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2. Militia.-Every able-bodied man in the Dominion must be enrolled in one of four classes. About 700,000 are so enrolled. Excellent arrangements for drill in all arms, on land and afloat, are being carried out.

3. Finances.-In 1871 the total revenue receipts were $19,054,238; the expenditure, $15,640,256; and the net public debt, $78,209,742.

4. Banking, &c.-There is a good system of banking, and numerous sound banks-e.g., Ontario has five chartered banks; Quebec, 14; Nova Scotia, 5; and New Brunswick, 3. There are about $25,000,000 of bank-notes in circulation. The dollar (=100 cents.) is worth 4s. 1d. sterling.

5. Census.-Returns show that in the decade 1861-71, the population increased at the rate of 13 per cent., or rather less rapidly than that of England. For the whole of Great Britain the rate of increase is about 9; for Canada, 13; for the United States, 23.

6. Emigration.--Nearly all the provinces, but especially Ontario, offer great facilities for immigrants. Vast tracts of land have been surveyed, colonisation roads constructed, &c. About half a million have settled in Canada since 1851, who are considered to have added $335,000,000 to the wealth of the country. About 50,000 a year pass through the Dominion to the States. The Government maintains 14 emigration agencies within its own boundaries, besides several in Europe. Emigrants are also sent to Canada by 11 charitable and other associations. Free grants of land of from 1 to 200 acres are made to emigrants above eighteen, and the upset price of land in Ontario is only a dollar an acre. Each province publishes one or more useful pamphlets for the use of intending emigrants.

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1. The Bermudas or Somers Islands are a cluster of 300 small islands in the Atlantic, about 600 miles from Cape Hatteras. About 16 are inhabited. The whole group forms a

curved line bending inwards at both ends, so there are many good harbours. The chief islands are Bermuda (20 square miles), to which Somerset has been joined by a bridge; S. George (connected with Bermuda by a causeway which cost £30,000); Ireland (which has the dockyard); Boaz (which has the convict prisons). As containing a dockyard and coaling station, these islands are of vast importance to our commercial and maritime supremacy.

2. "The climate has been long celebrated for its mildness and salubrity. Besides potatoes and other esculent roots and vegetables, bananas, oranges, and other fruits, the land produces arrowroot of a fine quality, and an indigenous cedar of great durability, well adapted for shipbuilding and house timber. The sea abounds with fish. A few whales and turtle are occasionally taken."

3. Government.-The government is carried on by a Governor, a Privy Council of 9, appointed by the Crown, and a House of Assembly of 36, i.e., 4 members from each of the 9 parishes. There are 810 electors. The elective franchise is a freehold of not less than £60 per annum. The qualification for members, a rateable freehold of £240. The islands are included in the See of the Bishop of Newfoundland.

4. HISTORY.-1522 or 1527. Sighted by BERMUDEZ, a Spaniard. 1609. Admiral Sir George SOMERS wrecked here on his way to Virginia.

1612. Virginia Company obtained a charter for them from James I., but sold it to the BERMUDA Company for £2000.

1621-84. Islands governed by this Company. Many emigrants went during the troublous period of the Civil War.

1684. Governors (33 in all to 1871) appointed by Crown. Bermuda Company suppressed.

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1. British Honduras is bounded on the N. by Yucatan, W. by a straight line from rapids of Gracios-a-Dios on River Sarstoon to Garbutts Falls on River Belize, and thence due N. to Mexico, S. by Guatemala, E. by the Bay of Honduras.

The surface rises gradually from a flat swampy coast district to mountains of 4000 feet in the interior, which, however,

has scarcely been explored. The population is almost exclu sively confined to the coast district. The climate is damp, but free from fever, owing, probably, to the refreshing seabreezes.

2. The productions are important. In the forests and wilds are cedar, mahogany, logwood, rosewood, lignum vitæ, ironwood, red and white pine, india-rubber and gutta-percha trees, sarsaparilla, cochineal-cactus, indigo, &c. The cocoa-nut and other nut and oil yielding palms are abundant. Ground-nuts are oil-bearing. All tropical fruits, vegetables, and cereals grow. Plaintains, maize, yams, cassava, cocoa, tobacco, &c., contribute to the food or enjoyment of the people. The export of sugar is increasing, but the trade as a whole is less than it was twenty years ago.

If the Republic of Honduras ever completes its Pacific Railway, this part of America will acquire much more importance than it has yet possessed.

