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SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH had proceeded to the 211th page of the Third Volume of his “ History of England,” when literature and his country were deprived of him by his lamented death.

His manuscript breaks off with the section ending at the 15th line of the above-mentioned page in the present volume.

The History will be continued with an entire concurrence in Sir James Mackintosh's developed principles and views : at the same time, with a full sense of the continuator's disadvantages, in coming after one whose capacity and reputation placed him so high. It will, however, be the study of the continuator to pursue the course of events with the same disposition to vindicate and advance the principles of religious and political freedom, promote civilisation, and cultivate the sentiments of humanity, which have distinguished his prede

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The manuscripts left by Sir James Mackintosh relating to English affairs at the time of the Revolution of 1688 have been purchased by the proprietors of the Cyclopædia, and will be used as occasion shall require in the progress of the work.

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State of Europe as described by the Roman Writers to

wards the Decline of the Empire ; Gauls or Celts; their original Abodes; their Irruptions into Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor

1,2 Mixture and Confusion of Races in the Population of

Greece and Italy; Phænician Colonies in the Mediterranean

2 Formation of mixed Languages by intercourse between the

Conguerors and the conquered; Hindustanee and AngloNorman striking Illustrations at opposite Extremities of the Earth

3 Distinction between the Term Race, as employed by Historians and by Naturalists

4 Subdivision of the Celtic Race, Gauli, and Cimbri 4,5 Teutonic or Germanic Race; contrasted Character of the

Gauls and Germans; the Gauls somewhat civilised, but abjectly servile and superstitious; the Germans more rude, but of independent Spirit, that Spirit qualified them to lay the Foundation of a better ordered Civilisa

tion than that of the Ancient or Eastern World - 6,9 The Sources of these Varieties of Character in neighbour.

ing Races are hitherto unexplained, though late En. quiries afford some Promise of Success


A People of Celtic Race, probably the first Inhabitants of

Gauls probably the first Colonists






The Phoenicians and Massilians traded in the Tin of Corn-

Julius Cæsar lands in Britain: he retires in consequence
of an Accident to his Ships

He renews the Invasion, and defeats Cassivelaunus, who
becomes tributary

The Tribes which peopled Britain very numerous: those
of the Interior extremely barbarous: their Government
unformed and fluctuating


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Caligula threatens Britain; but ends by the insane Freak
of loading his Troops with Shells
Claudius seriously undertakes the Enterprise: his Ge-
nerals employ Seven Years in reducing the Country
South of the Thames


Ostorius encounters the Silures of South Wales under
Caractacus, who is defeated and sent Prisoner to Rome
Suetonius Paulinus attacks the sacred Seat of Druidism in
Mona or Anglesey: he is called off by an Insurrection :
Boadicea dreadful Slaughter of the Britons
Agricola, Governor of Britain under Vespasian: carries
the Roman Arms to Scotland: joins by fortified Posts
the Friths of Forth and Clyde: circumnavigates the

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Under Adrian, a second Wall is built from the Solway
to the Mouth of the Tyne

Under Antoninus another Wall is built farther North
Slow Progress of the Roman Arms: the general Policy of
the Empire is that of Augustus, who disapproved remote

Nature of the Roman Government in Britain
Government of Towns: Origin of modern Civic Corpora-


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The Empire declines, and Troops are withdrawn from
Britain to protect the Seats of Dominion

About the Middle of the Fifth Century the Island is



On the Loss of Roman Protection, the Britons employ
Saxons and other Mercenaries in their Defence against
the barbarous Tribes of their own Island: these gra-
dually rose to be Conquerors more formidable than those
they were called in to combat
But the insular Position of England rendered their Progress
very slow

Armorica (since called Britany); Source of its early Con-

nection with Britain: through that Connection the

legendary Tales of Britain were communicated to the

Continent: King Arthur

25, 26

The limited Value of our early Traditions, as compared

with the classical, arises from their Transmission

through a Medium not purely national, that of Monks


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