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of the negroes on that occasion was uncommonly simple and modest. There was not the least disposition to gaiety. Throughout the island there was not a single dance known of, either day or night, nor so much as a fiddle played.”
On the next Monday morning, with very few exceptions, every negro on evey plantation was in the field at his work. In some places they waited to see their master, to know what bargain he would make; but, for the most part, throughout the island nothing painful occurred. In June, 1835, the ministers, Lord Aberdeen and Sir George Gray, declared to the Parliament that the system worked well; that now for ten months, from 1st August, 1834, no injury or violence had been offered to any white, and only one black had been hurt in 800,000 negroes: and, contrary to many sinister predictions, that the new crop of island produce would not fall short of that of the last year.
But the habit of oppression was not destroyed by a law and a day of jubilee. It soon appeared in all the islands, that the planters were disposed to use their old privileges, and overwork the apprentices; to take from them, under various pretences, their fourth part of their time, and to exert the same licentious despotism as before. The negroes complained to the magistrates and to the governor. In the island of Jamaica this ill blood continually grew worse. The governors, Lord Belmore, the Earl of Sligo, and afterwards Sir Lionel Smith (a governor of their own class, who had been sent out to gratify the planters), threw themselves on the side of the oppressed, and are at constant quarrel with the angry and bilious island legislature. Nothing can exceed the ill humor and sulkiness of the addresses of this assembly.
I may here express a general remark, which the history of slavery seems to justify, that it is not founded solely on the avarice of the planter. We sometimes say the planter does not want slaves, he only wants the immunities and luxuries which the slaves yield him; give him money, give him a machine that will yield him as much money as the slaves, and he will thankfully let them go. He has no love of slavery; he wants luxury, and he will pay even this price of crime and danger for it. But I think experience does not warrant this favorable distinction, but shows the existence, beside the covetousness, of a bitterer element, the love of power, the voluptuousness of holding a human being in his absolute control. We sometimes observe that spoiled children contract
a habit of annoying quite wantonly those who have charge of them, and seem to measure their own sense of well-being, not by what they do, but by the degree of reaction they can cause. It is vain to get rid of them by not minding them: if purring and humming is not noticed, they squeal and screech; then if you chide and console them, they find the experiment succeeds, and they begin again. The child will sit in your arms contented, provided you do nothing. If you take a book and read, he commences hostile operations. The planter is the spoiled child of his unnatural habits, and has contracted in his indolent and luxurious climate the need of excitement by irritating and tormenting his slave.
Sir Lionel Smith defended the poor negro girls, prey to the licentiousness of the planters; they shall not be whipped with tamarind rods, if they do not comply with their master's will; he defended the negro women; they should not be made to dig the cane-holes (which is the very hardest of the field-work); he defended the Baptist preachers and the stipendiary magistrates, who are the negroes' friends, from the power of the planter. The power of the planters, however, to oppress, was greater than the power of the apprentice and of his guardians to withstand. Lord Brougham and Mr. Buxton declared that the planter had not fulfilled his part in the contract, whilst the apprentices had fulfilled theirs, and demanded that the emancipation should be hastened, and the apprenticeship abolished. Parliament was compelled to pass additional laws for the defence and security of the negro, and in ill humor at these acts, the great island of Jamaica, with a population of half a million, and 300,000 negroes, early in 1838, resolved to throw up the two remaining years of apprenticeship, and to emancipate absolutely on, the 1st August, 1838. In British Guiana, in Dominica, the same resolution had been earlier taken with more good will; and the other islands fell into the measure; so that on the 1st August, 1838, the shackles dropped from every British Slave. The accounts which we have from all parties, both from the planters and those too who were originally most opposed to the measure, and from the new freemen, are of the most satisfactory kind. The manner in which the new festival was celebrated brings tears to the eyes. The First of August, 1838, was observed in Jamaica as a day of thanksgiving and prayer. Sir Lionel Smith, the governor, writes to the British Ministry: "It is impossible for me to do justice to the good order, decorum and
gratitude which the whole laboring population manifested on that happy occasion. Though joy beamed on every countenance, it was throughout tempered with solemn thankfulness to God, and the churches and chapels were everywhere filled with these happy people in humble offering of praise."
The Queen, in her speech to the Lords and Commons, praised the conduct of the emancipated population: and, in 1840, Sir Charles Metcalfe, the new Governor of Jamaica, in his address to the Assembly, expressed himself to that late exasperated body in these terms: "All those who are acquainted with the state of the island, know that our emancipated population are as free, as independent in their conduct, as well conditioned, as much in the enjoyment of abundance, and as strongly sensible of the blessings of liberty, as any that we know of in any country. All disqualifications and distinctions of color have ceased; men of all colors have equal rights in law, and an equal footing in society, and every man's position is settled by the same circumstance which regulate that point in other free countries, where no difference of color exists. It may be asserted without fear of denial, that the former slaves of Jamaica are now as secure in all social rights as freeborn Britons." He further describes the erection of numerous churches, chapels and schools, which the new population required, and adds that more are still demanded. The legislature, in their reply, echo the governor's statement, and say, "The peaceful demeanor of the emancipated population redounds to their own credit, and affords a proof of their continued comfort and prosperity."
[To be concluded.]
MEN in the first rank to be classed
Grow wise and learn fast;
Men in the class that's next below
Grow wise, but learn slow;
The heart that gave them birth, to woe
THE MORAL DIAGNOSIS OF DISEASE.
BY A PENITENT INVALID.
MANI says, The populousness of my body is the solitude of my soul.
The Body stood very much in the way of the old Oriental philosophies and speculations. The teachers generally agree to locate therein the Order of the Hells. Plotinus affirmed that he was ashamed of his body, and even Plato seems to think that no man could love his body and the gods too. The idea was, that the head was the man, and was, originally, the only thing; it rolled along on the earth. Afterward the body was built, that this Observatory with the Telescope swung in it might have a higher point of prospect, and might be better protected. So the body was only wall, stairway and roof for the man. The animosity which arose against it was owing to the fact that instead of the body's devoting itself to the soul, the soul had to take up all its time in attending this usurping body. Paul evidently shared this animosity, and speaks of beating his body black and blue (¿ñoñìašoμai) to keep it in subjection.
Before the clear vision of Mani those prison-walls, so grey and hard to others, became thin air, through which the spirit might at any time wing its way with ease. He saw the high uses of his bodily functions: they were not to multiply his cares and complicate his earthly relations,-they were to relieve him of them. In health the Soul can sit in solitude, forgetting the outside world. Has she not hundreds of messengers and domestics running up and down the myriad paths of the system, attending to the lower cares and wants? Has the king a trustworthy cabinet, faithful ministers, invincible soldiers, a watchful body-guard,-then may he rest at ease in his palace. But how can a man think who has a toothache? How can a man forget his body in any ecstacy who has the asthma ?