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terlace with those of the Cauvery. It joins the main stream near Kurnool, and drains a famous cotton district.

9. N. Pennair (300 miles), on which are Cuddapah and Nellore.

10. Palar, on which are Vellore (1767) and Arcot (1760). The Madras Railway follows its valley.

11. S. Pennair, rises near Bangalore (1791), and falls into the sea at Cuddalore. Near its mouth is the chief French settlement, Pondicherry (1760-64-78-93).

These last three streams rise in Mysore, and drain the coast province of the Carnatic.

12. CAUVERY (480 miles, 36,000 square miles), rises in the district of Coorg, in the West Ghauts, and runs S.E., taking both the N. and S. drainage of the Neilgherries. On its upper course is Seringapatam (1792-96-99) and Mysore. At the head of its large delta is Trichinopoly, a famous mission station in South India. Its most northern delta branch is called Coleroon, at the mouth of which are Porto Nova and Devicotta. Tranquebar, a former Danish settlement, is at the mouth of another; and Carricall, a French settlement, at the mouth of a third. These foreign settlements are of course mere depôts for trading purposes. The chief town on the delta is Tanjore.

13. Vigay, flows from the borders of Travancore, past Madura, to Ramnad on the Paumben Channel.

II. BASIN OF ARABIAN SEA.

1. INDUS (1800 miles, 312,000 square miles).

a. Source. The sources of the Lion river, at the foot of the huge Karakorum ridge, were first ascertained in 1812. They are close to those of the Sutlej.

This

b. Course. It first runs N.W., in the valley between the Karakorum and Himalaya ranges, which latter it breaks through at Acho, about 750 miles from the source. part of the course resembles that of the Burramputra. For the next 150 miles to Attock, where it enters the Plain of India, it flows along the N.W. buttress of the Himalaya, answering again to the Brahma or Burramputra. The remaining part of its course is generally S.E., with a double curve, twice convex to the west. The par. of 24° N. lat. and the mer. of 68° E. long. intersect in the delta.

c. Tributaries.-On the right bank are

(1.) Shayok, on the N. foot of the Kailas or Gangri range. (2.) Cabool, which rises in the Hindoo Koosh, and flows E. through Afghanistan into the Indus at Attock. Its lower

course forms the memorable Khyber Pass, and at Jellalabad (1842) the Kama joins from the mountainous Chitral country. The remaining part of the right bank is wonderfully destitute of tributaries, like the lower course of the Nile, and parts of it, as the Border Derajat, and Shikarpur, are desert.

On the left bank are the famous Punjaub or Five tributaries, joining the Indus in one stream, called Chinab.

(1.) SUTLEJ (ancient Hyphasis), a stream equal to Indus, as Jumna is to Ganges, rises close to the Burramputra, in the sacred lakes of Manasarowar. It flows N.W. nearly to the meridian of 78° E., and then breaks through all the Himalaya ranges, making three very sharp curves S.W. of Simla. The lower part of its course is S.W., past Loodiana, Aliwal (1846), Sobraon (1846), Ferozepore, Bhawulpur, to the Indus, which it enters just below 30° N. lat. The lower part of its course is called Ghara, after the junction of the Chenab (Chinab). It has a small right-hand tributary rising in the outer Himalayan range, called the

(2.) Beas, which includes the Julinder Dooab, and joins near Sobraon.

(3.) The Ravi (ancient Hydraötes) rises in the mid-Himalaya range, and flows S.W. to join the Chenab. On it is LAHORE. Its navigation is extended and improved by the Lahore, and Bari Dooab or Main, Canals. The country between the Ravi and Sutlej is called Bari Dooab (Duab).

(4.) Chenab (ancient Acescines), rises in the western Himalayan range, and flows S. W. "After the junction of the Ravi it is called Trimab, is very wide, and contains many islands. Near this is MOOLTAN. After the junction of the Sutlej or Ghara, the Chenab pours its waters into those of the main stream, which is now more than doubled in volume. The Richna (Reechna) Dooab is partly forest (sandal bark) and partly desert (Great Desert). But distinguish the Great Desert of Rajpootana.

