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Athenians in the port of Pyle, which was won, and | some slain, and some taken. There was one said to one of them that was taken, by way of scorn, "Were they not brave men that lost their lives at the port of Pyle?" "He answered, Certainly a Persian arrow is much to be set by, if it can choose out a brave man."

180. Clodius was acquitted by a corrupt jury, that had palpably taken shares of money; before they gave up their verdict, they prayed of the senate a guard, that they might do their consciences, for that Clodius was a very seditious young nobleman. Whereupon all the world gave him for condemned. But acquitted he was. Catulus, the next day seeing some of them that had acquitted him together, said to them; "What made you ask of us a guard ? Were you afraid your money should be taken from you?"

181. At the same judgment, Cicero gave in evidence upon oath: and when the jury, which consisted of fifty-seven, had passed against his evidence, one day in the senate Cicero and Clodius being in altercation, Clodius upbraided him, and said; "The jury gave you no credit.” Cicero answered, "Five and twenty gave me credit: but there were two and thirty that gave you no credit, for they had their money beforehand."

182. Sir Henry Savil was asked by my lord of Essex his opinion touching poets? He answered my lord; "that he thought them the best writers, next to them that writ prose."

183. Diogenes, having seen that the kingdom of Macedon, which before was contemptible and low, began to come aloft when he died, was asked, how he would be buried? He answered, "With my face downwards; for within a while the world will be turned upside down, and then I shall lie right."

184. Cato the elder was wont to say, that the Romans were like sheep; a man were better to drive a flock of them than one of them.

ard, told him; "You were best take heed next time you run away how you look back."

189. There was a suitor to Vespasian, who to lay his suit fairer, said it was for his brother; whereas indeed it was for a piece of money. Some about Vespasian told the emperor, to cross him, that the party his servant spoke for, was not his brother; but that he did it upon a bargain. Vespasian sent for the party interested, and asked him; “Whether his mean employed by him was his brother or no?" He durst not tell untruth to the emperor, and con fessed he was not his brother. Whereupon the emperor, said, "This do, fetch me the money, and you shall have your suit despatched." Which he did. The courtier, which was the mean, solicited Vespasian soon after about his suit: "Why," saith Vespasian, "I gave it last day to a brother of mine."

190. Vespasian asked of Apollonius, what was the cause of Nero's ruin? Who answered, “ Nero could tune the harp well, but in government he did always wind up the strings too high, or let them down too low."

191. Dionysius the tyrant, after he was deposed and brought to Corinth, kept a school. Many used to visit him; and amongst others, one when he came in, opened his mantle and shook his clothes; thinking to give Dionysius a gentle scorn; because it was the manner to do so for them that came in to see him while he was a tyrant. But Dionysius said to him; "I prithee do so rather when thou goest out, that we may see thou stealest nothing away."

192. Diogenes, one terrible frosty morning, came into the market-place, and stood naked, shaking, to show his tolerance. Many of the people came about him, pitying him: Plato passing by, and knowing he did it to be seen, said to the people as he went by; "If you pity him indeed, let him alone to himself."

193. Aristippus was earnest suitor to Dionysios for some grant, who would give no ear to his suit. Aristippus fell at his feet, and then Dionysius grant

185. When Lycurgus was to reform and alter the state of Sparta, in consultation one advised, thated it should be reduced to an absolute popular equality: but Lycurgus said to him; "Sir, begin it in your

own house."

186. Bion, that was an atheist, was showed in a port city, in a temple of Neptune, many tables of pictures, of such as had in tempests made their vows to Neptune, and were saved from shipwreck and was asked, "How say you now? Do you not acknowledge the power of the gods?" But saith he; "Ay, but where are they painted that have been drowned after their vows?"

187. Cicero was at dinner, where there was an ancient lady that spake of her own years, and said, "she was but forty years old." One that sat by Cicero rounded him in the ear, and said; " She talks of forty years old; but she is far more, out of question." Cicero answered him again; "I must believe her, for I have heard her say so any time these ten years."

