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The Office of Education expresses its appreciation to all the film producers and distributors who furnished review prints for screening and evaluation. In those few instances where review prints could not be obtained, the films have not been included in the bibliography. Finally, a draft of this bibliography was submitted, for editing and approval, to all members of the Advisory Committee. In most instances the changes suggested by Committee members have been incorporated in the bibliography. It should be noted, though, that there has not always been unanimous agreement on the films selected for this bibliography--nor on all those rejected. But on all decisions, there has been majority agreement in the Committee.
Scope of the Bibliography In the first place, only 16mm sound films have been included in this bibliography. This limitation in no way implies that other visual aidsboth projected and nonprojected materials-should not be used in the teaching of democracy. They most certainly should be. But for practical reasons this bibliography has been limited to motion pictures. Secondly-and this is a most important criterion-only those films which deal directly with the principles and processes of democracy have been included in this bibliography. It is recognized that, to a certain extent, any film on American history or geography or economics or social problems may contribute to an increased understanding of our democracy, but such an interpretation would have resulted in a bibliography covering practically the total field of the social studies rather than a selective one on the subject of democracy. The application of this criterion is best shown, perhaps, in the major subject categories used for the classification of the films in the bibliography, namely: I. Our Democratic Heritage. Here only those films which deal with the historical development of democratic principles have been included. Films portraying military battles, for example, or other historical events not specifically related to democratic concepts have not been included; but films dealing with the Bill of Rights or the Declaration of Independence have been included. II. The Meaning of Democracy. In this category are films which illustrate such principles of democracy as freedom of speech and religion, respect for the individual, humanitarianism, etc., which distinguish democracy from totalitarianism. III. Democratic Processes. Films included in this category portray democracy in action--in the home, school, community, government, and the world, but only those films have been selected which do portray processes uniquely democratic.
This delimitation of the scope of the bibliography resulted in the rejection of a number of films which, while they are undoubtedly useful in the teaching of economics or conservation or other subjects, are not directly and specifically related to democracy.
In addition to films portraying specific democratic concepts, the Office of Education and its Advisory Committee felt that certain generalinterest films should be recommended for use in general meetings, particularly on patriotic occasions. Such films are listed under the category, Movies for Patriotic Occasions."
Criteria of Selection
Within this definition of the scope of the bibliography-16mm sound films presenting democratic concepts—the following criteria were applied in the evaluation of specific films. All films were evaluated upon these criteria and all members of the Advisory Committee and the Office of Education had a common understanding of these criteria.
The Film Reviews
The second paragraph is a factual summary of the content of the film, and the third paragraph gives the Committee's recommendations for the use of the film. It is recognized that qualitatively there are variations in the films listed in this bibliography, but such critical evaluations have not been included in the reviews of the films. Some of the films are superb motion pictures; some are not; but all of them met the minimum standards. All are recom nmended for use in the teaching of democracy.
The Flag Speaks
Film Summary Dramatized autobiography of the flag of the United States, from its first unfurling at Fort Stanwix in 1777 to the present day. Symbolic of freedom, the flag "speaks” of the struggles for such freedom during the last 150 years and recalls specific threats to the freedom of speech, religion, and assembly. The film closes with instructions for the display and recognition of the flag, and with the playing of "America the Beautiful."
Committee Recommendation Interesting and provocative, this film can be used for a number of purposes—as a historical review of American traditions, as a reminder of the fight for civil liberties and the need to continue that fight, and as an inspirational tribute on patriotic occasions. For grades 4-12, college, and adult audiences.
