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upon improbabilities, until there hath passed a due | feared, it were good those public places were per examination. This is the sympathy of individuals; fumed, before the assemblies. for as there is a sympathy of species, so it may be there is a sympathy of individuals: that is, that in things, or the parts of things that have been once contiguous or entire, there should remain a transmission of virtue from the one to the other: as between the weapon and the wound. Whereupon is blazed abroad the operation of unguentum teli: and so of a piece of lard, or stick of elder, &c. that if part of it be consumed or putrified, it will work upon the other part severed. Now we will pursue the instances themselves.
Experiments in consort touching emission of spirits
in vapour or exhalation, odour-like.
912. The plague is many times taken without manifest sense, as hath been said. And they report, that where it is found, it hath a scent of the smell of a mellow apple; and, as some say, of May-flowers: and it is also received, that smells of flowers that are mellow and luscious, are ill for the plague; as white lilies, cowslips, and hyacinths.
913. The plague is not easily received by such as continually are about them that have the plague; as keepers of the sick, and physicians; nor again by such as take antidotes, either inward, as mithridate, juniper-berries, rue, leaf and seed, &c. or outward, as angelica, zedoary, and the like, in the mouth; tar, galbanum, and the like in perfume; nor again by old people, and such as are of a dry and cold complexion. On the other side, the plague taketh soonest hold of those that come out of a fresh air, and of those that are fasting, and of children; and it is likewise noted to go in a blood, more than to a stranger.
914. The most pernicious infection, next the plague, is the smell of the jail, when prisoners have been long, and close, and nastily kept; whereof we have had in our time experience twice or thrice; when both the judges that set upon the jail, and numbers of those that attended the business or were present, sickened upon it, and died. Therefore it were good wisdom, that in such cases the jail were aired before they be brought forth.
915. Out of question, if such foul smells be made by art, and by the hand, they consist chiefly of man's flesh or sweat putrified; for they are not those stinks which the nostrils straight abhor and expel, that are most pernicious; but such airs as have some similitude with man's body; and so insinuate themselves, and betray the spirits. There may be great danger in using such compositions, in great meetings of people within houses; as in churches, at arraignments, at plays and solemnities, and the like for poisoning of air is no less dangerous than poisoning of water, which hath been used by the Turks in the wars, and was used by Emmanuel Comnenus towards the christians, when they passed through his country to the Holy Land. And these impoisonments of air are the more dangerous in meetings of people, because the much breath of people doth farther the reception of the infection; and therefore, where any such thing is
916. The empoisonment of particular persons by odours, hath been reported to be in perfumed gloves, or the like and it is like, they mingle the poison that is deadly, with some smells that are sweet, which also maketh it the sooner received. Plagues also have been raised by anointings of the chinks of doors, and the like; not so much by the touch, as for that it is common for men, when they find any thing wet upon their fingers, to put them to their nose; which men therefore should take heed how they do. The best is, that these compositions of infectious airs cannot be made without danger of death to them that make them. But then again, they may have some antidotes to save themselves; so that men ought not to be secure of it.
917. There have been in divers countries great plagues by the putrefaction of great swarms of grasshoppers and locusts, when they have been dead and cast upon heaps.
918. It happeneth often in mines, that there are damps which kill, either by suffocation, or by the poisonous nature of the mineral: and those that deal much in refining, or other works about metals and minerals, have their brains hurt and stupified by the metalline vapours. Amongst which it is noted, that the spirits of quicksilver either fly to the skull, teeth, or bones; insomuch as gilders use to have a piece of gold in their mouth, to draw the spirits of the quicksilver; which gold afterwards they find to be whitened. There are also certain lakes and pits, such as that of Avernus, that poison birds, as is said, which fly over them, or men that stay too long about them.
