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test which ensued in the broken mountainous defiles of the Sierra Madre of Mexico none of the white troops were used. Their endurance and rapidity of action are superior to that of white men, for they literally crawl in the grass like snakes, and creep and dodge through the rocks like squirrels in the branches of trees in their densest foliage.

Portraits of some of their most famous scouts are given. Nat-tzuck-ei-eh, a Chiricahua squaw, was one of the most important against her own tribe in the campaign into Mexico just alluded to. Even before the main command had started she departed alone and on foot to determine the whereabouts of the hostiles in the fastnesses of the Sierra Madre mountains. On this trip she was absent for about six weeks, unceasingly prosecuting her object. A Chiricahua herself, it was evidently her intention to gain the Indian camp, claim that she had been captured by and escaped from the whites, find out all that she could, and then at the first favorable opportunity prove traitor to her tribe. Treachery is a distinguishing feature of the American Indian, but it is almost wholly a trait turned to account against the enemies of the tribe. Even the lowest Digger Indian has some faint conception of honor in his tribal relations in war, and among some it compares well with, if not exceeding, that among civilized nations, but the Apache seems to have absolutely none.

The painstaking labor to which they will go to emphasize their cruel treachery seems almost fiendish in the extreme. "Way back in the 50's" an emigrant family, winding its toilsome way through the burning desert of the Gila valley, on the road to California, found themselves, with an exhausted team, at the bottom of a steep hill, up which they vainly essayed to ascend. A band of Tontos Apaches, bent on some fiendish foray, passing that way, came upon the scene and at once willingly offered their services to carry their effects to the top of the hill. Not only did they do this, but the empty wagon was spared to the exhausted horses and hauled up by hand. This wonderful act of kindness was terminated by the massacre of the owners on the crest of the mesa, while all unawares they were reloading their wagon, the only object of their pretended


friendship being undoubtedly to secure this condition of apparent safety. I visited this spot over a decade later, and some four or five whitewashed head-boards, encircled by a neat fence of native mezquite brush, kindly placed there by some frontiersmen, were not only monuments to the dead, but to as foul a piece of treachery as was ever perpetrated by one of the most savage tribes. It will be seen that Nat-tzuck-ei-eh's nose



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has been somewhat abbreviated, an old mode of punishment among them for the highest order of marital infelicity that has been stopped by the authorities along with other cruel punishments. In virtue and modesty the eastern Apaches compare favorably with the best of Indians, but unfortunately the same cannot be said of the western tribes.

The most important scout in the campaign noted above was one T'zoe, whose translated



name is said to grazing-grounds for their goats. An incline mean Peaches," would have been as good, and would have at least he was cost no such immense outlay of labor in buildknown by this lat- ing the retaining walls. In many places through ter name among these rude structures had protruded the large the white people pines of the country, some of which were two of Arizona. T'zoe to three feet, or even more, in diameter. had long been held Everywhere, often in no small quantities, in distrust by his could be found their pottery, huge stone tribe, and he de- mortars for grinding corn (called me-tates in serted them in or- the vernacular of the country), and stone imder to save his life, plements of war, and axes and hatchets. Under which, from their low mutterings and half- the overhanging cliffs were found caves that had concealed threats, he believed to be in dan- once been inhabited, one series of apartments ger, knowing right well the Indian character, having no less than twenty-two rooms. Over that they waste no time in hearing the argu- one of these rooms was a large granary, capaments of the one fully accused. Going to ble of holding many bushels of grain. Here the nearest agency, the San Carlos, was a were corn-cobs, showing great age, mixed jump "from the frying-pan into the fire," with pottery and stone axes. On the walls of as he was immediately imprisoned, tried, and sentenced to death. The general revolt of his tribe, however, made him more useful to the Government as a guide than as a corpse, and he was spared the latter alternative by accepting the former, and right well did he do his work. It seemed singularly dramatic that this forced outcast of the tribe, compelled to flee for his life to a place where life was not even sure, should in so short a time be leading back into their mountain stronghold an army of his kith and kin that stretched a third of their warriors over the pinnacled field.


