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obiiciantur remedia. Deo enim acceptum referimus mirabile illud ubique terrarum studium et Christifidelium ardorem, quo hi voluntate unanimes praeclarissima fidei ac pietatis edunt specimina, et omni ope, opera, et industria, iniquitatis torrenti quasi murum se opponunt, nihilque reliqui faciunt, ut fidei integritas servetur, et fidelis populus crescat in scientia Dei, et in omni opere bono fructificet, uberioribusque coelestis gratiae auxiliis munitus a perversis inimicorum Ecclesiae doctrinis constantius abhorreat. Acceptas quoque Deo referimus utilissimas Societates initas, quae aliae aliam in tot Ecclesiae necessitatibus sibi deposcentes provinciam quasi acies instructae praeliantur praelia Domini, et malitiosorum hominum conatus egregiis operibus retundere atque evertere student, impiorumque latebras prodere, et ipsum in eis, cui miserrimi serviunt, diabolum debellare. Quae omnia laudi praeconio digna et calamitosis hisce temporibus opportunissima pluries per nostras Litteras summopere commendavimus, easdemque societates spiritualibus privilegiis auximus et indulgentiis, et ad maiora in dies e re catholica et sempiterna animarum salute in miserrima hac rerum omnium conversione atque errorum caligine praestanda inflammavimus. Idque praesertim erga eas societates praestitimus, quae in hac alma Urbe nostra constitutae sunt, quaeque Romani populi pietatem, atque illius in hanc Sedem Apostolicam fidei studiique constantiam praeclarissimo testimonio confirmant. Enimvero antequam Alma Urbs, Sedes Beati Petri ac Universi Catholici Orbis Caput in miserrimam et infelicem, in qua nunc est, conditionem sacrilegis armis nefariisque machinationibus redigeretur, iam contra impiorum hominum insidias et molitiones cum sodalitas ad pestiferam malorum librorum et ephemeridum lectionem amovendam, tum romana cohors catholicae luventutis, quae S. Petri circulus nominatur, constitutae fuerant. Capta autem urbe, nobis ipsis sub hostilem dominationem redactis, impietatis malitiaeque colluvie exundante, Romanorum civium pietas latius elucere coepit. Nam non modo memorati coetus novis veluti aucti viribus, sed aliae longe ampliores sive catholicis rebus provehendis, sive bonis operibus promovendis institutae sunt societates, nec minori cum laude initae et pia Catholicarum mulierum unio, et societas a praeliis pro Sancta Sede Apostolica pugnatis, et sodalitas a continuis supplicationibus, et coetus cultorum bonarum artium atque operariorum de mutua charitate, et Societas promovendae bonorum librorum diffusioni, et sodalitas a pio ancillarum patrocinio, quae omnes in bonum rei catholicae summo studio, sanctaque aemulatione allaborant, uberesque plane fructus iam contulerunt. Verum temperare nobis non possumus, quin piis huiusmodi societatibus amplissimis gratulemur verbis, quod hae consilio a societate ad quaecumque bona opera promovenda proposito ultro libenterque annuentes foedus, iniverint, quo unitate spiritus in vinculo pacis charitatisque servata, societates ipsae suo singulae instituto integre inhaerentes ad fidem defendendam, Ecclesiae iura asserenda eiusque libertatem vindicandam collatis consiliis et viribus conspirent. Hoc scilicet vinculo arctius inter se colligatae, ut primi credentes, quorum erat cor unum et anima una, contra adversariorum impetus terribiles, velut acies ordinata dimicare pergant. Porro ob magnam quam ex virium unione fidelibus et Ecclesiae universae nobis in tanta rerum perturbatione pollicemur utilitatem in Domino confidimus fore, ut ceterae societates omnes ubique, praesertim vero per Italiam institutae, quarum praecipuum est aerumnosis hisce temporibus qua supplicationibus ad Deum assiduis, qua recta et christiana adolescentium institutione, qua scriptis aliisve bonis cuiusque generis operibus perversae saeculi iniquitati pro virili parte occurrere et obsistere, concordibus animis unitisque viribus incedere satagant, Romanisque societatibus ad bonum certandum certamen et ipsae unico foedere iungantur. Hisce denique Litteris vehementer pias societates huiusmodi tum quae foedus iniere, tum quae iis erunt accessurae, tum fideles omnes hortamur et obsecramus, ut in hanc Sanctae Sedis petram, unicum salutis Pharum intueantur, eiusque infallibili obsequantur magisterio, sacrorumque Antistitibus gratiam et communionem eiusdem Sedis Apostolicae habentibus reverentiam et obedientiam exhibeant, utque non sua, sed quae Iesu Christi sunt, omnino quaerentes id unum summo studio et alacritate contendant ut fides nostra, quae vicit mundum integre atque inviolabiliter servetur, utque depulsis errorum tenebris, eversaque flagitiosorum hominum in Christi religionem praeliantium audacia, catholica Ecclesia triumphet. Nos pro certo et explorato habemus huiusmodi societates charitatis et pietatis vinculo studiosissime inter se devinctas id cumulate praestituras esse, atque in certam erigimur spem ut Deus respiciens ad filiorum suorum vota, lacrymas, ieiunia, eleemosynas et preces iram in misericordiam propitiatus convertat, et impii confiteri cogantur fideles Deum protectorem habere, et ob id ipsum inviolabiles esse.
Datum Romae apud S. Petrum sub annulo Piscatoris die XXIII Februarii 1872. Pontificatus nostri anno vicesimosexto.
CARD. PARACCIANI CLARELLI.