919. The vapour of charcoal, or sea-coal, in a close room, hath killed many; and it is the more dangerous, because it cometh without any ill smell, but stealeth on by little and little, inducing only a faintness, without any manifest strangling. When the Dutchmen wintered at Nova Zembla, and that they could gather no more sticks, they fell to make fire of some sea-coal they had, wherewith, at first, they were much refreshed; but a little after they had set about the fire, there grew a general silence and lothness to speak amongst them; and immediately after, one of the weakest of the company fell down in a swoon; whereupon they doubting what it was, opened their door to let in air, and so saved themselves. The effect, no doubt, is wrought by the inspissation of the air; and so of the breath and spirits. The like ensueth in rooms newly plaistered, if a fire be made in them; whereof no less man than the emperor Jovinianus died.
920. Vide the experiment 803, touching the infectious nature of the air, upon the first showers, after a long drought.
921. It hath come to pass, that some apothecaries, upon stamping of colloquintida, have been put into a great scouring by the vapour only.
922. It hath been a practice to burn a pepper they call Guinea-pepper, which hath such a strong spirit, that it provoketh a continual sneezing in those that are in the room.
923. It is an ancient tradition, that blear-eyes | infect sound eyes; and that a menstruous woman, looking upon a glass, doth rust it: nay, they have an opinion which seemeth fabulous, that menstruous women going over a field or garden, do corn and herbs good by killing the worms.
924. The tradition is no less ancient, that the basilisk killeth by aspect; and that the wolf, if he see a man first, by aspect striketh a man hoarse.
925. Perfumes convenient do dry and strengthen the brain, and stay rheums and defluxions, as we find in fume of rosemary dried, and lignum aloes; and calamus taken at the mouth and nostrils: and no doubt there be other perfumes that do moisten and refresh, and are fit to be used in burning agues, consumptions, and too much wakefulness; such as are rose-water, vinegar, lemon-peels, violets, the leaves of vines sprinkled with a little rose-water, &c. 926. They do use in sudden faintings and swoonings to put a handkerchief with rose-water or a little vinegar to the nose; which gathereth together again the spirits, which are upon point to resolve and fall away.
927. Tobacco comforteth the spirits, and dischargeth weariness, which it worketh partly by opening, but chiefly by the opiate virtue, which condenseth the spirits. It were good therefore to try the taking of fumes by pipes, as they do in tobacco, of other things; as well to dry and comfort, as for other intentions. I wish trial be made of the drying fame of rosemary, and lignum aloes, beforementioned, in pipe; and so of nutmeg, and folium indum, &c.
there be divers things that breathe better of themselves, than when they come to the fire; as nigella romana, the seed of melanthium, amomum, &c.
930. There be two things which, inwardly used, do cool and condense the spirits; and I wish the same to be tried outwardly in vapours. The one is nitre, which I would have dissolved in Malmsey, or Greek wine, and so the smell of the wine taken; or if you would have it more forcible, pour of it upon a firepan, well heated, as they do rose-water and vinegar. The other is the distilled water of wild poppy, which I wish to be mingled, at half, with rose-water, and so taken with some mixture of a few cloves in a perfuming-pan. The like would be done with the distilled water of saffron flowers.
931. Smells of musk, and amber, and civet, are thought to farther venereous appetite; which they may do by the refreshing and calling forth of the spirits.
932. Incense and nidorous smells, such as were of sacrifices, were thought to intoxicate the brain, and to dispose men to devotion: which they may do by a kind of sadness, and contristation of the spirits: and partly also by heating and exalting them. We see that amongst the Jews the principal perfume of the sanctuary was forbidden all common uses.
