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Winnipeg are drained Rainy Lake, and Lake of the Woods, along the S. shores of which the U.S. boundary runs; the North Red River, and the Assiniboine, which unite at Fort Garry. On the banks of these rivers and lakes, the Red River Settlement was established, now the Province of MANITOBA. Into the E. side of Lake Winnipeg is drained Lake Manitoba and Lake Winnipegos.

(3.) SEVERN, at the mouth of which is Severn Fort. This river, by a bifurcation from Lake Berens, is connected with the S. side of Lake Winnipeg.

Other rivers into the part of Hudson Bay called James Bay are Albany (with Albany Fort), Moose, Rupert (giving its name to RUPERT LAND), (with Rupert House), East Main (giving its name to the country E. of Hudson Bay), (with East Main Factory). Farther W. are the Great and Little Whale Rivers. All the rivers drain lakes, and have upon their banks a few settlements of the servants of the Hudson Bay Company, called Forts, Houses, Factories, &c., according to their size and importance.


The river of this slope is the

MACKENZIE (2160), (named after the traveller Mackenzie, who first discovered it), which rises under the name Athabasca, or La Biche river, on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in the neighbourhood of the great summits Hooker and Brown, and not far from the sources of the Fraser and Columbia. This point, the Committee Pass, as it is called, offers a choice of railway route into British Columbia either by the Miette into the Fraser valley, or by the Elk into the Columbia valley. The Athabasca takes the drainage of the Lesser Slave Lake, and falls into the W. end of the ATHABASCA Lake. By means of a bifurcation from Buffalo Lake, it is connected with the Churchill Missinnippi or English River, the second connection with that river. Into the W. end of Athabasca Lake flows also the Peace River, which also rises on the west of the Rocky Mountains in the Peak range, near the Fraser. Its branch, the Finlay, rises near the Simpson.

From Athabasca flows the Slave River into the GREAT SLAVE LAKE, on the shores of which are Forts Resolution, Reliance, and Providence, names from which we may gather some idea of the country surrounding those inhospitable shores. From the west end of the Great Slave Lake flows the Mackenzie proper northwards towards the Arctic. At Fort

Simpson it receives on the left bank the Au Liards from the Stekin country W. of the Rocky range. A little N. of Fort Norman it receives the Bear River, which drains the GREAT BEAR LAKE. Into the streams forming the delta empties the Peel River, and finally the stream makes its way when it can into Mackenzie Bay, and so to the Arctic Ocean. The subsoil in a large part of its valley is permanently frozen. The Indians, Chippewayans, Copper, Dog Rib, &c., and the Esquimaux, find a precarious subsistence in hunting and fishing, and with the peltry they purchase from the servants of the Hudson Bay Company guns, ammunition, fish-hooks and tackle, tobacco, and unfortunately, too, ardent spirits. The fire-water, as it is called, is year by year thinning the ranks of the red men. From civilisation he appears to take only the vices, which will soon improve him off the earth.


(1.) SIMPSON, or Skeena, which rises in the Peak Mountains, its sources interlacing with those of the Finlay, Peace, and Stuart. It drains many lakes.

(2.) FRASER (450), the river of British Columbia. It rises near the Athabasca, and flows first W., then S., and finally N. into the Gulf of Georgia. Its tributaries are, on the right bank, the Stuart, Chilcoaten, and Harrison, all rivers of lakes; on the left, the Quesnel and Thompson or Shoushwap, also draining numerous beautiful lakes, surrounded with forests and abounding in fish. The Thompson valley is the gold-field of 1858. The main stream is a succession of lakes, waterfalls, and rapids.

(3.) COLUMBIA (1000). The upper course of the Columbia and its tributary the Kotani are in the colony. Its sources are near those of the Fraser, Athabasca, and Saskatchewan. Between the Upper Fraser and Quesnel is the CARIBOU goldfield.



