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The Phænicians and Massilians traded in the Tin of Corn.


Julius Cæsar lands in Britain : he retires in consequence

of an Accident to his Ships

He renews the Invasion, and defeats Cassivelaunus, who

becomes tributary

The Tribes which peopled Britain very numerous : those

of the Interior extremely barbarous : their Government

unformed and fluctuating

Caligula threatens Britain ; but ends by the insane Freak

of loading his Troops with Shells

Claudius seriously undertakes the Enterprise : his Ge-

nerals employ Seven Years in reducing the Country

South of the Thames

Ostorius encounters the Silures of South Wales under

Caractacus, who is defeated and sent Prisoner to Rome

Suetonius Paulinus attacks the sacred Seat of Druidism in

Mona or Anglesey : he is called off by an Insurrection :

Boadicea : dreadful Slaughter of the Britons

Agricola, Governor of Britain under Vespasian : carries

the Roman Arms to Scotland : joins by fortified Posts

the Friths of Forth and Clyde : circumnavigates the


Under Adrian, a second Wall is built from the Solway

to the Mouth of the Tyne

Under Antoninus another Wall is built farther North

Slow Progress of the Roman Arms: the general Policy of

the Empire is that of Augustus, who disapproved remote


Nature of the Roman Government in Britain

Government of Towns : Origin of modern Civic Corpora-


The Empire declines, and Troops are withdrawn from

Britain to protect the Seats of Dominion

About the Middle of the Fifth Century the Island is


On the Loss of Roman Protection, the Britons employ

Saxons and other Mercenaries in their Defence against

the barbarous Tribes of their own Island : these gra.

dually rose to be Conquerors more formidable than those

they were called in to combat

But the insular Position of England rendered their Progress

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with the classical, arises from their Transmission
through a Medium not purely national, that of Monks

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Peculiar Circumstances which contribute to render Bri.

tain the natural Seat of maritime Power


The general Movement of the pastoral Tribes originated

in that of the Huns from the North of the Wall of
China to the Caspian

Successive Pulsations of this Movement through other


Slow Progress of the Saxons in the Invasion of Britain 30

457–477. Establishment of the Jutes in Kent, and of the South

Saxons on the Borders of Sussex


519. Successes of Cerdic, at the Head of the West Saxons,

against the West Britons


547. Principalities of Deira and Bernicia, formed by the Angles

in the North


585. State of the Island during the Period called the Hep-



596. St. Augustine and Forty other Missionaries sent by Pope

Gregory to convert the Saxons: they found both the

Christian Religion and the British Language extinct in

the Saxon Territory


Miracles ascribed to St. Augustine: mistaken, but honest

Enthusiasm may account for many Pretensions ascribed
to wilful Imposture


Ascendancy of one Saxon State over the Rest: Authority

of Bretwalda ; (800) Egbert, King of Wessex, acquires

great Power under this Title


823. His Authority as Bretwalda acknowledged in all the Pro-

vinces South of the Humber


836. But at his Death, this Power is weakened by a Partition

of his Dominions


At this point, just on the Approach towards regular Go-

vernment, Britain begins to be ravaged by the Barba-

rians of Scandinavia, called Normans in France, Danes

in England


871. Alfred, his early Life

36, 37

876. Ravages of the Danes : “ All the Saxons are defeated but

Alfred their King”


877–880. He bursts from his Retreat, defeats Guthrun the Danish

Chief, compels him to evacuate Wessex, and attempts

to settle and civilise his Followers, by granting him the

Country to the North and East, on Condition of his sub-

mitting to Baptism


880_895. Fifteen Years' Peace

895–899. Invasion of Hastings : in providing for Defence, AL

fred improves Ship-building




Character of Alfred : extraordinary Union of Energy in

War with the Arts of Peace: his Poetry and Trans-



901-1066. Fourteen Kings; Ten of them Descendants of Alfred,

Three Scandinavians, and One a powerful Saxon Lord :

the more prominent Events during this Period can

alone be here related


The Christian Church was the only Institution transmitted

entire from the Romans to the Barbarians ; Progress of

Ecclesiastical Power


Origin of Clerical Celibacy: Corruption engendered by it;

its Value as an Instrument of Ecclesiastical Ambition
by destroying all Ties but those of the Order


The monastic Orders called forth by a Reaction of reli.

gious Zeal, when the secular Clergy had reached a high

Pitch of Corruption : primitive Hermits : Monasteries :

Rule of St. Benedict


901, Edward the Elder


925. Athelstan: Confederacy against him by the Britons, Scots,

and Danes; his Victory over them at Brunnanburgh 50

941. Edmund the Elder: Edred


955. The Monks begin to signalise themselves as an ambitious



Dunstan, his Attempts to enforce clerical Celibacy, and

reduce Monasteries to the Rule of St. Benedict

His violent Conduct respecting an uncanonical Marriage

of Edwin : his Exile


959. Edgar obliges his Brother Edwin to divide his Dominions

with him : (960) on Edwin's Death he reigns over the



Dunstan recalled and made Archbishop of Canterbury 54

977, 978. Synods of Calne and Winchester : miraculous Preten-

sions of Dunstan not necessarily fraudulent, though



970. Marriage of Edgar with Elfrida; tragical Circumstances

attending it


975. Death of Edgar: Succession disputed between Edward

his eldest Son, and Ethelred, Son of Elfrida : Edward


979. Treacherous Murder of Edward by Elfrida : Ethelred


Attempts of the Danes to place One of their Nation on

the Throne : the Struggle between the Two Races com-

mences in the earlier Years of Ethelred


Horrid Cruelties of both Parties in this Warfare 5860

Let those who consider any Tribes of Men as irreclaimable,

call to mind of what People these were the Progenitors - 60

1016. Death of Ethelred : Edmund Ironside chosen by the Eng-

lish, but compelled to be content with the Country South

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