933. There be some perfumes prescribed by the writers of natural magic, which procure pleasant dreams and some others, as they say, that procure prophetical dreams; as the seeds of flax, flea-wort, &c. 934. It is certain, that odours do, in a small degree, nourish; especially the odour of wine and we see men an hungered do love to smell hot bread. 928. The following of the plough hath been ap- It is related that Democritus, when he lay a dying, proved for refreshing the spirits and procuring heard a woman in the house complain, that she appetite; but to do it in the ploughing for wheat or should be kept from being at a feast and solemnity, rye, is not so good, because the earth has spent her which she much desired to see, because there would sweet breath in vegetables put forth in summer. It be a corpse in the house; whereupon he caused is better therefore to do it when you sow barley. loaves of new bread to be sent for, and opened them, But because ploughing is tied to seasons, it is best and poured a little wine into them; and so kept to take the air of the earth new turned up, by dig-himself alive with the odour of them, till the feast ging with the spade, or standing by him that diggeth. Gentlewomen may do themselves much good by kneeling upon a cushion, and weeding. And these things you may practise in the best seasons; which is ever the early spring, before the earth putteth forth the vegetables, and in the sweetest earth you can choose. It would be done also when the dew is a little off the ground, lest the vapour be too moist. I knew a great man that lived long, who had a clean clod of earth brought to him every morning as he sat in his bed; and he would hold his head over it a good pretty while. I commend also, sometimes, in digging of new earth, to pour in Rome Malmsey or Greek wine, that the vapour of the earth and wine together may comfort the spirits the more; provided always it be not taken for a heathen sacrifice, or libation to the earth.
was past. I knew a gentleman that would fast, sometimes three or four, yea, five days, without meat, bread, or drink; but the same man used to have continually a great wisp of herbs that he smelled on : and amongst those herbs, some esculent herbs of strong scent; as onions, garlic, leeks, and the like.
935. They do use, for the accident of the mother, to burn feathers and other things of ill odour and by those ill smells the rising of the mother is put down.
936. There be airs which the physicians advise their patients to remove unto, in consumptions or upon recovery of long sicknesses: which, commonly, are plain champains, but grazing, and not over-grown with heath or the like; or else timber-shades, as in forests, and the like. It is noted also, that groves of bays do forbid pestilent airs; which was accounted a great cause of the wholesome air of Antiochia. There be also some soils that put forth odorate herbs of themselves; as wild thyme, wild marjoram, pennyroyal, camomile; and in which the brier roses smell almost like musk-roses; which, no doubt, are signs that do discover an excellent air.
937. It were good for men to think of having healthful air in their houses; which will never be if the rooms be low roofed, or full of windows and doors; for the one maketh the air close, and not fresh, and the other maketh it exceeding unequal; which is a great enemy to health. The windows also should not be high up to the roof, which is in use for beauty and magnificence, but low. Also stonewalls are not wholesome; but timber is more wholesome; and especially brick: nay, it hath been used by some with great success to make their walls thick; and to put a lay of chalk between the bricks, to take away all dampishness.
Experiment solitary touching the emission of spiritual
species which affect the senses.
938. These emissions, as we said before, are handled, and ought to be handled by themselves under their proper titles: that is, visibles and audibles, each a part in this place it shall suffice to give some general observations common to both. First, they seem to be incorporeal. Secondly, they work swiftly. Thirdly, they work at large distances. Fourthly, in curious varieties. Fifthly, they are not effective of any thing; nor leave no work behind them; but are energies merely for their working upon mirrors and places of echo doth not alter any thing in those bodies; but it is the same action with the original, only repercussed. for the shaking of windows, or rarifying the air by great noises; and the heat caused by burningglasses, they are rather concomitants of the audible and visible species, than the effects of them. Sixthly, they seem to be of so tender and weak a nature, as they affect only such a rare and attenuate substance, as is the spirit of living creatures.
Experiments in consort touching the emission of immateriate virtues from the minds and spirits of men, either by affections, or by imaginations, or by other impressions.
939. It is mentioned in some stories, that where children have been exposed, or taken away young from their parents; and that afterwards they have approached to their parents' presence, the parents, though they have not known them, have had a secret joy or other alteration thereupon.
940. There was an Egyptian soothsayer, that made Antonius believe, that his genius, which otherwise was brave and confident, was in the presence of Octavianus Cæsar, poor and cowardly and therefore he advised him to absent himself as much as he could, and remove far from him. This soothsayer was thought to be suborned by Cleopatra, to make him live in Ægypt, and other remote places from Rome. Howsoever the conceit of a predominant or mastering spirit of one man over another, is ancient, and received still, even in vulgar opinion.