Over such an immense area as British North America there are, of course, great varieties of climate. Though marked by great severity, the climate is healthy. The student must first master certain great facts.

(a.) The whole country S. of the Great Bear Lake is in the region of variable winds and precipitation.

(b.) The Isothermal lines of mean annual temperature are (1) much lower than in England and West Europe, and (2) higher on the W. coast of America than on the E. This may probably be

accounted for by the North Polar Current, which brings icebergs to the S. of Newfoundland, and by meeting the warm Gulf Stream, accounts for the FOGS prevalent on the Bank there. The line of 45° F. passes through S. Petersburg, Drontheim, Mid-Iceland, S. John Newfoundland, Quebec, Sault S. Marie, and then bends gradually N. to New Archangel on Sitka Island. The isotherms of January exaggerate the above law, while those of July are higher in the middle of the continent than on either coast, a fact which the student will be able to explain.

(c.) A small part of the seaboard of British Columbia has an Insular climate, i.e., the difference between the January and July temperature is less than 30°. Labrador, Quebec (province), Ontario, and British Columbia have a Continental climate, i.e., the difference is between 30° and 60°; and the vast remainder has an Extreme climate, i.e., the difference is more than 60°. Mercury has been known to freeze over the whole area. In the Melville Islands it is frozen during five months of the year. The minimum of cold in winter has been recorded at Fort Reliance, on the E. end of the Slave Lake, viz., 56°.7 C. or--70° F. The difference between the extremes is 104° C. or 187°.2 F. The winter temperature of Nain in Labrador is 28°; of Cumberland House, on the united Saskatchewan, 44°; and of Sitka, 4°. A curve drawn through Nain, Fort George on James Bay, Wollaston Lake, and Fort Liard, would include permanently frozen subsoil.*


(From the "Observations" in the "Emigration Circular.")

1. Nova Scotia has an agreeable and extremely healthy climate, warmer in summer and colder in winter than England. Winter a month shorter than in Canada. Highest summer temperature 86°; lowest winter, zero. Prince Edward Island resembles Nova Scotia, but has no fogs. Owing to the Gulf Stream, its harbours are seldom icebound in winter.


2. New Brunswick has a healthy climate. Fog prevails on the shores of the Bay of Fundy. The interior is warmer in summer and colder in winter from known causes. The range of temperature at S. John is 15° below to 88° above zero; at Frederickton, 20° to 95°. Snow generally remains on the ground from Christmas to the end of March. severe frosts penetrate so deep into the ground that the particles of soil are separated from each other to a considerable depth, and thus, when the thaw commences, scarcely any ploughing is required. On this account root crops thrive wonderfully. The average rainfall is 40 inches; snowfall 75 inches. In England 9 inches snow melt into 1 inch water; in New Brunswick 17 inches; which shows that the American snow is twice as light as the English.

3. Quebec is said to be the most healthy province. The extreme dryness of the air is shown by the tin roofs of the houses remaining bright so long. The long winter has many compensations. Snow roads afford great facilities for conveying produce to market, manure to fields, and timber to rivers. The steadiness and uniformity of . summer heat causes all grains and fruits to ripen with certainty.

* The Centigrade is the French scale: 100° C. 180° F.; 0° C.

-320 F.

4. Ontario.--Snow falls early in December and remains until the middle of March. Harvest-time and November weather correspond very much to English. The mean annual temperature of Toronto is 44°, that of January 23°, July 67°; rain and snow 36 inches.

5. Manitoba has a more continental climate than Ontario.

6. North-West Territory has an extreme climate. The summer is short and very hot, and the winter extremely cold.

7. British Columbia has an excellent climate, and has been compared in this respect with the milder parts of England and the south of France. The weather is steadier, less changeable, and milder than in England. Winter is rainy rather than snowy. East of the Cascade range the climate is very different from that of the coast districts. The winter begins in October and lasts till April, the thermometer varying from 10° above to 20° below zero. From 7 to 10 feet of snow falls in January. The maximum in air at New Westminster in 1865, on the 29th of July, was 87.5°, and the minimum, on the 8th of February, 15°. The minimum on grass, on the 18th of December, was 18°. The average rainfall is 41 inches.

