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lary. They number about 35,000, and are mostly confined to Auckland province and the central part of North Island.

Many of the tribes are fierce and warlike, and for a long time they carried on an obstinate fight with the English soldiers, issuing from their stockaded villages and committing great destruction. Land disputes, the causes of these outbreaks, have now been peaceably determined, and there is good hope for the prosperity of the colony. The natives make good farmers, herdsmen, sailors, woodfellers, &c., when they can be persuaded to work. There can be no doubt that the natives are rapidly decreasing in numbers. They are now on the whole peaceably disposed towards the English Government. Each province has set apart a certain number of acres for native purposes. 2. The English and other colonists, numbering in 1870 256,393, are mostly engaged in—

(1.) Agriculture, or in clearing waste fern and forest lands, preparatory to agriculture,

(2.) Sheep-farming and cattle-rearing, for which large runs are granted in pasture licences, on liberal terms, in all the provinces. Intending emigrants, or those who have to advise intending emigrants, should purchase the authoritative Col onisation Circular, 6d. (Groombridge), which contains all the regulations on the disposal of crown lands, &c. The proceeds of all lands sold is devoted to public works, immigration, &c. (3.) Mining, especially in the N. of the South Island. The lands have to be leased, or mining licences have to be taken out.

(4.) Trade, whale-fishing, &c.

(5.) Timber-cutting, for which licences of about £5 a year are required.

3. Commerce.-The total value of the imports was, in 1871, above £4,000,000 (in 1863 and 1864, over £7,000,000); and of the exports above £5,000,000. The imports from the United Kingdom were, in the same year, nearly £2,000,000; and the exports to it nearly £3,000,000.

From these figures it will be seen that rather more than half the trade is with the mother country. The larger part of the remaining half is with the different Australian colonies, especially Victoria, from which it is about 1200 miles distant.

The chief imports are all kinds of manufactures from the United Kingdom, as well as foreign and colonial produce. The articles, in order of value, are-apparel and haberdashery; leather, wrought and unwrought, including saddlery and harness; all kinds of iron goods; woollen and cotton manufac


The chief exports, in order of value, are-wOOL, 37,000,000 lb. (nearly £2,000,000 worth); GOLD and gold-dust, value

£2,163,910; gum (kauri, or kourie, and other sorts); tallow, preserved meat, hides, corn, flax, and spermaceti oil. Grains (barley, oats, and wheat) and potatoes are also exported. Railways.-There is a railway from Dunedin to Port Chalmers, and others are in process of construction.

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1. Government.-The general Government, since 1852, consists of a Governor, appointed by the crown, aided by a Legislative Council of 36 members, appointed by the crown for life; and a House of Representatives, of 76 members, elected for five years.

2. Divisions and Towns.-The present divisions areeight provinces, each having a provincial government; one district, and one county, viz.-four provinces in the North Island Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, and Wellington; and five provinces, one district, and one county, in the South Island-Nelson, Marlborough, Canterbury, and Otago provinces; the county of Westland, and the district of Southland. A. In the North Island

1. Auckland embraces about half the North Island.. Area, 17,000,000 acres; population, 86,335. Partially settled, 1820; chief town, AUCKLAND (12,937), on Waitemata harbour, an inner part of Hawiaki Gulf; a Bishop's See. It was the seat of Government from its establishment to 1864, when the Colonial Legislature removed to Wellington. Other townsParnell, Newton, Shortland.

2. Taranaki, formerly New Plymouth, embraces the S.W. corner of the North Island, between the N. and S. Taranaki Bights. Area, 2,137,000 acres ; population, 6980. Originated in a settlement of the "Plymouth Company of New Zealand" in 1840. Chief town, NEW PLYMOUTH (1837), on the shore at the N. foot of Mount Egmont.

3. Hawke's Bay includes the middle part of the E. coast of the North Island, the shores of Hawke's Bay, &c. Area, 2,840,000 acres ; population, 9059. Created a distinct province

by the General Assembly of New Zealand, 1858. Chief town, NAPIER (2179), on the W. side of Hawke's Bay.

4. Wellington includes the S. E. corner of the North Island, and the district between Taranaki and Hawke's Bay. Area, 7,000,000 acres ; population, 28,000. Originated in a settlement of the "New Zealand Company" in 1840; proclaimed a province by the New Zealand Constitution Act, 1852. Chief town, WELLINGTON, on Port Nicholson, at the mouth of the river Hutt-population, 7908. It is the CAPITAL of the colony by an Act passed in 1864.

B. In the South Island

5. Nelson, comprising the W. part of the northern end. Area, 7,000,000 acres; population, 32,501. Originated in one of the "New Zealand Company's" settlements in 1841. Proclaimed a province in 1852. Chief town, NELSON, on the S.E. shore of Tasman Bay-population, 5534.

6. Marlborough, comprising the E. part of the N. end, was separated from Nelson in 1859. Area, 2,500,000 acres; population, 5235; chief town, BLENHEIM, on one of the mouths of the Wairau, near Cloudy Bay.