188. There was a soldier that vaunted before Julius Cæsar of the hurts he had received in his face. Julius Caesar, knowing him to be but a cow

it. One that stood by said afterwards to Aristippus ; "You a philosopher, and be so base as to throw yourself at the tyrant's feet to get a suit." Aristippus answered, "The fault is not mine, but the fault is in Dionysius, that carries his ears in his feet."

194. Solon, when he wept for his son's death, and one said to him, " Weeping will not help;" an swered, "Alas, therefore I weep, because weeping will not help."

195. The same Solon being asked, whether he had given the Athenians the best laws? answered," The best of those that they would have received."

196. One said to Aristippus; 'Tis a strange thing, why men should rather give to the poor, than to philosophers. He answered, "Because they think themselves may sooner come to be poor, than to be philosophers."

197. Trajan would say of the vain jealousy of princes, that seek to make away those that aspire to their succession; "that there was never king that did put to death his successor."

198. When it was represented to Alexander, to | self to be mortal, chiefly by two things; sleep, and the advantage of Antipater, who was a stern and | lust. imperious man, that he only of all his lieutenants wore no purple, but kept the Macedonian habit of black; Alexander said, "Yea, but Antipater is all purple within."

199. Alexander used to say of his two friends, Craterus and Hephæstion; that Hephæstion loved Alexander, and Craterus loved the king.

200. It fell out so, that as Livia went abroad in Rome, there met her naked young men that were sporting in the streets, which Augustus went about severely to punish in them; but Livia spake for them, and said, "It was no more to chaste women than so many statues."

201. Philip of Macedon was wished to banish one for speaking ill of him. But Philip answered; "Better he speak where we are both known, than where we are both unknown."

202. Lucullus entertained Pompey in one of his magnificent houses: Pompey said, "This is a marvellous fair and stately house for the summer; but methinks it should be very cold for winter." Lucullus answered, "Do you not think me as wise as divers fowls are, to change my habitation in the winter season ?"

203. Plato entertained some of his friends at a dinner, and had in the chamber a bed, or couch, neatly and costly furnished. Diogenes came in, and got up upon the bed, and trampled it, saying, "I trample upon the pride of Plato." Plato mildly answered," But with greater pride, Diogenes."

204. Pompey being commissioner for sending grain to Rome in time of dearth, when he came to the sea, found it very tempestuous and dangerous, insomuch as those about him advised him by no means to embark; but Pompey said, "It is of necessity that I go, not that I live."

205. Demosthenes was upbraided by Eschines, that his speeches did smell of the lamp. But Demosthenes said, "Indeed there is a great deal of difference between that which you and I do by lamp-light."

206. Demades the orator, in his age was talkative, and would eat hard: Antipater would say of him, that he was like a sacrifice, that nothing was left of it but the tongue and the paunch.

207. Themistocles, after he was banished, and had wrought himself into great favour afterwards, so that he was honoured and sumptuously served, seeing his present glory, said unto one of his friends, "If I had not been undone, I had been undone."

208. Philo Judæus saith, that the sense is like the sun; for the sun seals up the globe of heaven, and opens the globe of earth: so the sense doth obscure heavenly things, and reveals earthly things. 209. Alexander, after the battle of Granicum, had very great offers made him by Darius; consulting with his captains concerning them, Parmenio said, "Sure I would accept of these offers, if I were Alexander." Alexander answered, "So would I, if I were as Parmenio."

211. Augustus Cæsar would say, that he wondered that Alexander feared he should want work, having no more worlds to conquer: as if it were not as hard a matter to keep, as to conquer.

212. Antigonus, when it was told him, that the enemy had such volleys of arrows that they did hide the sun, said, "That falls out well, for it is hot weather, and so we shall fight in the shade."

213. Cato the elder, being aged, buried his wife, and married a young woman. His son came to him, and said; "Sir, what have I offended, that you have brought a step-mother into your house?" The old man answered, “Nay, quite contrary, son: thou pleasest me so well, as I would be glad to have more such."

214. Crassus the orator had a fish which the Romans called Muræna, that he made very tame and fond of him; the fish died, and Crassus wept for it. One day falling in contention with Domitius in the senate, Domitius, said, "Foolish Crassus, you wept for your Muræna.” Crassus replied, "That is more than you did for both your wives."