8. Newfoundland. The mean temperature for the year is 44°. Quantity of rain and melted snow from 50 to 70 inches. In 1862 rain fell on 98 days, snow on 44, fog 70; thunder and lightning occurred on 4; the harbour of S. John was ice-blocked from midApril to mid-June. Maximum thermometer 83°, minimum 14°. Average temperature of summer and winter quarters

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The picturesque beauties and general delightsomeness of the Indian summer, as it is called, in October, and the winter delights of sleighing, &c., must not be forgotten.

The following is an official account of the climate:-"The climate of Canada is more misconceived abroad than any other fact pertaining to the country. Perfectly absurd ideas prevail respecting the rigours of Canadian winters. It is true the character of the winters is decided, and snow, in many parts, covers the ground to the depth of two or three feet. But there are great advantages in this. The snow is perfectly dry and packs under foot, making the best roads, and forming a warm covering for the earth. The dry winter atmosphere is bracing and pleasant. The sun shines brightly by day, and the moon and stars by night, during by far the greatest part of the time. And besides being pleasant, there is no healthier climate under the sun. The sensation of cold is far more unpleasant during the damp days (such as mark the winters in England) than when the winter regularly sets in.

"The summers, like the winters, are also of decided character, being in the main warm and bright; and fruits and vegetables which cannot be ripened in the open air in England will here ripen to perfection. And the grand fact is that they are much more favourable for

the horticulturist and the agriculturist than those of England; with the single exception of length of time in which out-door work can be done."


1. British America may be divided into three botanical regions :(a.) The southern region, including the country S. of a line through the S. end of James Bay and the source of the Fraser, which is the Northern Limit of Fruit Trees. This is the region of European Trees and Cereals.

(b.) The middle region, S. of a line through Fort Nain and Forts Churchill, Reliance, and Franklin, which is the Northern Limit of Forest Trees. This is the region of Coniferous Trees and Edible Berries.

(c.) The remainder of the mainland and the islands is the region of Moses and Lichens. The Northern Limit of the Vine includes the peninsula between Huron and Erie. The northern limit of barley, rye, oats, and the potato passes through Hope Dale, Fort Severn, and the Lesser Slave Lake.

2. By far the most important productions are TIMBER, CEREALS, potatoes, and other root-crops. The cereals include, besides those grown in England, buckwheat and maize or Indian-corn. The extent of good agricultural land in the different provinces actually surveyed and divided off into portions of about 200 acres, includes many millions of acres, and there are immense tracts unsurveyed. Between 1841 and 1851 the agricultural produce of Canada was nearly doubled. Total value in 1851, £9,000,000. In 1859 the wheat crop alone was estimated at 25,000,000 bushels worth £4,500,000. The most fertile soil appears to be in Ontario (wheat yields 60 bushels per acre), where special efforts are being made by the Government to increase the population between Georgian Bay and the Upper Ottawa. Lands have been surveyed, colonisation roads made, railways projected, and in some cases log-houses erected on estates, the purchase money of which may be repaid by instalments. Indian-corn grows best in Quebec. Manitoba produces excellent cereals, as well as flax, hemp, and root-crops.

3. TIMBER is usually divided into two classes-pine and hardwood. The chief pines are red and white. Hardwood includes, besides all the ordinary English forest trees, which grow to a very large size, the sugar-maple, &c. Probably for some years to come the LUMBER and other forest produce (in which must be included, besides timber and bark, pot and pearl ash, &c.), will rank first among the riches of the Dominion. If we mention fuel, houses, roads, besides timber exported to the value of $22,500,000, as derived from the forests, the student will see reason for the remark. In the

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