Give Me Liberty
Film Summary Dramatizes in fictionized form events leading up to Patrick Henry's famous "Give me liberty or give me death” speech. Portrays a party at Patrick Henry's house at which Thomas Faulkner sings "Soldiers of Freedom,” following which British soldiers enter the house and arrest Faulkner over Henry's objections. At Mt. Vernon, Washington and Jefferson learn of the Boston Massacre and agree that it is time for Patrick Henry to speak out for freedom. Mrs. Henry, however, has exacted a promise from her husband that henceforth he will say nothing treasonable. At the request of George Washington, Mrs. Henry releases her husband from this promise, and he delivers his "Give me liberty or give me death” speech to the House of Burgesses meeting in St. John's Church in Richmond.
Committee Recommendation This dramatization of Patrick Henry's famous speech can best be used in social-studies classes (grades 7-12) as an introduction to the study of the American Revolution, in adult citizenship classes, and with general audiences on patriotic occasions.
Land of Liberty 16mm sound, b/w, 80 minutes. 1941. Edited by Cecil B. De Mille. Presented by the Motion Picture Industry of the United States. Lease from Teaching Film Custodians Inc., $100. Rent from film libraries of educational institutions. Film Summary This film, compiled from 112 different theatrical motion pictures, is divided into four parts, each 20 minutes long, as follows:
Part 1–Colonial Period and Early Years of the Republic to 1805. Covers the period from 1765 to 1805 and shows by dramatic reenactment Thomas Jefferson proposing to send arms to the Boston patriots, the Governor of Virginia dissolving the Assembly, Edmund Burke pleading for the colonists, Patrick Henry delivering his "Give me liberty or give me death” speech, Jefferson reading the Declaration of Independence to the Continental Congress, the conflict between the States, George Washington reading the Preamble to the Constitution at the Constitutional Convention, James Madison speaking for the Bill of Rights, the westward movement, and President Jefferson sending James Monroe to Paris to purchase the Louisiana Territory. Part 2–History of the United States, 1805–1860. Portrays the War of 1812, Dolly Madison rescuing the Declaration of Independence before British soldiers march into the White House, Andrew Jackson defeating the British at New Orleans, President Monroe signing his message to Congress enunciating the Monroe Doctrine, the siege of the Alamo, General Sam Houston defeating Santa Ana, the Mexican War, the gold rush of 1849, the pony express and the Wells Fargo express routes, and the Lincoln-Douglas debates.
Part 3—History of the United States, 1860-1890. Covers the Civil War period, re-enacting such events as the fight between the Monitor and the Merrimac and Lincoln's address at Gettysburg; and the postwar period showing the carpet baggers in the South, the first transcontinental railroad, lawlessness then stability in the West, immigration, and the growth of industry.
Part 4History of the United States, 1890–1938. Covers such events as the sinking of the battleship Maine, the Spanish-American War, the fight against yellow fever, the building of the Panama Canal, World War I, the sinking of the Lusitania, the League of Nations, and the beginnings of World War II; and presents a list of the achievements and problems of American democracy as of 1938.
Committee Recommendation This overview of the history of the United States, edited from Hollywood feature and short subjects, is a pictorial summary of our democratic heritage and can so be used particularly in junior and senior high-school social-studies classes and general auditorium meetings, as well as in college and in adult meetings. Each of the four parts can be used separately.
Our Monroe Doctrine 16mm sound, b/w, 20 minutes, 1940. Produced by Academic Film Co. Purchase from Post Pictures Corp., $90. Rent from 16mm film libraries. Film Summary Dramatized re-enactment of a discussion by President James Monroe, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, and Speaker of the House Henry Clay concerning the threat of European countries to regain control of South American Republics; an interview between Adams and an Austrian emissary; and Monroe's reading the statement of policy which has become known as the Monroe Doctrine. Committee Recommendation While this film consists of conversations and may seem dull to some students, it has a real value in American history classes and in courses on foreign relations as background to the study of the Monroe Doctrine. For grades 10-12 and college audiences.
Sons of Liberty 16mm sound, color, 20 minutes, 1939. Produced by Warner Bros. Pictures Inc. Lease from Teaching Film Custodians Inc., $120. Rent from film libraries of educational institutions.