941. There are conceits, that some men that are of an ill and melancholy nature, do incline the company into which they come to be sad and illdisposed; and contrariwise, that others that are of a jovial nature, do dispose the company to be merry and cheerful. And again, that some men are lucky
to be kept company with and employed: and others unlucky. Certainly, it is agreeable to reason, that there are at the least some light effluxions from spirit to spirit, when men are in presence one with another, as well as from body to body.
942. It hath been observed, that old men who have loved young company, and been conversant continually with them, have been of long life; their spirits, as it seemeth, being recreated by such company. Such were the ancient sophists and rhetoricians; which ever had young auditors and disciples; as Gorgias, Protagoras, Isocrates, &c. who lived till they were a hundred years old. And so likewise did many of the grammarians and schoolmasters; such as was Orbilius, &c.
943. Audacity and confidence doth, in civil business, so great effects, as a man may reasonably doubt, that besides the very daring, and earnestness, and persisting, and importunity, there should be some secret binding, and stooping of other men's spirits to such persons.
944. The affections, no doubt, do make the spirits more powerful and active; and especially those affections which draw the spirits into the eyes: which are two; love, and envy, which is called oculus malus. As for love, the Platonists, some of them, go so far as to hold that the spirit of the lover doth pass into the spirits of the person loved; which causeth the desire of return into the body whence it was emitted: whereupon followeth that appetite of contact and conjunction which is in lovers. And this is observed likewise, that the aspects which procure love, are not gazings, but sudden glances and dartings of the eye. As for envy, that emitteth some malign and poisonous spirit, which taketh hold of the spirit of another; and is likewise of greatest force when the cast of the eye is oblique. It hath been noted also, that it is most dangerous when an envious eye is cast upon persons in glory, and triumph, and joy. The reason whereof is, for that at such times the spirits come forth most into the outward parts, and so meet the percussion of the envious eye more at hand: and therefore it hath been noted, that after great triumphs, men have been ill-disposed for some days following. We see the opinion of fascination is ancient, for both effects; of procuring love; and sickness caused by envy and fascination is ever by the eye. But yet if there be any such infection from spirit to spirit, there is no doubt but that it worketh by presence, and not by the eye alone; yet most forcibly by the eye.
945. Fear and shame are likewise infective; for we see that the starting of one will make another ready to start: and when one man is out of coun tenance in a company, others do likewise blush in his behalf.
Now we will speak of the force of imagination upon other bodies; and of the means to exalt and strengthen it. Imagination, in this place, I understand to be, the representation of an individual thought. Imagination is of three kinds: the first joined with belief of that which is to come; the
second joined with memory of that which is past; | juggler was some strange man, and could do strange and the third is of things present, or as if they were present; for I comprehend in this, imaginations feigned, and at pleasure; as if one should imagine such a man to be in the vestments of a pope, or to have wings. I single out, for this time, that which is with faith or belief of that which is to come. The inquisition of this subject in our way, which is by induction, is wonderful hard: for the things that are reported are full of fables; and new experiments can hardly be made, but with extreme caution; for the reason which we will hereafter declare.
The power of imagination is of three kinds; the first upon the body of the imaginant, including likewise the child in the mother's womb; the second is, the power of it upon dead bodies, as plants, wood, stone, metal, &c. ; the third is, the power of it upon the spirits of men and living creatures: and with | this last we will only meddle.
The problem therefore is, whether a man constantly and strongly believing that such a thing shall be, as that such a one will love him; or that such a one will grant him his request; or that such a one shall recover a sickness; or the like; it doth help any thing to the effecting of the thing itself. And here again we must warily distinguish; for it is not meant, as hath been partly said before, that it should help by making a man more stout, or more industrious, in which kind a constant belief doth much, but merely by a secret operation, or binding, or changing the spirit of another and in this it is hard, as we began to say, to make any new experiment; for I cannot command myself to believe what I will, and so no trial can be made. Nay, it is worse; for whatsoever a man imagineth doubtingly, or with fear, must needs do hurt, if imagination have any power at all; for a man representeth that oftener that he feareth, than the contrary.