215. Philip, Alexander's father, gave sentence against a prisoner what time he was drowsy, and seemed to give small attention. The prisoner, after sentence was pronounced, said, "I appeal." The king, somewhat stirred, said, "To whom do you appeal ?" The prisoner answered, "From Philip when he gave no ear, to Philip when he shall give ear."

216. There was a philosopher that disputed with the emperor Adrian, and did it but weakly. One of his friends that stood by, afterwards said unto him, "Methinks you were not like yourself last day, in argument with the emperor; I could have answered better myself." Why," said the philosopher, "would you have me contend with him that commands thirty legions ?"

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217. When Alexander passed into Asia, he gave large donatives to his captains, and other principal men of virtue; insomuch as Parmenio asked him, Sir, what do you keep for yourself?" He answered, "Hope."

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218. Vespasian set a tribute upon urine. Titus his son imboldened himself to speak to his father of it; and represented it as a thing indign and sordid. Vespasian said nothing for the time; but a while after, when it was forgotten, sent for a piece of silver out of the tribute-money; and called to his son, bidding him to smell to it; and asked him, whether he found any offence? Who said, "No." " Why so?" saith Vespasian again; "yet this comes out of urine."

219. Nerva the emperor succeeded Domitian, who had been tyrannical; and in his time many noble houses were overthrown by false accusations; the instruments whereof were chiefly Marcellus and Regulus. The emperor Nerva one night supped privately with some six or seven: amongst whom there was one that was a dangerous man; and began to take the like courses as Marcellus and Regulus 210. Alexander was wont to say, he knew him- had done. The emperor fell into discourse of the

injustice and tyranny of the former time; and by [ now at that present had demanded of him, to drink

name, of the two accusers; and said, "What should we do with them, if we had them now ?" One of them that was at supper, and was a free-spoken senator, said, "Marry, they should sup with us."

220. There was one that found a great mass of money digging under ground in his grandfather's house; and being somewhat doubtful of the case, signified it to the emperor that he had found such treasure. The emperor made a rescript thus; "Use it." He writ back again, that the sum was greater than his estate or condition could use. The emperor writ a new rescript, thus: "Abuse it."

221. Julius Cæsar, as he passed by, was, by acclamation of some that stood in the way, termed King, to try how the people would take it. The people showed great murmur and distaste at it. Cæsar, finding where the wind stood, slighted it, and said, "I am not king, but Cæsar;" as if they had mistaken his name. For Rex was a surname amongst the Romans, as King is with us.

222. When Croesus, for his glory, showed Solon his great treasures of gold, Solon said to him, "If another king come that hath better iron than you, he will be master of all this gold."

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223. Aristippus being reprehended of luxury by one that was not rich, for that he gave six crowns for a small fish, answered, Why, what would you have given ?" The other said, "Some twelve pence." Aristippus said again, "And six crowns is no more with me."

224. Plato reprehended severely a young man for entering into a dissolute house. The young man said to him, "Why do you reprehend so sharply for so small a matter?" Plato replied, "But custom is no small matter."

225. Archidamus, king of Lacedæmon, having received from Philip king of Macedon, after Philip had won the victory of Charonea upon the Athenians, proud letters, writ back to him, "That if he measured his own shadow, he would find it no longer than it was before his victory."

226. Pyrrhus, when his friends congratulated to him his victory over the Romans, under the conduct of Fabricius, but with great slaughter of his own side, said to them again, "Yes, but if we have such another victory, we are undone."

227. Plato was wont to say of his master Socrates, that he was like the apothecaries' gally-pots; that had on the outside apes, and owls, and satyrs; but within, precious drugs.

228. Alexander sent to Phocion a great present of money. Phocion said to the messenger, "Why doth the king send to me, and to none else ?" The messenger answered, "Because he takes you to be the only good man in Athens." Phocion replied, "If he thinks so, pray let him suffer me to be so still."

229. At a banquet where those that were called the seven wise men of Greece were invited by the ambassador of a barbarous king, the ambassador related, that there was a neighbour mightier than his master, picked quarrels with him, by making impossib

Tomands, otherwise threatening war; and

up the sea. Whereunto one of the wise men said, "I would have him undertake it." "Why," said the ambassador, "how shall he come off?" "Thus," saith the wise man; "let that king first stop the rivers which run into the sea, which are no part of the bargain, and then your master will perform it."