7. Canterbury, embracing the middle part of the E. slope of the Alps. Originated with the "Canterbury Church Association in 1848. Proclaimed a province in 1862. Area, 8,693,000 acres; population, 46,801; chief town, city of CHRISTCHURCH, on the Avon, a short distance from Pegasus Bay-population, 7931.

Lyttleton (in honour of Lord Lyttleton, one of the chief promoters of the settlement), on Port Lyttleton, has a population of 2551.

8. Otago, embracing the whole of the S. end of the island except the district of Southland. Area, 13,360,640 acres ; population, 61,172. Originated in a settlement of the Scotch "Free Church Association" in 1847. Chief town, city of DUNEDIN, at the head of Otago Harbour-population, 14,857.

9. District of Southland, separated from Otago in 1860, but re-incorporated 1870. Area, 2,776,000; population, 8769; chief town, INVERCARGILL, on the harbour of the same name, an inlet from Foveaux Strait.

10. County of Westland, embracing the W. slope of the Alps opposite Canterbury; from which it was separated by an Act of the General Asssembly in 1867. Area, 2,880,000 acres; population, 15,357; chief town, HOKITIKA, at the mouth of the river of the some name-population, 3572.

The following towns in New Zealand are Bishops' Sees :Christ Church (abp.), Waiapu, Nelson, Wellington, Auckland, and Dunedin,


The date of settlement and formation of each province has already been given. The great facts in the history of the whole colony will be best exhibited chronologically, thus

1642. Discovered by the celebrated Dutch navigator Tasman, and named in honour of the southern province of Holland.

1769. Cook re-discovered the islands, sailed between the N. and S. Islands, and made a complete survey and charts of the coasts. From this time the shores were frequented by British, French, and American whaleships.

1791. Chatham Islands discovered by Lieutenant Broughton. 1806. Auckland discovered by Captain Bristow.

1814. A settlement made on the North Island by the Colonial Chaplain of New South Wales, between which colony and these islands trade had sprung up.


1840. The islands proclaimed a BRITISH COLONY by Captain Hobthe first Governor, who, as British Consul, concluded the Treaty of Waitangi with Maori chiefs, at the native settlement of Waitangi in the Bay of Islands.

1842-63. Chatham, Auckland (190 square miles), Campbell, Bounty, Antipodes, &c., islands annexed to the colony.

The settlement of the colony was mainly brought about by the New Zealand Company, who had a charter from the crown. The student will recollect what we owe also to the East India Company, the Hudson Bay Company, &c. Wellington, Nelson, and New Plymouth were the first settlements. At first the colony was a dependency of New South Wales, but in 1842 it was by letterspatent constituted an independent colony. In 1842 Captain Hobson died, and was succeeded by Captain, afterwards Admiral Fitzroy; and he in 1845 by Captain, afterwards Sir George Grey. In 1846 representative government was conferred on the colony, which, however, was suspended until 1852, when LieutenantGovernor Eyre, afterwards Governor and saviour of Jamaica, held office as Lieutenant-Governor of the Cook Strait Settlements.

Sir George Grey was transferred to the Cape in 1854, but returned in 1861, and was succeeded in 1868 by Sir George Ferguson Bowen. Colonial Governor Brown was Governor in the interval of Sir G. Grey's Cape administration.

In 1850 the New Zealand Company surrendered its charter to the crown.

III. TASMANIA. (170 × 160 miles.)

(Map 9.)

1. Position, &c.-Tasmania is an island situated S. of Victoria, from which it is separated by Bass Strait. Its exact position is between 41° 20′ and 43° 40′ S. lat., and 144° 40′ and 148° 20' E. long.

Its area is 26,215 sq. m.-nearly four times as large as Wales. In acres the island itself contains The fifty-five islands which surround and


belong to it.

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Alienated, December 1871. .


Remaining to be sold.


2. Physical Features.

(1.) Mountains.-The island is pleasantly diversified by ranges of mountains and hills. No less than sixty summits have been measured above 2000 ft.

A range of heights extends parallel to the N. coast, but very much broken through by rivers. In the E. part of this is Ben Lomond (5010) in Cornwall, the second summit. From the western extremity of this, a range extends S.E., right through the island to the neighbourhood of Hobart Town. In this is CRADLE mountain (5069), in Lincoln, the culminating point.

From Mount Cradle a range extends in a curve E., S.E., and S., and nearly meets the main rangeagain opposite Hobart Town. Thus the valley of the Derwent is completely enclosed. This range is called Western Mountains. From Mount Cradle a spur goes W. called Eldon Range. Some maps give Mount Humboldt, near the source of the Gordon, S. of Macquarie harbour, as the culminating point-5520 ft. The Tasmanian Almanac, published at Hobart Town, gives Mount Cradle.

(2.) Rivers.-Tasmania has abundant rivers and streams. The chief river running N. is the TAMAR, which has many tributaries. It rises in the Western Mountains (county Somerset), and flows N. into Bass Strait. The chief town on it is LAUNCESTON. At the mouth of its æstuary is Georgetown.

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