3. Government.-The government is now carried on as in Crown colonies, by a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council of 9.

4. HISTORY.—1502. Discovered by Columbus. Peopled first by adventurers from Jamaica.

1670. Spain acknowledged English territorial rights.

1796. Spain failed to capture it.

1861. The settlement placed on the footing of a colony, sub. ordinate to the Governor of Jamaica, which is 660 miles off. 1870. Made a separate Crown colony.

A list of 24 administrations of the Government of British Honduras is given between 1786 and Governor was called SUPERINTENDENT.



(Map 15.)


Until 1862 the

1. The name West Indies conveys an entirely erroneous impression, for the islands so called are nowhere near India. It was given because Columbus on his way westward to India as he thought, came upon groups of islands which he named West Indies.

2. Position.-The West Indian Archipelago stretches from Florida to the mouths of the Orinoco, enclosing the Caribbean Sea and part of the Gulf of Mexico. They extend from the parallel of 10° N. lat., which touches the S. shore of Trinidad, to 27°; and from 60° W. long. to 85°, which goes through the W. of Cuba.

3. They are divided thus

A. Physically.

(1.) Greater Antilles-Cuba, Jamaica, Hayti or S. Domingo, and Porto Rico.

(2.) Lesser Antilles, which comprise all the islands E. of Porto Rico, and are divided into

(a.) Leeward Islands, from the Virgin Islands to Dominica. (b) Windward Islands, from Martinique to Trinidad. The equatorial current of air catches these islands, just clear of the South American main, first, and hence the name; whereas the others are partly sheltered.

(3.) Bahamas, which include all the islands, rocks, &c., between Florida and Cuba.

There is also a line of islands along the coast of Venezuela. B. Politically these islands (with the exception of S. Domingo, which is independent) are divided among the following nations-Great Britain, Spain, France, Holland, Denmark, and Sweden.


(1.) JAMAICA, with Grand and Little Cayman and Cayman Brack, in the Greater Antilles.

(2.) Lesser Antilles, in

(a.) Leeward Group, the northern portion (under Governors of ANTIGUA)——

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(b.) Windward Group, the southern portion (under Gover

nors of BARBADOES)—

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Area. The total area of the British West Indies is 12,683 square miles, of which the largest, Jamaica, has 6400; the next in size, Trinidad, 1754.


Spain-Cuba, Porto Rico.

France Guadeloupe (Grand Terre and Basse Terre), Desirade, Marie Galante, Martinique, and N. part of S. Martin.

Holland-Saba, S. Eustatius, the S. part of S. Martin (round S.

Bartholomew), with Oruba, Curaço, Buen Ayre and Aves Islands, off the peninsula of Paraguana.

Denmark-Santa Cruz, S. Thomas and S. John, in the Virgin Islands, with Margarita, Tortuga, and Blanquilla off Cumana. Sweden-S. Bartholomew.


1. Nearly all the islands are mountainous. Probably the whole group may best be considered as the summits of a vast submerged mountain range. Many of them are volcanic, and contain the souffrières, or craters, of extinct volcanoes, especially S. Vincent and S. Lucia.

2. Mountains.

Jamaica (Map 16) has a very broken mountain range extending quite through the island from Morant Point to Negril Point, nearer the N. than the S. coast, called the BLUE Mountains, which have an average height of from 5000 to 6000 feet. From the western extremity of the range another chain extends S.E. to the river Minho, and encloses the Plain of Liguanea.

Trinidad has two ranges of hills, one along the N. shore (North Hills, highest summit, 3012 ft.), which is a continuation of the Sierra of Suma Paz of Venezuela; and another along the southern coast, called South Hills.

There is also a small range in the middle of the island.

3. Rivers, &c.-The rivers are all short mountain torrents. The largest are those which drain the southern slope of Jamaica

(1.) Cobre, into Kingston Harbour.

(2.) Minho.

(3.) Black.

On the N. are the Montego and Grande

The largest river in Trinidad is the Caroni. Near the centre of the island is a curious Pitch Lake. This lake is 99 acres in extent, and is about 30 miles from Port of Spain. It is of considerable value to the island. Round the shores are several swamps or lagoons.


1. Climate.-The Tropic of Cancer runs between Florida and Cuba.

The climate of the West Indies, as might be expected from their latitude (10°-20° N.), is hot; but the heat is very much tempered by their maritime situation, and by the land and sea breezes, which are especially felt in these islands. The climate

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