230. At the same banquet, the ambassador desired the seven, and some other wise men that were at the banquet, to deliver every one of them some sentence or parable, that he might report to his king the wisdom of Græcia, which they did; only one was silent; which the ambassador perceiving, said to him, "Sir, let it not displease you; why do not you say somewhat that I may report ?" He answered, "Report to your lord, that there are of the Grecians that can hold their peace."

231. The Lacedæmonians had in custom to speak very short, which being an empire, they might do at pleasure: but after their defeat at Leuctra, in an assembly of the Grecians, they made a long invective against Epaminondas; who stood up, and said no more than this; "I am glad we have brought you to speak long."

232. Fabius Maximus being resolved to draw the war in length, still waited upon Hannibal's progress to curb him; and for that purpose he encamped upon the high ground: but Terentius his colleague fought with Hannibal, and was in great peril of overthrow; but then Fabius came down from the high grounds, and got the day. Whereupon Hannibal said, "that he did ever think that that same cloud that hanged upon the hills, would at one time or other give a tempest."

233. Hanno the Carthaginian was sent commis. sioner by the state, after the second Carthaginian war, to supplicate for peace, and in the end obtained it: yet one of the sharper senators said, "You have often broken with us the peaces whereunto you have been sworn; I pray, by what god will you swear?" Hanno answered; "By the same gods that have punished the former perjury so severely."

234. Cæsar, when he first possessed Rome, Pompey being fled, offered to enter the sacred treasury to take the moneys that were there stored; and Metellus, tribune of the people, did forbid him: and when Metellus was violent in it, and would not desist, Cæsar turned to him, and said; "Presume no farther, or I will lay you dead." And when Metellus was with those words somewhat astonished, Cæsar added; "Young man, it had been easier for me to do this than to speak it.”

235. Caius Marius was general of the Romans against the Cimbers, who came with such a sea of people upon Italy. In the fight there was a band of the Cadurcians of a thousand, that did notable service; whereupon, after the fight, Marius did denison them all for citizens of Rome, though there was no law to warrant it. One of his friends did present it unto him, that he had transgressed the law, because that privilege was not to be granted but by the people. Whereunto Marius answered; "That for the noise of arms he could not hear the laws."

236. Pompey did consummate the war against

Sertorius, when Metellus had brought the enemy somewhat low. He did also consummate the war against the fugitives, whom Crassus had before defeated in a great battle. So when Lucullus had had great and glorious victories against Mithridates and Tigranes; yet Pompey, by means his friends made, was sent to put an end to that war. Whereupon Lucullus taking indignation, as a disgrace offered to himself, said; "that Pompey was a carrion crow when others had strucken down the bodies, then Pompey came and preyed upon them." 237. Antisthenes being asked of one what learning was most necessary for man's life? answered; "To unlearn that which is nought."

238. Alexander visited Diogenes in his tub; and when he asked him, what he would desire of him? Diogenes answered; "That you would stand a little aside, that the sun may come to me."

239. The same Diogenes, when mice came about him as he was eating, said; "I see, that even Diogenes nourisheth parasites."

240. Hiero visited by Pythagoras, asked him, " of what condition he was ?" Pythagoras answered; "Sir, I know you have been at the Olympian games." "Yes," saith Hiero. "Thither," saith Pythagoras, "come some to win the prizes. Some come to sell their merchandise, because it is a kind of mart of all Greece. Some come to meet their friends, and to make merry; because of the great confluence of all sorts. Others come only to look on. I am one of them that come to look on." Meaning it, of philosophy, and the contemplative life.

241. Heraclitus the obscure said; "The dry light is the best soul :" meaning, when the faculties intellectual are in vigour, not drenched, or, as it were, blooded by the affections.

242. One of the philosophers was asked; "what a wise man differed from a fool ?" He answered, "Send them both naked to those that know them not, and you shall perceive."

