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(1.) A coast-range of broad tableland character, and cut up by a fiord coast, with which the student should compare those of Patagonia, Scandinavia, and Scotland;

(2.) Ranges along either bank of the Clutha and its great lakes, each range known by various names; and (3.) An E. coast range of less elevation.

In the north of Stewart Island is Aglem, 3200 ft.


The rivers of New Zealand are numerous, but rather characterised by their rapidity as mountain streams, like the rivers in Italy and New South Wales, than by their utility for navigation purposes.

A. NORTH ISLAND.-The chief rivers in the North Island


1. WAIKATO, the longest, which issues from the large lake TAUPO, nearly in the centre of the island, and flows, first, N.W. for 100 miles in a valley between the two coast ranges; and finally, abruptly W., through a gorge in the W. coast range into the Pacific. It is navigable for small vessels for about 50 miles; and into its æstuary the largest vessels can enter. Its chief tributary, the Waipa (40 miles), joins the main stream on the left bank, at Newcastle, about 20 miles above the great bend. Lake TAUPO stands in the midst of grand mountain summits. Its area is about 200 sq. m., or nearly the same as the Lake of Geneva. Its feeders rise in the vicinity of the volcanoes Tongariro and Ruapehu, where are numerous hot and some boiling springs. In the lower part of the river's course are several lakes.

2. WAIHO, or Thames.

3. WAITO, with its tributary Piako, rise in the Patetere Plateau, and flow N. into the Firth of Thames, the S. part of Hauraki Gulf.

4. Maketu, draining the lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti.

5. RANGITAIKA rises near Lake Taupo, and flows E. and N.E. into the Bay of Plenty. Near its mouth it receives the Matata, which drains the lake Tarawera, about as large as Windermere.

This region of lakes in the valleys of the Maketu and Matata constitutes one of the physical wonders of New Zealand. It is occupied by a succession of hot lakes, mud volcanoes, and springs throwing up jets of boiling water, something like the Geysers of Iceland. There is a salt-lake district at the eastern foot of the Andes, in the La Plata States, which should be compared with it.

6. RUAMANGA, draining the S.E. part of Wellington, the Wairarapa valley, between the two southern mountain chains,


into Palliser Bay. It has numerous tributaries, and several small towns and flourishing settlements on its banks.

7. MANAWATU, which rises in Hawkes Bay province, E. of the Ruahine range, and runs S., then breaking through that range in a magnificent gorge, flows S.W. into the southern Taranaki Bight.

8. WHANGANUI rises in the mountainous region S. and W. of Lake Taupo, and flows S., forming part of the E. boundary of Taranaki, and then S.E. into the southern Taranaki Bight. Besides these eight there are a very large number of smaller rivers on all the coasts.

B. SOUTH ISLAND.-The rivers of the South Island may be conveniently divided into three groups of six

(a.) Those rising in the central knot of Mount Franklin, the chief of which are

1. MOTUEKA, flowing N. at the foot of the Tasman range into Tasman Bay.

2. WAIRAU, flowing N.E. through Marlborough, into Cloudy Bay.

3. CLARENCE, flowing first S. through Lake Tennyson, and then N.E. between the two Kaikoura ranges, and finally, after a sharp bend opposite Mount Odin, S.E. to the ocean. 4. DILLON, draining the Amuri district.

5. GREY, draining Lake Christabel, and flowing S.W. into Welland Bight. At its mouth are Cobden and Greymouth. Its tributary the Arnould drains two large lakes.

6. BULLER, the great river of Nelson, takes the whole of the western drainage of the Franklin knot, and the numerous parallel ranges, into the Keramea Bight. Its tributaries drain the alpine lakes Arthur and Howick, and at its mouth is Westport.

(b.) The Canterbury Rivers.--This province is drained by a score of rivers, with alpine lakes in their narrow upper valleys, very much resembling the rivers that drain East Sweden into the Gulf of Bothnia. Westland has also several scores of mountain streams, the largest being Hokitika and Haast, or Clarke. The largest in Canterbury are—

1. HURUNUI, draining Lake Sumner, and forming the N. boundary.

2. WAIMAKARIRI, with a double stream in its lower course, flowing through Forty-mile Beach into Pegasus Bay.

3. SELWYN, from Malvern Hills into Lake Ellesmere.

4. RAKAIA, from Browning's Pass into the Canterbury Bight. It drains Lake Coleridge. In the lower course are two, and sometimes three or four parallel streams.

5. RANGITATA, from Mount Tyndall to the Canterbury Bight. The lower courses of these rivers drain the Canterbury Plains. The coast-line, from the mouth of this river to Lake Ellesmere, is called the Ninety-mile Beach.

6. WAITAKI, the largest river of the region. It forms the southern boundary of Canterbury. It has a large number of tributaries, draining the gorges between the lofty summits of Tyndal, Tasman, Cook, Sefton, Deeheu, &c., which drain the lakes TEKAPO, PUKAKI, and OHAU.

(c.) The Southern Rivers.—The branching of the spurs from the Alps determines the S.E. direction of these rivers. The chief are

1. TAIERI, which has a very winding course.

2. CLUTHA, the river of Otago. It rises in Canterbury, and flows S.E. into Molyneux Bay. Its tributaries are very numerous, and have many flourishing settlements on their banks. The main stream drains the lakes HAWEA and WANAKA; and the right-hand tributary, Kawarau, the large highland lake WAKITPU.