The help therefore is, for a man to work by another, in whom he may create belief, and not by himself; until himself have found by experience, that imagination doth prevail; for then experience worketh in himself belief; if the belief that such a thing shall be, be joined with a belief that his imagination may procure it.
things, that other man caught a strong imagination." I hearkened unto him, thinking for a vanity he spoke prettily. Then he asked me another question: saith he, "Do you remember, whether he bade the man think the card first, and afterwards told the other man in his ear what he should think; or else that he did whisper first in the man's ear that should tell the card, telling that such a man should think such a card, and after bade the man think a card ?" I told him, as was true, that he did first whisper the man in the ear, that such a man should think such a card: upon this the learned man did much exult and please himself, saying; "Lo, you may see that my opinion is right: for if the man had thought first, his thought had been fixed; but the other imagining first, bound his thought." Which though it did somewhat sink with me, yet I made it lighter than I thought and said; I thought it was confederacy between the juggler and the two servants; though, indeed, I had no reason so to think, for they were both my father's servants; and he had never played in the house before. The juggler also did cause a garter to be held up; and took upon him to know, that such a one should point in such a place of the garter; as it should be near so many inches to the longer end, and so many to the shorter; and still he did it, by first telling the imaginer, and after bidding the actor think.
Having told this relation, not for the weight thereof, but because it doth handsomely open the nature of the question, I return to that I said; that experiments of imagination must be practised by others, and not by a man's self. For there be three means to fortify belief: the first is experience; the second is reason; and the third is authority: and that of these which is far the most potent, is authority; for belief upon reason, or experience, will stagger.
947. For authority, it is of two kinds; belief in an art; and belief in a man. And for things of belief in an art, a man may exercise them by him. self; but for belief in a man, it must be by another. Therefore if a man believe in astrology, and find a figure prosperous; or believe in natural magic, and that a ring with such a stone, or such a piece of a living creature, carried, will do good; it may help his imagination: but the belief in a man is far the more active. But howsoever, all authority must be out of a man's self, turned, as was said, either upon an art or upon a man: and where authority is from one man to another, there the second must be ignorant, and not learned, or full of thoughts; and such are, for the most part, all witches and superstitious persons; whose beliefs, tied to their teachers and traditions, are no whit controlled either by reason or experience; and upon the same reason, in magic, they use for the most part boys and young people, whose spirits easiliest take belief and imagination. Now to fortify imagination, there be three ways:
946. For example; I related one time to a man that was curious and vain enough in these things, that I saw a kind of juggler, that had a pair of cards, and would tell a man what card he thought. pretended learned man told me, it was a mistaking in me; for," said he, "it was not the knowledge of the man's thought, for that is proper to God, but it was the enforcing of a thought upon him, and binding his imagination by a stronger, that he could think no other card." And thereupon he asked me a question or two, which I thought he did but cunningly, knowing before what used to be the feats of the juggler. Sir," said he, "do you remember whether he told the card the man thought, himself, or bade another to tell it ?" I answered, as was true, that he bade another tell it. Whereunto he❘ the authority whence the belief is derived; means said, "So I thought: for," said he, "himself could to quicken and corroborate the imagination; and not have put on so strong an imagination; but by means to repeat it and refresh it. telling the other the card, who believed that the
948. For the authority, we have already spoken
have a precedent opinion of you that you can do strange things; or that you are a man of art, as they call it; for else the simple affirmation to another, that this or that shall be, can work but a weak impression in his imagination.
952. It were good, because you cannot discern fully of the strength of imagination in one man more than another, that you did use the imagination of more than one, that so you may light upon a strong one. As if a physician should tell three or four of his patient's servants, that their master shall surely recover.
as for the second, namely, the means to quicken | another, it is necessary that he, by whom you work, and corroborate the imagination; we see what hath been used in magic, if there be in those practices any thing that is purely natural, as vestments, characters, words, seals; some parts of plants, or living creatures; stones; choice of the hour: gestures and motions; also incenses and odours; choice of society, which increaseth imagination; diets and preparations for some time before. And for words, there have been ever used, either barbarous words, of no sense, lest they should disturb the imagination; or words of similitude, that may second and feed the imagination; and this was ever as well in heathen charms, as in charms of latter times. There are used also Scripture words; for that the belief that religious texts and words have power, may strengthen the imagination. And for the same reason, hebrew words, which amongst us is counted the holy tongue, and the words more mystical, are often used.