243. There was a law made by the Romans against the bribery and extortion of the governors of provinces. Cicero saith in a speech of his to the people," that he thought the provinces would petition to the state of Rome to have that law repealed. For," saith he, "before the governors did bribe and extort as much as was sufficient for themselves; but now they bribe and extort as much as may be enough not only for themselves, but for the judges, and jurors, and magistrates."

244. Aristippus, sailing in a tempest, showed signs of fear. One of the seamen said to him, in an insulting manner: "We that are plebeians are not troubled; you that are a philosopher are afraid." Aristippus answered; "That there is not the like wager upon it, for you to perish and for me."

245. There was an orator that defended a cause of Aristippus, and prevailed. Afterwards he asked Aristippus; "Now, in your distress, what did Socrates do you good?" Aristippus answered; "Thus, in making that which you said of me to be true." 246. There was an Epicurean vaunted, that divers of other sects of philosophers did after turn Epicu

reans; but there never were any Epicureans that turned to any other sect. Whereupon a philosopher that was of another sect, said; "The reason was plain, for that cocks may be made capons, but capons could never be made cocks."

247. Chilon would say, "That gold was tried with the touchstone, and men with gold."

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248. Simonides being asked of Hiero, "what he thought of God?" asked a seven-night's time to consider of it and at the seven-night's end he asked a fortnight's time; at the fortnight's end, a month. At which Hiero marvelling, Simonides answered ; "that the longer he thought upon the matter, the more difficult he found it."

249. A Spaniard was censuring to a French gentleman the want of devotion amongst the French; in that, whereas in Spain, when the sacrament goes to the sick, any that meets with it, turns back and waits upon it to the house whither it goes; but in France they only do reverence, and pass by. But the French gentleman answered him, "There is reason for it; for here with us, Christ is secure amongst his friends; but in Spain there be so many Jews and Moranos, that it is not amiss for him to have a convoy."

250. Mr. Popham, afterwards lord chief justice Popham, when he was speaker, and the house of commons had set long, and done in effect nothing; coming one day to queen Elizabeth, she said to him; "Now, Mr. Speaker, what hath passed in the commons house?" He answered," If it please your majesty, seven weeks."

251. Themistocles in his lower fortune was in love with a young gentleman who scorned him; but when he grew to his greatness, which was soon after, he sought him: Themistocles said, "We are both grown wise, but too late."

252. Bion was sailing, and there fell out a great tempest; and the mariners, that were wicked and dissolute fellows, called upon the gods; but Bion said to them, "Peace, let them not know you are here."

253. The Turks made an expedition into Persia; and because of the strait jaws of the mountains of Armenia, the bashaws consulted which way they should get in. One that heard the debate said, "Here is much ado how you shall get in; but I hear nobody take care how you should get out."

254. Philip king of Macedon maintained arguments with a musician in points of his art, somewhat peremptorily; but the musician said to him, "God forbid, Sir, your fortune were so hard, that you should know these things better than myself."

255. Antalcidas, when an Athenian said to him, "Ye Spartans are unlearned;" said again, " True, for we have learned no evil nor vice of you."

256. Pace, the bitter fool, was not suffered to come at queen Elizabeth, because of his bitter humour. Yet at one time, some persuaded the queen that he should come to her; undertaking for him, that he should keep within compass: so he was brought to her, and the queen said; "Come on, Pace; now we shall hear of our faults." Saith Pace; "I do not use to talk of that that all the town talks of."

257. Bishop Latimer said, in a sermon at court, "That he heard great speech that the king was poor; and many ways were propounded to make him rich for his part he had thought of one way, which was, that they should help the king to some good office, for all his officers were rich."

258. After the defeat of Cyrus the younger, Falinus was sent by the king to the Grecians, who had for their part rather victory than otherwise, to command them to yield their arms: which when it was denied, Falinus said to Clearchus; "Well then, the king lets you know, that if you remove from the place where you are now encamped, it is war: if you stay, it is truce. What shall I say you will do ?" Clearchus answered, "It pleaseth us, as it pleaseth the king." "How is that ?" saith Falinus. Saith Clearchus, "If we remove, war: if we stay, truce" and so would not disclose his purpose.