BULL OF ADRIAN THE FOURTH. THERE was a time when it would be little less than treason to question the genuineness of the Bull by which Pope Adrian IV. is supposed to have made a grant of Ireland to Henry the Second ; and, indeed, from the first half of the thirteenth to the close of the fifteenth century, it was principally through this supposed grant of the Holy See that the English Government sought to justify their claim to hold dominion in our island. However, opinions and times have changed, and at the present day this Bull of Adrian has as little bearing on the connection between England and this country as it could possibly have on the union of the Isle of Man with Great Britain.
On the other hand, many strange things have been said during the past months in the so-called nationalist journals whilst asserting the genuineness of this famous Bull. I need scarcely remark that it does not seem to have been the love either of our poor country or of historic truth that inspired their declamation. It proceeded mainly from their hatred to the Sovereign Pontiff, and from the vain hope that such exaggerated statements might in some way weaken the devoted affection of our people for Rome.
Laying aside such prejudiced opinions, the controversy as to the genuineness of Adrian's Bull should be viewed in a purely historical light, and its decision must depend on the value and weight of the historical arguments which may be advanced to sustain it.
The following is a literal translation of the old Latin text of Adrian's Bull :
“ Adrian, Bishop, servant of the servants of God, to our most dear Son in Christ, the illustrious King of the English, greeting and the Apostolical Benediction.
"The thoughts of your Highness are laudably and profitably
directed to the greater glory of your name on earth and to the increase of the reward of eternal happiness in heaven, when as a Catholic Prince you propose to yourself to extend the borders of the Church, to announce the truths of Christian Faith to ignorant and barbarous nations, and to root out the weeds of wickedness from the field of the Lord; and the more effectually to accomplish this, you implore the counsel and favor of the Apostolic See. In which matter we feel assured that the higher your aims are, and the more discreet your proceedings, the happier, with God's aid, will be the result; because those undertakings that proceed from the ardour of faith and the love of religion are sure always to have a prosperous end and issue.
“ It is beyond all doubt, as your Highness also doth acknowledge, that Ireland, and all the islands upon which Christ the Sun of Justice has shone, and which have received the knowledge of the Christian faith, are subject to the authority of St. Peter and of the most Holy Roman Church. Wherefore we are the more desirous to sow in them an acceptable seed and a plantation pleasing unto God, because we know that a most rigorous account of them shall be required of us hereafter.
Now, most dear Son in Christ, you have signified to us that you propose to enter the island of Ireland to establish the observance of law amongst its people, and to eradicate the weeds of vice; and that you are willing to pay from every house one penny as an annual tribute to St. Peter, and to preserve the rights of the churches of that land whole and inviolate. We, therefore, receiving with due favor your pious and laudable desires, and graciously granting our consent to your petition, declare that it is pleasing and acceptable to us, that for the purpose of enlarging the limits of the Church, setting bounds to the torrent of vice, reforming evil manners, planting the seeds of virtue, and increasing Christian faith, you should enter that island and carry into effect those things which belong to the service of God and to the salvation of that people ; and that the people of that land should honorably receive and reverence you as Lord ; the rights of the churches being preserved untouched and entire, and reserving the annual tribute of one penny from every house to St. Peter and the most Holy Roman Church.
“If, therefore, you resolve to carry these designs into execution, let it be your study to form that people to good morals, and take such orders both by yourself and by those whom you shall find qualified in faith, in words, and in conduct, that the Church there may be adorned, and the practices of Christian faith be planted and increased; and let all that tends
to the glory o God and the salvation of souls be so ordered by you that you may deserve to obtain from God an increase of everlasting reward, and may secure on earth a glorious name throughout all time. Given at Rome," &c.
Before we proceed with the inquiry as to the genuineness of this letter of Pope Adrian, I must detain the reader with a few brief preliminary remarks.
First: Some passages of this important document have been very unfairly dealt with by modern writers while purporting to discuss its merits. Thus, for instance, Professor Richey, in his “ Lectures on Irish History," presenting a translation of the Latin text to the lady pupils of the Alexandra College, makes the Pontiff to write : “You have signified to us, our well-beloved son in Christ, that you propose to enter the island of Ireland in order to subdue the people, &c.
We, therefore, regarding your pious and laudable design with due favor, &c., do hereby declare our will and pleasure, that for the purpose of enlarging the borders of the Church, &c., you do enter and take possession of that island."'l Such an erroneous translation must be the more blamed in the present instance, as it was scarcely to be expected that the ladies whom the learned lecturer addressed would have leisure to consult the original Latin text of the document which he professed to translate. This, however, is not the only error into which Professor Richey has been betrayed regarding the Bull of Adrian IV. Having mentioned in a note the statement of Roger de Wendover, that the Bull was obtained from Pope Adrian in the year 1155, he adds his own opinion that "the grant appears to have been made in 1172." However, at that date, Pope Adrian had been for about thirteen years freed from the cares of his Pontificate, having passed to a better world in the year 1159.
Second : Any one who attentively weighs the words of the above document will see at once that it prescinds from all title of conquest, whilst at the same time it makes no gift or transfer of dominion to Henry the Second. As far as this letter of Adrian is concerned, the visit of Henry to our island might be the enterprise of a friendly monarch, who, at the invitation of a distracted state, would seek by his presence to restore peace, and to uphold the observance of the laws. Thus, those foolish theories must at once be set aside, which rest on the groundless supposition that Pope Adrian authorized the invasion and plunder of our people by the Anglo-Norman adventurers.
1 " Lectures on the History of Ireland," by A. G. Richey, Esq., delivered to the pupils of the Alexandra College during the Hilary and Easter Terms of 1869. Dublin, 1869, pages 122, 123.
• Ibid. page 121.