While General Crook was in the Sierra Madre mountains on this campaign after the Chiricahuas, many never before imagined sites of ancient races were discovered, and in such vast extent as to be almost bewildering in magnitude. There seemed to be a series of colossal steps or terraces made by man, the lowest of which, near the streams, was evidently inhabited by these crude and ancient people. On the tops of these hills or mountains, around whose sides the steps or terraces appeared, and apparently independent of them, were immense and extremely effective fortifications for the rude weapons they then must have had, a sort of rallying point of defense for the people living near the streams. Why these terraces, between the stream where they dwelt and overlooking fortifications where they probably fled in danger, should have been constructed it seems hard to conjecture, unless it is possible that they lived near a constantly hostile and active enemy of which they had the greatest fear, and these, although for protection, were their garden-plats or limited



these rooms were hieroglyphics and pictured representations, none of which were copied or secured. It seems not unreasonable to argue from their cheerless homes and mighty fortifications that this was an inferior race of people in the age in which they lived. Even the Apaches who have made these labyrinths of lava their hiding-places superstitiously avoid these old ruins, and perchance this very fact may have saved to science valuable archæological matter when the time comes for the investigation of these strange ancients.

Superstitions are shown in their dress and ornaments, or rather in the charms which adorn and compose these. The medicine jacket and belt are common to the whole Apache family, and are about the counterpart of similar dresses so common with savages. From the head of the


Chiricahua hangs a single buckskin string about two inches wide and as many feet in length, its upper end braided in the hair. This is ornamented with all the different pieces of shells they can obtain, and for which they seem to have a reverence, while beads and ornaments of silver and other metals help to cover it with an almost solid coating of decorations.

their play is one of hazard, in the excitement their horses, rifles, and even the shirts on their backs, changing ownership.

Maidens may be distinguished from matrons by the peculiar arrangement of their hair, the former wearing what in their language is called a nah-leen (nah-leen strictly interpreted is maiden). It is flat and of a beaver-tail dumbbell shape, covered with red, and closely studded with gilt buttons, if procurable, the hair being tied up with this to prevent its flowing over the shoulders as with married squaws. In general, it may be said that the eastern tribes, Sierras Blancas and Chiricahuas, are far finer in dress than those of the western parts, the Yumas and Mojaves, the intermediate tribes of San Carlos and Tontos being also intermediate in dress. Still farther to the east in New Mexico are the Mezcalero and Coyotero Apaches, also very ornamental in dress, but in other respects beyond the ken of this article in their now quiet isolation.

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The war-dress of these warm-weather warriors, when actually in a campaign, is not so resplendent in buckskin and beads, nor is it so warm. A gorgeous bonnet of three hawk feathers is about the only display, and the rest has a sort of simplicity known only in the Garden of Eden. An old weapon with them was a heavy round stone at the end of a short stick, the two being wrapped and joined in a common case of rawhide taken from the tail of a horse or ox so as to be continuous and seamless. This was used like a policeman's club, and has its counterpart in the Sioux "skullsmasher," a word which describes it at once. The wild Chiricahuas used the lance, and do some good work with it in a decisive fight. Even the armed warriors use it in killing cattle and stolen stock to save their ammunition thereby, while some of the most horrible tortures practiced on their captives by these fiends are inflicted by this instrument. With the introduction of fire-arms into their warfare fell the shield into disuse. It was a gaudy appendage of the primitive savage, but it exists among the Apaches only as a relic for which they can obtain so much money from the curiosity seeker. They care but little for money, how ever, except to appease a craving for gambling, or to meet immediate wants.