259. Alcibiades came to Pericles, and stayed a while ere he was admitted. When he came in, Pericles civilly excused it, and said: "I was studying how to give mine account." But Alcibiades said to him," If you will be ruled by me, study rather how to give no account."

260. Mendoza that was viceroy of Peru, was wont to say, "That the government of Peru was the best place that the king of Spain gave, save that it was somewhat too near Madrid."

and when he had finished it, he required the wager according to agreement; because the seaman was to say his compass better than he his Pater-noster, which he had not performed. "Nay, I pray, Sir, hold," quoth the seaman, "the wager is not finished; for I have but half done:" and so he immediately said his compass backward very exactly; which the judge failing of in his Pater-noster, the seaman car. ried away the prize.

266. There was a conspiracy, against the emperor Claudius by Scribonianus, examined in the senate; where Claudius sat in his chair, and one of his freed servants stood at the back of his chair. In the examination, that freed servant, who had much power with Claudius, very saucily, had almost all the words: and amongst other things, he asked in scorn one of the examinates, who was likewise a freed servant of Scribonianus; "I pray, Sir, if Scribonianus had been emperor, what would you have done?" He answered; "I would have stood behind his chair and held my peace."

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267. One was saying that his great grandfather, and grandfather, and father, died at sea: said another that heard him, " And I were as you, I would never come at sea." Why," saith he, "where did your great grandfather, and grandfather, and father die?" He answered; "Where but in their beds ?" He answered; "And I were as you, I would never come in bed."

268. There was a dispute, whether great heads or little heads had the better wit? And one said, It must needs be the little: for that it is a maxim, 'Omne majus continet in se minus.'"

261. When Vespasian passed from Jewry to take upon him the empire, he went by Alexandria, where remained two famous philosophers, Apollonius and Euphrates. The emperor heard the discourse, touch-" ing matter of state, in the presence of many. And when he was weary of them, he brake off, and in a secret derision, finding their discourses but speculative, and not to be put in practice, said; "O that I might govern wise men, and wise men govern me."

262. Cardinal Ximenes, upon a muster, which was taken against the Moors, was spoken to by a servant of his to stand a little out of the smoke of the harquebuss; but he said again," that that was his incense."

263. Nero was wont to say of his master Seneca, "That his style was like mortar without lime."

264. Augustus Cæsar, out of great indignation against his two daughters, and Posthumus Agrippa, his grandchild; whereof the two first were infamous, and the last otherwise unworthy; would say, "That they were not his seed, but some imposthumes that had broken from him."

265. A seaman coming before the judges of the admiralty for admittance into an office of a ship bound for the Indies, was by one of the judges much slighted, as an insufficient person for that office he sought to obtain; the judge telling him, "that he believed he could not say the points of his compass." The seaman answered; "that he could say them, under favour, better than he could say his Paternoster." The judge replied; "that he would wager twenty shillings with him upon that." The seaman taking him up, it came to trial: and the seaman began, and said all the points of his compass very xactly the judge likewise said his Pater-noster;

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269. Sir Thomas More, when the counsel of the party pressed him for a longer day to perform the decree, said; "Take Saint Barnaby's day, which is the longest day in the year." Now Saint Barnaby's day was within few days following.

270. One of the fathers saith, "That there is but this difference between the death of old men and young men; that old men go to death, and death comes to young men."

271. Cassius, after the defeat of Crassus by the Parthians, whose weapons were chiefly arrows, fled to the city of Charras, where he durst not stay any time, doubting to be pursued and besieged; he had with him an astrologer, who said to him, "Sir, I would not have you go hence, while the moon is in the sign of Scorpio." Cassius answered, "I am more afraid of that of Sagittarius."

272. Jason the Thessalian was wont to say, "that some things must be done unjustly, that many things may be done justly."

273. Demetrius king of Macedon would at times retire himself from business, and give himself wholly to pleasures. One of those his retirings, giving out that he was sick, his father Antigonus came on the sudden to visit him; and met a fair dainty youth coming out of his chamber. When Antigonus came in, Demetrius said; "Sir, the fever left me right now." Antigonus replied, "I think it was he that I met at the door."

274. Cato Major would say, "That wise men learned more by fools, than fools by wise men."

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