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There are many other towns, with familiar names like Lincoln, Perth, Exeter, York, &c., on it. The total lakes drained N. of the Tamar and other rivers cover 10,000 acres. The chief river running S. is the

DERWENT, formed by the Dee, Ouse, Shannon, Clyde, &c., rising in the Western Mountains and the main range. The main stream issues from Lake S. Clair. In the S. part of its course the mountains close in on both banks, and make it very picturesque. On the W. side of the estuary is HOBART TOWN, the capital. The wider part of the mouth is called Storm Bay, a fiord inlet of three prongs, the eastern being called North Bay, E. of which is Tasman Peninsula; and the western D'Entrecasteaux Channel, between the mainland and Bruni Island.

The total area of lakes drained S. is 65,000 acres.

3. Climate and Productions.

(1.) The climate of Tasmania is healthy, and well suited to European constitutions. The winters are cold. The country never suffers from the Australian droughts. Taking an average of twenty-five years, the mean heat of spring (September) is 54°; summer (December), 62°; autumn (March), 55°; winter (June), 47°; whole year, 54°. Compare this with London (51), Edinburgh (47°), Quebec (41°), New York (51°), and it may then be seen what an excellent climate this island has. Rainfall, 22 in. in 145 days.

(2.) Vegetable Productions.-The total land under cultivation in 1872 was 340,451 acres, and of this 154,445 was under crop. About 6000 acres of new land are broken up every year. The upset price of land is £l an acre. Wheat is very productive. Fifty bushels per acre are obtained; 15 to 20 without any manuring. The banks of the Clyde produce the best. Oats and other grains are grown. Fruit is excessively abundant, and JAM made to an enormous extent. Victoria is the chief market for wheat and jam. The woods of Tasmania are not yet fully appreciated. Those who saw specimens in the Exhibition of 1862 will remember how beautiful some were, and what an enormous size others had.

Myrtle, 200 feet high and 30 feet in circumference.

Huon Pine, most valuable for shipbuilding, piles, &c., because it resists the boring of insects.

Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globus) is the glory of the Tasmanian forest. Height 300 feet, girth at bottom 30 to 100. Besides these there are oak, larch, blue gum, &c. A large part of the interior is untrodden forest.

In 1856 there were 65,731 acres under wheat, and in 1870 only 57,382. The produce has decreased from 1,253,892 bushels to 896,881.

(3.) Animal Productions.-All English animals have been introduced, and flourish wonderfully. Mr Trollope says, in hyperbole, that in some places the rabbit is increasing so fast that it is driving out the population. The chief product is WOOL. Honey is abundant. The whale fishery is successfully prosecuted.

The number of horned cattle in 1856 was 88,608, and sheep 1,614,987. In 1872 there were in the colony 23,054 horses; 101,540 horned cattle; 1,305,589 sheep; and 52,863 pigs.

There is an Acclimatisation Society which endeavours as far as possible to prevent the destruction of native species, and promote the introduction of foreign ones.

(4.) Mineral Productions.-The mineral kingdom is well represented, but has not yet been much explored.

Coal is widely distributed, and also iron, the great sinewsof wealth. Quite recently iron ore of excellent quality has been found near Ilfracombe and Anderson's Creek. Copper exists in the N.E. Gold is found in quartz reefs. 137 oz. were found in 1869.

4. Population and Industry.

(1.) Population.-The total population according to the last census (1871) was 101,785; 1861, 89,977. Of these, 54,244 were males and 48,219 females. The aboriginal population was some years ago removed to Flinders Island in Bass Strait, and is all but extinct.

(2.) Industry.-The great industries are

(a.) Sheep and cattle rearing.

(b.) Agriculture.

(c.) Mining.

(d) Felling timber.

(3.) Roads.-The main road from Hobart Town to Launceston, 120 miles, is excellent; and generally in this island the convict-made roads are good. There are no less than 3915 miles, and many bridges.

(4.) Railways.

(a.) A line of railway passing through some of the best agricultural land exists from Launceston to Deloraine, 45 miles in length. It cost £510,000.

