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State of Europe as described by the Roman Writers to-
wards the Decline of the Empire; Gauls or Celts; their
original Abodes; their Irruptions into Greece, Italy,
and Asia Minor

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Mixture and Confusion of Races in the Population of
Greece and Italy; Phoenician Colonies in the Mediter-


Formation of mixed Languages by intercourse between the
Conquerors and the conquered; Hindustanee and Anglo-
Norman striking Illustrations at opposite Extremities
of the Earth

Distinction between the Term Race, as employed by His.

torians and by Naturalists


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The Tribes which peopled Britain very numerous: those
of the Interior extremely barbarous: their Government
unformed and fluctuating



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About the Middle of the Fifth Century the Island is

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On the Loss of Roman Protection, the Britons employ
Saxons and other Mercenaries in their Defence against
the barbarous Tribes of their own Island: these gra.
dually rose to be Conquerors more formidable than those
they were called in to combat


But the insular Position of England rendered their Progress
very slow


25, 26

Armorica (since called Britany); Source of its early Con-
nection with Britain: through that Connection the
legendary Tales of Britain were communicated to the
Continent: King Arthur
The limited Value of our early Traditions, as compared
with the classical, arises from their Transmission
through a Medium not purely national, that of Monks


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877-880. He bursts from his Retreat, defeats Guthrun the Danish
Chief, compels him to evacuate Wessex, and attempts
to settle and civilise his Followers, by granting him the
Country to the North and East, on Condition of his sub-
mitting to Baptism

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Origin of Clerical Celibacy: Corruption engendered by it;
its Value as an Instrument of Ecclesiastical Ambition
by destroying all Ties but those of the Order
The monastic Orders called forth by a Reaction of reli-
gious Zeal, when the secular Clergy had reached a high
Pitch of Corruption: primitive Hermits: Monasteries:
Rule of St. Benedict

Edward the Elder

Athelstan Confederacy against him by the Britons, Scots,
and Danes; his Victory over them at Brunnanburgh

Edmund the Elder: Edred

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Horrid Cruelties of both Parties in this Warfare

Let those who consider any Tribes of Men as irreclaimable,

call to mind of what People these were the Progenitors - 60

Death of Ethelred: Edmund Ironside chosen by the Eng-
lish, but compelled to be content with the Country South

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