949. For the refreshing of the imagination, which was the third means of exalting it, we see the practices of magic, as in images of wax, and the like, that should melt by little and little; or some other things buried in muck, that should putrify by little and little; or the like: for so oft as the imaginant doth think of those things, so oft doth he represent to his imagination the effect of that he desireth.
950. If there be any power in imagination, it is less credible that it should be so incorporeal, and immateriate a virtue, as to work at great distances, or through all mediums, or upon all bodies: but that the distance must be competent, the medium not adverse, and the body apt and proportionate. Therefore if there be any operation upon bodies in absence by nature, it is like to be conveyed from man to man, as fame is; as if a witch, by imagination, should hurt any afar off, it cannot be naturally but by working upon the spirit of some that cometh to the witch; and from that party upon the imagination of another; and so upon another; till it come to one that hath resort to the party intended; and so by him to the party intended himself.
And although they speak, that it sufficeth to make a point, or a piece of the garment, or the name of the party, or the like; yet there is less credit to be given to those things, except it be by working of evil spirits.
The experiments, which may certainly demonstrate the power of imagination upon other bodies, are few or none: for the experiments of witchcraft are no clear proofs; for that they may be by a tacit operation of malign spirits: we shall therefore be forced, in this inquiry, to resort to new experiments; wherein we can give only directions of trials, and not any positive experiments. And if any man think that we ought to have stayed till we had made experiment of some of them ourselves, as we do commonly in other titles, the truth is, that these effects of imagination upon other bodies have so little credit with us, as we shall try them at leisure; but in the mean time we will lead others the way.
953. The imagination of one that you shall use, such is the variety of men's minds, cannot be always alike constant and strong; and if the success follow not speedily, it will faint and lose strength. To remedy this, you must pretend to him, whose imagination you use, several degrees of means, by which to operate: as to prescribe him that every three days, if he find not the success apparent, he do use another root, or part of a beast or ring, &c. as being of more force; and if that fail, another; and if that, another, till seven times. Also you must prescribe a good large time for the effect you promise; as if you should tell a servant of a sick man that his master shall recover, but it will be fourteen days ere he findeth it apparently, &c. All this to entertain the imagination that it waver less.
954. It is certain, that potions, or things taken into the body; incenses and perfumes taken at the nostrils; and ointments of some parts, do naturally work upon the imagination of him that taketh them. And therefore it must needs greatly co-operate with the imagination of him whom you use, if you prescribe him, before he do use the receipt, for the work which he desireth, that he do take such a pill, or a spoonful of liquor; or burn such an incense; or anoint his temples, or the soles of his feet, with such an ointment or oil: and you must choose, for the composition of such pill, perfume, or ointment, such ingredients as do make the spirits a little more gross or muddy; whereby the imagination will fix the better.
955. The body passive, and to be wrought upon, I mean not of the imaginant, is better wrought upon, as hath been partly touched, at some times than at others as if you should prescribe a servant about a sick person, whom you have possessed that his master shall recover, when his master is fast asleep, to use such a root, or such a root. For imagination is like to work better upon sleeping men, than men awake: as we shall show when we handle dreams.
956. We find in the art of memory, that images visible work better than other conceits: as if you would remember the word philosophy, you shall more surely do it, by imagining, that such a man, for men are best places, is reading upon Aristotle's Physics" than if you should imagine him to say, "I'll go study philosophy." And therefore this observation would be translated to the subject we now speak of: for the more lustrous the imagination is, it filleth and fixeth the better. And therefore I 951. When you work by the imagination of conceive, that you shall, in that experiment, whereof