(5.) Jhelum (ancient Hydaspes), rises in Cashmere (Kashmir), and one of its tributaries near Sirinagur (Srinagar), the capital. The scenery in the upper valleys of this river is of the grandest in the world. The descriptions in Lalla Rookh are far behind it. Near Khagan the Jhelum approaches very near the Indus, on account of the outer Himalayan range, which it has to run round. Its remaining course is S. and S.W. to the Chenab. In the N. part of its Dooab, the Jetch Dooab, is Chillianwallah (1849). The Jhelum Indus Dooab is called Sinde Sagur Dooab, and is desert (Jelanli Desert) as far N. as the Salt Range.

The Indus is not well adapted for navigation. It is broad but shallow, and steamers of a peculiar build-viz., jointed-have been constructed for it. It is of immense importance however, as the Punjaub river, as the frontier river of Afghanistan, and as the trade route from Central Western Asia. The delta (120 miles of sea-coast by 60 miles) was once fertile, but is now mostly desert.

The mouths are repeatedly changing, the longest being the Narra or Purana, and can be entered by small vessels of about 50 tons. The tide ascends 75 miles. The floods are in July.

d. Towns.-The towns on the main stream are few. Steamers ascend from Kotree, at the head of the delta, to Mooltan, in four or five days. Near Kotree is Meanee (1843). On the opposite side, some distance from the river, is HYDERABAD, the capital of Scinde or Sinde. Sir Charles Napier's laconic despatch-" Peccavi "-when he had conquered this province is memorable. Kurrachee, at the most western extremity of the delta, is almost an English town. Many other towns are locally interesting.

2. NERBUDDA (800 miles, 60,000 square miles), rises close to the Sone and Mahanuddy, and flows almost directly W. in the valley between the Vindya and Sautpoora ranges into the eastern side of the Gulf of Cambay. Seaport, Baroche.

3. TAPTY (Taptee) (450 miles, 25,000 square miles), rises near the Wyne Gunga, and flows west to the Gulf of Cambay, at Surat. Both these rivers are subject to great floods, which cause great destruction of property, and both are unnavigable. The rivers of the Malabar coast are small mountain torrents.

The rivers of Ceylon are numerous but unimportant. The largest is the Mahavilla Gunga, which rises in the centre of the island, (tableland), near Neura Ellia, flows past Candy, into the sea at Trincomalee.

III. CLIMATE AND PRODUCTIONS.

§ 1. CLIMATE.

Before entering into particulars about the climate, it will be well for the student to mark the following great facts regarding the climatic conditions of India :

a. It is in the Region of Monsoon, or Karas winds, which follow the sun, and blow from S. W. to N.E. between April and October, and from N.E. to S. W. between October and April. When the sun is N. of the equator, therefore, the west shores of India have the wind; and when he is S., the east shores. The changes from one monsoon to the other are always accompanied by terrific thunderstorms. The northern part of the Bay of Bengal is in the Tyfoon, or circulating storm, region.

b. As the tropic of Cancer passes through the Sunderbunds and the Runn of Cutch, nearly the whole of India is in the region of Tropical or Periodical Rains. The whole peninsula S. of the snow

clad Himalaya is S. of the equatorial limit of the fall of snow at the earth's surface so that in India proper, snow is never seen. The average rainfall is 30 in. At Mahabuleshwar, in the W. Ghauts, as much as 303 inches have been collected in a year; and at the Churra Hills, N. E. of Calcutta, 600 in.

c. The Warmth Equator passes through the town of Madras. The whole of India is S. of the isothermal line of mean annual temperature of 70°, which runs N. of Arabia, Africa, and the W. Indies. The Deccan is within the line for 80°.

1. The Climate of India is of course rendered much warmer by the huge wall of the Himalayas, which keep off arctic winds. Still N. winds will be cool, owing to the glaciers and icy summits they have to pass. The Indian Ocean with its arms-Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal-help to make the climate cooler.