They are behind no other savages in their love for the allurements of gambling, and use all sorts of implements, from the most intricate games of cards to the simple throwing of sticks and hoops, and in nearly all of these games

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From sunset till sunrise can be heard the beating of their drums and tom-toms, and night after night is it kept up. Old squaws and young children dance until they can stand no longer, and cease from exhaustion and fatigue; a cessation of but a few minutes and they are up and at it again. Their medicine dances take place in cases of sickness and distress, to drive away bad spirits or keep them from doing harm. In these the squaws are never allowed to take a part, but in peace, weddings, and feast dances, young and old of both sexes form a conspicuous part. The "corn dance," to make that plant productive, is also a monopoly of the medicine-men, while besides all these there exists the war, the conqueror's, and the chiefs' dances, varying in type through all the possible motions and gesticulations of the human body.

The ages which some of them reach appear surprising, considering their rough mode of life in the past, which seems sufficient to end it rapidly when the physical powers begin to fail. Got-ha, a Sierra Blanca, a once famous warrior of their tribe, is probably eighty or ninety years of age, and seems hale and hearty



picked off like squirrels in
a tree. Cochise died some
nine or ten years ago a natural
death, a singular ending for
one who had been so active
in the trade of death. How-
ever much they may have
hated him in that frontier land,
even their legislature honored
him with a conspicuous county,
showing that their hatredcould
not conscientiously descend into contempt.


After Cochise came Victorio, whose fate has been noted. Then Nana led them for a brief period of time, and then came Nachez, son of Cochise, who rules the Chiricahua band. Juh (pronounced Hoo) was a noted leader, and met his death in a way that was scarcely heroic. Blindly drunk with mezcal, he attempted to ride from a Mexican town to his village, his head buried in his hands, and his elbows and the responsibility of getting home resting on the pony's shoulders. As they crossed a shallow stream, the horse, believing it was his turn, leaned forward for a drink, and Juh was precipitated into the water, and there, with his face in that kind of liquor that he had not followed closely enough in his life, he was drowned.

yet. Could this old sage of the sandy deserts concentrate the salient points of his life into a volume, it would rival the tales of Daniel Boone or Kit Carson. Age, however, finds only a place in their councils of peace, and young blood rules in times of war, unless some mighty chief, with a record of battles that none can gainsay, bears all before him even in his age. It is a keen appreciation of the eternal fitness of things that has helped them in no small way to hold for so long the mastery of the South-west in peace and in war. One mighty chief of theirs was Cochise, a household word in the literature of Indian depredations. A Chiricahua himself, his success was sufficient to join many bands under his rule, and especially those renegados so common in all Indian warfares and so numerous in every band who will join every revolt without regard to tribe or cause, if the revolt only promise booty and that bloody excitement which their nature craves. For years he was the terror of all in Arizona, and for a long period before his own tribes could be turned against him the sum total of his battles placed him plainly ahead. For savage strategy and barbaric grand tactics he will always be a mark in the annals of Indian warfare, and will be better known as this country set--and nowhere brilltles up to that extent that iant, it is hard to it will demand a history speak further of him of its own. Cochise brave- in a contracted artily acknowledged he was cle. Geronimo, said to be a captured Mexican out-generaled once. A youth, might be styled the Daniel Webster of military train of a score the Apache Senate. His advice was always of wagons, guarded ap- sought on every particular matter of state, parently by only a small and his influence therein was equaled by few platoon of cavalry, bore before his incarceration in a Florida prison, down through Apache as the result of the latest and one of the Pass, where Cochise had greatest outbreaks under him, which ended some two or three hun- with his surrender. dred warriors in waiting, and their eyes glistened with delight as they looked at the chance of an easy capture of the hard bread, molasses, sugar, and tobacco on which they might revel for weeks. They made one wild yelling charge on the train from every quarter, when, instead of savage luxuries, there came from each wagon a blinding, crashing volley from nearly a score of well-armed infantrymen. Cochise's warriors were sent flying back like surf, and, as they fled up the steep sides of the cañon, were



Loco is an important chief, he being at one time a medicineman. In a career uniformly good-as savages judge careers



Chato, Bonito, Chihuahua, Mangas, and Zele form the lesser lights in this list of leaders.