3. MATAURA, separating Otago from Southland, and flowing into Toe-Toe Bay.

4. MAKAREWA, into Invercargill harbour.

5. WALAU, draining the large highland lakes of TEANAU and MANIPORI into Tewacwae Bay.

6. HOLLYFORD, draining Lake M'Kerrow into Martin Bay.


1. Climate.-New Zealand, being in S. lat., has its seasons the reverse of the English ones. Christmas-day, for example, is in the height of summer. January and February are the warmest months, July and August the coldest. The climate is remarkable for its sudden changes, but is on the whole warmer and moister than England, as its latitude and oceanic situation would lead us to expect, for Auckland has almost the same latitude as Gibraltar, Dunedin as Milan. The change of seasons is not much marked, because all native trees are evergreens.

A New Zealand handbook says:-"The climate of New Zealand might almost be described as the 'climate of England with half the cold of the English winter;' and in suitability for the people of the British isles, in recruiting or sanitary properties for the invalid, and in marked fitness for agricultural and pastoral pursuits, it deserves to be ranked as one of the finest climates in the world."

Careful meteorological observations are taken, from the notes on which in the Colonisation Circular the following remarks are extracted:-The mean annual temperature of New Zealand is 55°.2

F., the average of the North Island being 5°.4 higher than that of the South Island. The climate of London is 7° colder than that of the North Island, and 3° colder than that of the South Island. The difference between the warmest and coldest months is only 17°. Snow seldom falls, and ice is only occasionally seen. The highest recorded thermometer readings in the sun are 130° to 140°. The average rainfall for the whole is 52 inches, North Island, 47; South Island, 57. The largest quantity falls on the W. coast, thus-North Island, 55; South Island, 120. The prevalent winds are from the N.W. and S.W.; and, as in Australia, a hot wind is sometimes experienced on the E. coast. Thunder and hail storms are not very frequent, but earthquakes are felt in every part of the country. Fogs are rare.'

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2. Vegetable Productions. The vegetation is peculiar. Most of the indigenous plants belong to the cryptogamous or flowerless plants. It has 130 species of ferns, of which 42 are peculiar. The most important are tree-fern and ediblefern. Palms are also numerous. The New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) is characteristic of the country. Its long sword-like leaves, often 10 feet in length, contain a strong fibre, which is used by the natives for the manufacture of baskets, mats, &c., and is largely exported by the settlers for sails, cordage, &c. The most important forest trees are pines, of which there are more than 100 species. The kauri pine attains a height of 150 feet, and occasionally is 15 feet in diameter. It is much valued as a shipbuilding timber, and produces the kauri gum, one of the most valuable exports. Thus the characteristic native productions are ferns, palms, flax, and pines. European trees, fruits, cereals, grasses, &c., have been introduced, and thrive well.

That agriculture is progressing rapidly may seen from three facts. Land fenced has increased from 2,500,000 acres in 1861 to nearly 7,000,000 acres; land cropped, from 250,000 acres to 1,250,000. There are 579 threshing-machines, of which 92 are worked by steam; 1708 reaping-machines; 26 steam-ploughs, and 13 steam-harrows. Land under wheat in 1858, 13,710 acres ; in 1870, 77,843 acres.

3. Animal Productions.-The zoology is as peculiar as the botany. New Zealand, when first discovered by Cook, had no larger animals than dogs and rats. Birds, however, were exceedingly numerous, and some of them, like the moa species of ostrich, now extinct), very large. Of 150 species of birds, 70 are peculiar. The classes most numerously represented are parrots, pigeons, and ducks. Shell and other fish are abundant, and eight species of whale are found off the coasts. There are no noxious reptiles. Insects are numerous and peculiar. The grub of the weta, 14 inches in length, is eaten by the aborigines, as is also a parasitical fungus of the

vegetating caterpillar. European animals, birds, &c., have been introduced, and thrive well.

Thus in 1872 there were in the colony 81,028 horses, 436,592 cattle, 9,700,629 sheep, 151,460 pigs, 397 mules, 12,434 goats, 872,174 poultry. In 1856 the number of horned cattle was 91,928, and sheep 990,988.

4. Geology and Mineral Productions.

A. The North Island consists almost entirely of newer sedimentary and volcanic rocks, the former occupying the eastern parts of the island. The South Island consists of new and old sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, of which the first covers the Canterbury plains and the coast districts, the second the central district, and the third the W. slope of the Alps and the whole basin of the Clutha.

B. The chief minerals are

(1.) GOLD, which is found in Auckland, Nelson, Westland, and Otago, as well as in Marlborough and Southland. The total amount of gold found 1856-72 is returned at 6,659,506 oz., worth £25,852,477.

(2.) COAL of excellent quality is found in the valleys of the Buller and Grey, and many other places.

(3.) SILVER is extensively found, alloyed with other metals, in Nelson, Otago, &c.

(4.) IRON. The most abundant deposits are at Taranaki. The ore is iron-sand.

(5.) Other metals, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, manganese, platinum, are also found.

(6.) Building and other stones are abundant, such as limestone, freestone, GRANITE, pumice-stone, serpentine, jade, &c.

(7) Other minerals-plumbago, sulphur, gypsum, asbestos, kaolin, and fossil kauri gum.

It thus appears that the mineral wealth of these islands is very great.


1. The population consists of aborigines, and Europeans and their descendants.

The aborigines call themselves MAORI. They are dark, athletic, brave, and intelligent; and their traditions relate that they arrived in New Zealand by six different immigrations (probably because there are six chief tribes).

They appear to belong to the Malay race, but exhibit traces of the Papuan negro. Their language is a dialect of Polynesian, of simple construction and with a limited vocabu

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