India is undoubtedly a hot country. Yet this heat is modified by (1.) The snow-clad Himalayas on the north.

(2.) The proximity of the sea.

(3.) The elevation of great parts of its surface, e.g., the tablelands of Malwa and the Deccan.

2. The year may be divided into three seasons instead of four, as with us. Thus

(a.) The Hot Season, between Vernal Equinox and the Summer Solstice, when the sun is vertical over some part of the surface.

(b.) The Wet Season follows, and lasts till after the Autumnal Equinox.

(c.) The Temperate, for the remainder of the year.

3. It has been already stated that the rains and winds are periodical, and depend on the sun's position. The Monsoon may be said to rule the climate. In the hot season the heat is so great that vegetation and brooks are dried up, and even large rivers very much diminished in volume. Tanks were formerly much more numerous, so that irrigation could be practised with the stored-up water. Houses are usually of one story, and the rooms very large. A contrivance called the Punkah, is used to keep air in motion in the sleeping-rooms. Most Europeans take a siesta in the very hot hours, and do their work and exercise as much as possible early and late. There is no twilight.

4. Rain falls almost exclusively during the rainy season, and sometimes 5 or 6 inches are collected in twenty-four hours. One inch is a great rainfall in temperate latitudes. The average rainfall is between 70 and 80 inches. The unhealthy parts are the Terai, Sunderbunds, and the swampy, low-lying coast districts.

5. The Hills" are mostly used for health-restoring purposes. Sanitaria for troops and Europeans are established on the Neilgherries; Mahabuleshwar, in the W. Ghauts; Mount Aboo, in Rajpootana; and in the Himalayas, Darjeeling, just S. of Sikkim; Almora, on the Upper Gogra; SIMLA, near the Upper Sutlej; Dharamsatta, Chamba, and Murree, north of the Punjaub.

6. One of the great drawbacks to the healthiness of the climate is FEVER. Every employer of labour in Bengal has to engage one-third more men than he requires in order to fill the gaps made by invalids. The fever begins in August, when the first two months of rain have saturated the soil, and the sun causes it to steam. The causes of the fever appear to be excessive moisture of the deltaic soil, rapid eva

poration causing complete atmospheric saturation, a daily increasing range of temperature, and a certain amount of cold at night; these are to be taken with the poverty of the people and the utter absence of hygienic surroundings. Cf. for example, the food allowance of a sepoy, and that of a Bengalee labourer. The former has 32 oz. flour, 2 oz. clarified butter, 4 oz. dhall (a sort of pea, from which Revalenta Arabica is made), 4 oz. vegetables, and oz. salt or spice daily; the latter, for himself, wife, and family, a little rice, 1 lb. of insipid weed, and oz. of oil.

7. Table of Months, with thermometrical readings, and remarks from "Whittaker's Almanack."

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The vegetation of India is tropical. It is, therefore, characterised by its profusion and enormous size. We find the wonderful banyan, palms of all kinds, especially cocoa-nut, fan, and date; arborescent grasses, such as banana, sugarcane, bamboo; spices, and aromatic plants; with teak, ebony, and other forest trees.

The great objects of cultivation are wheat, cotton, indigo, opium, tea, sugar, rice; tropical and sub-tropical fruits, such as pine-apple, plaintain, bread-fruit, orange, &c. The forests are sul, teak, &c. The tuberous roots are arum yam and manioc; arrowroot and ginger are also grown.

1. WHEAT is grown in the N. half of the Punjaub, and a parallel belt along the Ganges valley as far as Patna including the Bundlecund States. Maize, indian millet, and other foreign grains are also grown. (See rice.) grown in the Godavery valley.

Wheat is also

2. COTTON was always an Indian staple, but the American war gave an enormous impetus to its cultivation, chiefly through the endeavours of a Manchester association. The American cultivation fell from about 7,000,000 acres before

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