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province of Quebec are 103,000,000 acres of unsurveyed forest. In the Ottawa valley, the chief seat of the Lumber Trade, 1,500,000 acres have been surveyed, and are offered for sale at 1s. 3d. per acre.

§ 3. ANIMAL PRODUCTIONS.

1. Animal produce ranks next after forest as a great source of Dominion wealth. We are to understand by animal produce-(a.) Produce of domestic animals; (b.) Furs, &c., of wild animals; (c.) Fish, both salt water and fresh. Reindeer and the Esquimaux dog are characteristic of the northern parts. The Northern Limit of the Ox passes through Forts Nain, Churchill, and Good Hope. Many wild animals may be mentioned - Arctic fox (north islands), musk ox (islands and north shore), beaver (Winnipeg district), American bison (Saskatchewan plains), American wolf and grizzly bear (western mountains), walrus (Hudson Bay), moose deer (Labrador), puma (great lake region), seals (Newfoundland and western coasts), narwhal and other whales (Davis Strait and Baffin Bay).

2. The humming-bird is found in Columbia. Various species of seafowl, gull, petrel, tern, plover, goose, duck, ptarmigan, grouse, snowbird, reach the highest latitudes. Of fish, various species of SALMON and TROUT are found abundantly in the perfect labyrinth of rivers and lakes over the whole country. Dried salmon is extensively exported from Columbia. Pike abounds in the great lakes, COD, HERRING, pilchard, mackerel, abound on the coasts, and form one of the chief branches of wealth and industry on the east coast. The shallow coast waters abound with lobsters, which are sold in Halifax market at 1s. a dozen. Game is abundant, and there are no "game laws."

3. Manitoba, in its great extent of unoccupied land, affording wide ranges of pasture, offers exceptional facilities for cattle-raising and sheep-feeding.

The chief fur-bearing animals, caught by Indians, Esquimaux, and the servants of the Hudson Bay Company, are bears (black, brown, and grizzly), beaver, badger, foxes (silver, cross, and red), fishers, martens, minks, lynxes (grey and spotted), musquash, otters (sea and land), panthers, racoons, wolves (black and grey), wolverines, SABLE, SEAL, ERMINE, deer, elk, &c.

§ 4. MINERAL PRODUCTIONS.

The mining industry is the fourth in order of importance:-(1.) Forest; (2.) Animal; (3.) Fish. The characteristic productions of British America are GOLD, COAL, and COPPER, though silver, lead, marble, and building-stone are also found. Gold is found in British Columbia and Nova Scotia; and copper is extensively deported north of Lake Superior and on the northern coasts (Coppermine River). ~ Probably this last will, for climatic reasons,

never be utilised; but the Union Pacific Railway will open up the first.

1. Nova Scotia possesses vast mineral resources. Coal, iron, gold, copper, lead, and tin have been found. Coal is obtained from Cape Breton, and in the carboniferous forma tions of Pictou, and extensively exported. The total yield in 1870 was about 626,000 tons.

Gold is found to the amount of $1,000,000 annually. There are thirteen auriferous districts, of which the three richest are Waverley, Sherbrooke, and Wine Harbour. The estimated yield for 1867 was 67,000 oz. In 1868 upwards of thirty new companies were started for mining purposes. The total yield in 1870 was about 20,000 oz.

Iron of excellent quality is smelted at Londonderry.
Building-Stone of all kinds is abundant.

The mineral resources of New Brunswick are extensive, including Coal (anthracite and others), Gold, &c., but they have not hitherto been much developed.