(b.) A line is now in course of construction to connect Hobart Town and Launceston. It is to cost £650,000, and is to be completed in 1874. English contractors have under

taken it, and English navvies are taken out to make it. The fearful wreck of the Northfleet with 400 or 500 labourers, wives, children, &c., off Dungeness, April 1873, run into by the Spanish steamer Murillo, and basely left to sink, will cause this to be a memorable line.

(5.) Commerce.-The exports of the island are principally wool (from 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 lb. annually), flour, grain, fruit, preserves, hops, horses, sperm oil, timber, vegetables, especially potatoes, and tanning bark. The total value of exports for 1871 was £740,638—viz., United Kingdom, £327,508; Victoria, £262,134.

The total value of imports, which are British manufactures, sugar and wine, for 1871 was £778,087-viz., from United Kingdom, £272,797; Victoria, 407,294. Both have fallen off, owing to the cessation of the transport of convicts, and the number of labourers, &c., who have fled to the gold-diggings. Thus in 1857 the imports were worth £1,271,087, and the exports £1,354,655.

(6.) Communication, &c.-There is an electric cable between Tasmania and Victoria, and land lines to all the Australian colonies. The first message from Hobart Town to London was sent October 24, 1872.

There is regular mail communication with Great Britain, via Galle, every four weeks; with the Australian colonies once or twice a week; with 124 post-towns daily. Newspapers are posted free.

There is frequent communication, both by powerful steamers and large sailing vessels, with England, Australia, and New Zealand.

The money-order system through the post-office is estab lished with every part of the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand.

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(1.) Tasmania is a heart-shaped island, situated S. of Victoria, and separated from it by Bass Strait.

(2.) Divisions.—It is divided into 19 rural municipalities, 32 electoral districts, 7 police districts, and 18 COUNTIES.

(3.) The Government is administered by a Governor; Executive Council of 20; Legislative Council, 17; House of Assembly, 32, elected by as many districts. It has had 6 Parliaments, 10 Ministries, and 16 Governors since the introduction of responsible Government. The island constitutes a See of the English Colonial Church.

(4.) Towns.-HOBART TOWN (19,092), the capital, is a fine city situated on the Derwent, about 12 miles above its junction with the sea. It possesses a good harbour, easy of access, well sheltered from all winds, and capable of receiving the largest ships. It returns three members to the Legislative Council, and five to the House of Assembly. It has coaches to all parts of the island, and regular steam communication with Australia. Its cathedral is S. David's. Its societies are very numerous. It is 900 miles from the S.W. shore of New Zealand (Dusky Bay).

LAUNCESTON (10,668) is the chief town in the north, on the river Tamar.

6. Historical Geography.

1642. The island was discovered by Tasman, and named by him Van Dieman's Land, in honour of the Dutch Governor of the East Indies. Captain Cook partly explored it on the same voyage in which he explored parts of New Zealand and New South Wales.

1803. Lieutenant Bowen was despatched from Sydney with a few soldiers and convicts to form a penal settlement. They formed a settlement on the present site of Hobart Town.

Until 1813 convicts were sent hither both from the mother country and New South Wales, of which it was a dependency.

1841. Transportation of convicts to New South Wales ceased; and thus Van Dieman's Land, to which was annexed Norfolk Island, was the only penal settlement.

Norfolk Island, lat. 29° S., long. 167° 48' E., is situated in the Pacific, about 900 miles from the coast of New South Wales, and half that distance from Cape Maria Van Dieman, the northern point of New Zealand.

1853. Transportation ceased. There remains a convict establishment at Port Arthur.

Since 1804 it has had 16 Governors.

The Constitution was settled by the 18th of Victoria.

APPENDIX I.

A.-LIST OF BRITISH COLONIES,

WITH DATES, ETC., FROM THE GOVERNMENT "COLONISATION

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Lagos
Mauritius
Ascension

Settlement, 1631

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Administratr. ofGovt Lagos

Capitulation, 1806 Gov. & Com.-in-Chf. Port Louis

Settlement, 1815

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Gold Coast

Administratr.of Govt Cape Coast

Castle

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