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State of Court Parties at the Death of Edward IV.

(29th of April) Meeting between the young King and
his Uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester; Richard seeks
a Quarrel with the Woodvilles, Edward's Maternal

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Aspersions on the Legitimacy of the young Princes
Parliamentary Adoption of the Calumny
(26th of June) Richard King
Disappearance of the Princes; Reasons for believing

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them murdered

(18th of October) Revolt of Buckingham

His Execution; many of his Adherents, who escape to
Britany, do Homage to Henry of Richmond as King
Richard attempts to gain Popularity by legal Reform-



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(February) Symnel countenanced by the Earl of Kildare
Lord Deputy of Ireland

(May) Landing of an Irish Force in Lancashire, in Sup-
port of Symnel

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(6th of August) Henry lands at Milford

(22d of August) Battle of Bosworth; Henry King
State of Law and Government; Influence of the Nobility
in Elections; Character of English Institutions by De
Comines and Fortescue

· 67

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Various and jarring Grounds on which the Title of Henry
rested; Parliamentary Settlement


(14th of January) Marriage of Henry with Elizabeth of



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(22d of June) The Insurgents defeated; Symnel made a
Turnspit in the King's Kitchen

Pretensions of Perkin Warbeck; Reasons for rejecting
his Statement that he was the Duke of York
He is received in Ireland; Sir R. Clifford and others of
the York Party go to Flanders to enquire into his His-

Clifford acts a double Part, and, on his Return, several

Yorkists are put to Death on his Evidence

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(May) Warbeck attempts to land near Deal, but is de-

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James King of Scotland espouses the Cause of Warbeck,
but on James acceding to a Truce with England,
Warbeck leaves Scotland

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He lands in Cornwall; Insurrection of the Cornish Men
in his favour, who march towards London

(23d of June) The Insurgents defeated

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(September) Perkin takes Sanctuary at the Abbey of
Beaulieu in Hampshire; (January) he yields himself up 83
Conspiracy between him and Clarence for their joint De-
liverance from the Tower; probability that he was in
this a Tool of Henry for the Destruction of Clarence,
whose Title was a Source of Anxiety

(November) Execution of Warbeck and of Clarence

The Murder of the latter was, in all probability, coolly

planned between Henry and Ferdinand of Spain, the

Claims of Clarence, being deemed, by Ferdinand, an

Objection to the Marriage of the Infanta with Prince


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Treacherous Attempts, of which Henry had been guilty,
against James

His treacherous Extortion from Philip of the Surrender of
De la Pole

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Hoard amassed by Henry; Extortions of Empson and


(22d of April) Death of Henry; his Character: "no
Personage in History, of so much Understanding and
Courage, is so near being despised

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(4th of August) Battle of the Spurs; Defeat of the French;
Irruption of the Scots; (7th of September) Battle of
Flodden Field; Death of James

- 118

Peace between Henry and Louis; Marriage of Louis

with Mary Tudor

Administration of Wolsey; Sketch of his History

Rise of the lower Labourers of London against foreign


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- 126, 127


- 127

- 128

129, 130






Importance of the Reformation in a Civil Point of View - 131
Every Impediment to Liberty of Enquiry robs a Man of
some Share of his rational and moral Nature


The Reformation of 1517 was the first successful Example
of Resistance to human Authority

But the Reformers assumed the same Authority, though
they rendered the Claim self-contradictory, by renounc-
ing the Pretension to Infallibility

Extirpation, the only Persecution which could be finally
successful is happily impossible

- 136

Causes which prepared the Soil for the Reformation
Luther born at Eisleben Mansfeldt, thirty Years after the
Invention of Printing and twelve Years before the Dis-
coveries of America and a maritime Road to India
His early Life
136, 137
Indulgences; Luther roused to Opposition by their abuse
in Germany

They found Luther engaged in the Contemplation of the

Principle which places the Source of all true Righteous-

ness in the Heart: a Principle which is "the Basis of

all pure Ethics, the Cement of the eternal Alliance be-

tween Morality and Religion, and the Badge of the In-

dependence of both on the low Motives and dim Insight

of human Laws"

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HENRY VIII. — continued.

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155, 156

1529. (June) A Reconciliation between the Pope and the Em-
peror, precludes all Hope of the former consenting to
degrade an Austrian Princess

Questions addressed by Henry to the Universities of Eu-
rope on the validity of the Marriage

Cranmer employed in a Mission for this Purpose
Proceedings on the Papal Commission by Cardinals
Wolsey and Campeggio



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. 157

They fail in persuading Catherine to take the Veil
Campeggio temporises, and Henry is incensed at Wolsey's
yielding to Delay

(October) Wolsey deprived of the Great Seal; Proceed-

ings against him

- 163

(July) Clement had removed the Suit to Rome; Suspicion
of Wolsey's secret Understanding with the Papal Court 165

Wolsey convicted of receiving Bulls from Rome; in Feb-

ruary 1530 pardoned and restored to the See of Win-

chester; (September) arrested for Treason; (30th of

November) His Death

- 166

(June) Henry procures a Letter to be sent from several of
the English Nobility to the Pope, praying him to hasten
the Determination of the Suit

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