The

2. British Columbia is the other mineral province. GOLD is extensively found in the CARIBOU and SHOUSHWAP fields in the valleys of the Fraser and Thompson. It was first discovered in 1858. In 1867 $1,500,000 worth was exported. New fields at Onnica were discovered in 1871. COAL-FIELDS of vast extent, both bituminous and anthracite, occur. latter is obtained in Queen Charlotte Island, and exported to San Francisco, where it fetches $17 per ton. Vancouver Island has coal-mines at Nanaimo, Harewood, and Dunsmir. There is also a fine seam at Baynes Sound. "Prospecting Licenses," to search for coal, extending over two years, may be obtained at a trifling cost. Five hundred acres are allowed to each applicant. Gold licenses cost more. The money is spent in making roads, &c. The Canada Almanac says— "It is almost impossible to estimate the value of these immense coal-fields at one of the termini of the Pacific Railway, taken in connection with magnificent harbours and the most favourable route across the continent, both in shortness of distance, easiness of passes through the Rocky Mountains, and the best conditions for supplying the road along the course with both fuel and traffic."

3. Ontario is coming into note as a mineral province. Thus it already produces excellent iron. The ore in the Laurentian Hills is magnetic, and yields about 68 per cent. of pure iron. Among its other undeveloped mineral resources are to be mentioned lead, plumbago, gold, kaolin, steatite or soapstone, used for lining furnaces, &c. Petroleum is found in large quantities, and profitably worked. Salt-wells of great richness have been discovered.

IV. POPULATION AND INDUSTRY.

§ 1. POPULATION.

The total population is nearly 4,000,000. It consists of

1. Europeans and their descendants, especially French in Quebec and New Brunswick; Scotch in Nova Scotia, &c.; English, Irish, Germans in other provinces. It appears from the returns made by the various Government Emigration Agencies, that about half a million persons have settled in Canada during the last twenty years (1851-70). The number has steadily increased from 9000 in 1860 to 35,000 in 1870 (32,671 in 1871). There are eleven agencies in England for assisting intending emigrants. The Dominion maintains agents at all its chief towns, and in London, Dublin, Belfast, and Glasgow. Immigrants are protected from their port of landing to their intended destination. The finest establishment is at Toronto, where the station is fitted up with accommodation of every kind for newly-arrived immigrants. The Dominion spends about $80,000 annually for this purpose, and last session money was voted for erecting extensive immigrant stations at Quebec, Montreal, and Kingston. Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and British Columbia have published pamphlets for the information of people. In Ontario every head of a family can obtain, on condition of settlement, a free grant of 200 acres of land, and 100 additional for every member of the family over eighteen years of age; and any person over eighteen years of age can obtain a free grant of 100 acres. Registers of the labour market are kept at the different stations. Land is generally sold at about $1 an acre. The Colonisation Circular, 6d. (Groombridge),

contains much valuable and reliable information.

The Inducements to Immigrate to Canada, to a naturally rich country, possessing a pleasant and healthy climate, are not simply good wages and cheap living among kindred people, but also the confident prospect which the poorest may have of becoming a possessor of the soil, of earning a comparative competence for himself, and of comfortably settling his children. Many thousands of rich and independent farmers, all over the Dominion, were a few years ago poor immigrant labourers, without any means whatever.

The Kinds of Immigrants wanted in Canada are :-(1.) Labourers of all kinds, and especially agricultural. Too many of these cannot go. (2.) Mechanics and artisans accustomed to common trades. (3.) Domestic servants, particularly females. (4.) Boys and girls over fifteen years. These will get ready employment. (5.) Tenant farmers. They have especial facilities, since a good farm can be bought for the price of rent in England. And (6.) Persons with capital sufficient to live on the interest of their money.

2. Indians. Of these the total number is not great. The following are the chief tribes :-(1.) Hurons. (2.) Chippewayans, between the Great Slave Lake and Athabasca. (3.) Copper and Dog Rib, N. of Great Slave Lake. (4.) Various tribes in British Columbia. (5.) Various mixed breeds in Manitoba, for whom 1,500,000 acres of land have been set apart, of which each is to have a legally conveyed portion. (6.) A few Micmacs in New Brunswick. Other tribes in the western part of the vast N. W. territory are Crees, Sioux, Blackfeet, Crows,

Flatheads, &c. As a rule, the Governments have been unpardonably supine in regard to Indian missions, and to protecting them from the whites; hence untold cruelties have arisen. A better state of things now prevails. The Indians in British Columbia are, by an article in the Treaty of Union, to be handed over to the management of the Central Government. Tracts of land are to be set apart for them from time to time, as occasion requires.