Railroads run their double bands of iron through their deserts, mines pour their ores from the sheltering sides of their mountain homes, an inexorable decree has cramped them to a corner of their country, where they now wrest a living from the soil they once trod as masters, and it may be well said that the Apache sun is near the horizon of their national destiny.

Frederick Schwatka.



N this lone mound of legend, heaped by I dream. Below me wrath and ruin are. hands England's ally there shook down Philip's fleet.

That have been still from immemorial years, Above their mythic chief, whose vassal lands

Forget his name,-so long forgot by tears,

Here sings a young bird like some morning star. The old song's sorrow makes the new song sweet.

Sarah M. B. Piatt.


T is now forty years and over since I was a schoolboy at Tarrytown, and when I revisited the place not long ago I was not surprised to find it somewhat altered. The changes I remarked were, however, only such as might have been looked for in a town so prettily situated and so near New York; and I was pleased to find that the memory of Washington Irving had restrained the hand of improvement from destroying the few objects to which his writings have given an interest, as well as from defacing the sites which tradition or popular imagination has identified with the scenes of his delightful legend. Sleepy Hollow is still very much the same lazy country road it was in the old days when we school-boys wandered along it in the summer afternoons picking blackberries from the wayside vines. Following the turnpike-road down the hill, we come to Beekman's mill-pond; and crossing the pretty stream, the Pocantico, on the bridge over which Ichabod galloped, pursued in his mad flight by the headless horseman, we reach the old Dutch church, surrounded by the graves of many generations- those of the earlier settlers clustering thickly about the church itself, while the newer graves people the rising ground toward the north.

It is in this newer portion of the cemetery that Washington Irving lies. His grave is in the middle of a large plot purchased by him in 1853, six years before his death. The stone that marks his grave is a plain slab of white marble on which are engraved his name and date alone, without any memorial inscription. The path that leads to the entrance-gate of the plot is so worn by the feet of visitors that a stranger hardly needs to ask his way to the place.

I confess I heard not without a secret pleasure that the relic-hunters so chip and hammer the stone that marks Irving's grave as to make its frequent renewal necessary. It


did not seem to me a grievous wrong, nor in any true sense a profanation of the grave, but rather a testimony to the lovableness of Irving's character, and an evidence of the wide extent of his fame, that, from filling the circle of the educated and refined among his countrymen, has now come to include that lower stratum of our common humanity which has only instinctive and, so to speak, mechanical ways of expressing its feelings. Who is so insensible to the good opinion of his kind as not to think such a trodden path as this that leads to Irving's grave better than any written line of praise, and the very destruction of his monument, by this reprehensible clipping and chipping, a more enduring testimony to his work than any monument of brass!

It would not have been easy to find a place more in harmony with the associations that gather about Irving's name as a writer than the spot in which he is buried. Even to-day, with all the changes that have been brought about by the growth of the neighboring settlement, the spirit of peace and quiet that used to brood over the region hovers there undisturbed. Irving's own words, in the "Legend of Sleepy Hollow," describing the grave-yard, the old church, and the stream that plays about its feet, reflect with the faithfulness of a mirror the scene as we behold it to-day.

Here is the church, a small building with rough sides of the country-stone, surmounted by a picturesque roof, and with an open bell-turret over which still veers the vane pierced with the initials of the Vrederick Felypsen who built the church and endowed it in 1699. In our rambles about the grave-yard we used to find the bricks of light-colored clay, brought from Holland, and of which, so tradition said, the church had been originally built, or which had, at any rate, been largely used in its construction.

The church was seldom used, except in the summer-time. On communion Sundays the handsome seventeenth-century Jacobean table of oak brought from Holland, where plenty like it may still be found, was set out, as it is to-day, with the plain vessels of silver "pre

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