accidental visitors, the only accounts extant of this extensive region are to be found in the writings of the ancient geographers.
Capt. Beaufort states in such modest language his claims on public attention, that we have the greater satisfaction in declaring our opinion that his work, as far as it professes to go, possesses great merit. What it undertakes is fairly accomplished, and in a manner highly creditable to the attainments and good taste of the author.
"To settle the hydrography and to ascertain the naval resources, was the main design of the expedition; and the multiplied labours attendant on a survey of such magnitude, added to an excusable impatience for the final accomplishment of the task, in order to resume the more natural pursuits of a cruizing frigate, allowed but little time for indulging in the examination of other objects. Yet the venerable remains of former opulence and grandeur, which every where forced themselves into notice, were too numerous and too interesting not to have found some admission among the more strictly professional remarks; and indeed they were often necessarily combined with the operations of the survey.
* See Clarke's Travels, vol. ii. ch. viii.
"From such materials the following brief tract has been compiled: slight as they must necessarily be, yet as they were acquired in the public service, and as they relate to a country of which there is so little known, it seems to be in some measure a duty to lay them before the public; not indeed with the vain expectation of satisfying curiosity, but rather in the hope of exciting further inquiry. What facts could be collected are faithfully, however unskilfully, reported: if they throw but little light on ancient history, or add still less to modern science, they may perhaps rouse others to visit this, hitherto, neglected country, whose leisure and whose talents are better adapted to those pursuits. The professional duties and habits of a seaman preclude that fulness of detail which the artist and the antiquary alone can supply." (Pref. p. viii.—x.)
We shall proceed to give a brief account of the result of these investigations, as they regard the remains of antiquity, the natural curiosities, and the moral and political condition of the inhabitants. Capt. Beaufort appears to have made the survey with Strabo in his hand; the whole of his observations are, in this respect, highly interesting, so far as they tend to confirm and illustrate the accounts of the ancient geographer. The operations were begun at Yedy Booroon, or the Seven Capes, a knot of high and rugged mountains, which appears to be the ancient Mount Cragus,* of Lycia, the abode of the fabulous Chimæra. Immediately under this mountain is the site of Patara, which presents some extensive and interesting ruins; but for a detailed account of them, we are referred to the report of a mission of the Dilettanti Society, by whom it appears they have been recently explored. The Island of Kastelorizo, with its port and harbour, next engaged their attention. Capt. Beaufort states very sufficient reasons for supposing this island to be "the Megisté" of the ancient geographers,+ and suggests a probable etymology for its modern appellation.
"From the Gulf of Makry to Cape Khelidonia, the sea-shore is composed of a white limestone; but in this island an ochry drip, exuding from between the strata, gives a reddish tinge to the cliffs. From this circumstance it probably acquired the Italian name of Castelrosso; and it is not impossible that the present name Kastelorizo, which has no signification in modern Greek, or Turkish, may be derived from thence; for we find that many sea terms, as well as names of places, have been adopted from European sailors. However that may be, it is now called and written as above; and it appeared to me
* It may be observed by the way, that Strabo describes Mount Cragus as having eight summits, or capes (in Lycia, tom. ii. Oxford edition).
+ Capt. Beaufort observes, that "it is singular Strabo does not mention Megisté." In the Oxford edition, it is proposed to alter the common reading of the passage in which the Lycian Islands are described, from a conjecture of Salmasius, which would remove this apparent difficulty.
more judicious to retain the vernacular names, wherever they could be distinctly ascertained, than to adopt those applied by other foreigners. The custom of inventing new names is still more pernicious to the true interests of geography. (P. 10-11.)
In the lime-stone cliffs, on this part of the coast, are found, in great numbers, those highly-interesting sepulchral monuments which have excited the attention of every traveller who has visited these regions. Dr. Clarke dwells particularly on the extraordinary and fanciful situations in which they were placed, and points out the radical difference of style in the construction of monuments, standing in the same place, and, as it were, intermixed. Capt. B. confirms these remarks, and, in a subsequent part of the survey, when his attention was again drawn to the subject, he gives an interesting summary of the whole result of his observations.
"The contrast between the slight and perishable materials with which the habitations of the living were constructed, and the care and skill which the antients employed to render durable the abodes of the dead, is more than ordinarily impressed upon the mind at this place; for though all the tombs have been long since opened and ransacked, the walls are still sound; whereas of their dwellings not one continues in existence. These tombs are small buildings, detached from each other, and mostly of the same size, though varying in their proportions; the roofs are arched, and the exterior of the walls is dashed with a composition of plaister and small particles of burnt red brick. Each tomb consists of two chambers; the inner one is subdivided into cells or receptacles for the bodies, and the outer apartment is provided with small recesses and shelves, as if for the purpose of depositing the funeral offerings, or the urns that contained the ashes. These antichambers may have been likewise intended for the ceremonies and lamentations of the mourners: they are stuccoed, and neatly ornamented with that kind of border which is commonly called à la Grecque, but which I believe the ancients termed Mæandrus.
"This is the third distinct kind of sepulchre which we observed on these coasts. First, at Makry, Myra, and other places, is the excavated catacomb, with the entrance carefully closed by a slab, which is not inserted, but worked in the external face of the rock, and curiously pannelled in such exact imitation of a wooden door, that even the representation of the nail-heads and hinges is not omitted. They are frequently ornamented with a pediment and columns, which are also chiselled from the solid rock.
"Secondly, as at Patara, Phaselis, &c. the sarcophagus more or less decorated, but always consisting of a single block of stone, hollowed like a chest, and covered with another immense stone in the shape of a low roof or pediment.
"And thirdly, the house-built sepulchre of this place, covered in by an arch, and separated into chambers for the dead and for the mourners. The two former species generally bear inscriptions; whereas