3. Esquimaux, a slender race, living along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, between the Mackenzie and Wager Rivers. They subsist chiefly by hunting and fishing, build huts of snow and ice, clothe themselves with skins, and feed on oil and blubber. It is doubtful whether they are of the same race as the Indians.

§ 2. INDUSTRY.

It is characteristic of all newly settled countries that their industries should be directed rather to the production of raw materials than of manufactured articles, which last are obtained from old and thickly populated countries. The chief occupations are (1.) Lumbering, or felling timber; (2.) Agriculture; (3.) Pasture; (4.) Fishing; (5.) Mining.

1. Lumbering is carried on in all the Provinces, but more especially in New Brunswick and Ontario. The valley of the Ottawa is the lumber district. The forests belong to the Government, so that the lumbermen must first obtain a license, which costs "a dollar and a half a square mile." Scouts are sent out to discover the finest tracts. A log-hut is erected, and supplies secured in autumn, so that felling may commence as soon as the sap descends. White pine has to be selected with great care, as many trees are unsound. Red pine is always sound. The trees rise forty or fifty feet without a branch, like giant masts. After being cut down, the trunks are rolled into the frozen rivers to await their melting, when they are floated down in cribs, or rafts, to various lumber factories, containing immense saws worked by water-power. There are many of these huge mills, each turning out every year many hundred thousand logs. Guiding the logs down the foaming river is wild work, full of adventure. Connected with the lumberers are numbers of road-makers, pilers, team-drivers, storekeepers, &c. The Ottawa District sent to Great Britain in one year 21,500,000 cubic feet of square timber, and 180,000,000 feet of deals; and to the United States 1,000,000 cubic feet of square, and 125,000,000 feet of deals. No less than 25,000 men in all are employed.

2. Agriculture is extensively pursued in all suitable parts of the Dominion, especially in the S. Lawrence valley, and good crops are obtained. The settled district is hardly 100 miles broad. The average corn-yield per acre is not so large

as in England; but it must be remembered that thirteen or fourteen crops of corn are grown without manuring. There is no draining, and hay has been known to be cut and stacked the same day. The great drawback to agricultural operations is the want of roads.

3. Sheep and Cattle Rearing are pursued in Manitoba and British Columbia. The district between the Saskatchewans is described as a fine pastoral region, but at present feeds only buffaloes.

4. Fishing is of two kinds-salt-water and fresh. The latter is diligently pursued in all the rivers and lakes. Varieties of salmon and trout abound. Newfoundland is almost given up to the cod-fishery and its various attendant industries.

5. Mining is characteristic of Nova Scotia and British Columbia, but valuable mines are also worked in New Brunswick, Ontario, &c. The Hall Iron Mine is becoming distinguished. A general application of steam and water power for pumping, lifting, &c., is being attended by good results.

6. The Fur Trade is chiefly connected with the "Governor and Company of Adventurers Trading to Hudson's Bay" (see p. 114), but British Columbia has an important fur traffic.

§ 3. CANALS.

In a country justly described as a network of rivers and lakes, we may expect, as population increases, a large development of inland water-carriage, and especially as the Portages between the head waters of streams flowing in opposite directions are in many cases only a few miles across. The chief canals are Welland and Rideau, already described. They were constructed at a cost of $14,000,000. Several long and dangerous rapids in the S. Lawrence, over which steamers and rafts pass down in safety, are avoided in the up journey by means of canals on the banks. A canal has been made between Superior and Huron, to avoid the rapids of Sault S. Marie.

§ 4. COMMERCE.

1. The trade of the Dominion is great and rapidly increasing. From Great Britain alone the total value of the imports is nearly £10,000,000 a year, and the exports thereto very nearly £9,000,000. By far the largest portion of the imports come from Great Britain, and more than half the exports are sent thither. Next to Britain come the United States, France, and Germany, in order of trading importance.

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