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1. This Presidency includes the coast provinces of Southern India. From Cape Comorin to Ganjam, is 1187 miles; Ganjam to Canara, 950 miles. The coast is singularly destitute of good harbours. Pondicherry (French) and MADRAS and other ports are absolutely without shelter. The total coast-line is no less than 1730 miles, and yet there is not one really good harbour. Coconada, on the Godavery delta, is kept open by continual dredging. Cochin, on the west coast. 2. The chief districts included are Malabar, including Canara and Mahé (French), on W. coast; South Carnatic, North Carnatic, Ceded Districts (Bellary, Kurnool, and Cuddapah), and Northern Circars, all on the E. coast; the Carnatics on the Coromandel, and the Circars on the Golconda and Orissa coasts.

3. The Governor is assisted by a Council of 3 members, and a Legislative Council. There are 760 judges. The province is divided into 21 Districts.

4. The area of Government land under cultivation is about 17,500,000 acres. In 1870-71, the area cultivated with cotton fell from 1,703,000 acres to 1,400,000, owing to the abundant American supply. The growth of the CINCHONA plant at Ootacamund, &c., in the Neilgherries, is very satisfactory. We may in time derive all our quinine from India owing to this wise introduction of the Peruvian-bark tree. The length of railway (MADRAS and GREAT SOUTH of INDIA) is 832 miles. Important public works, such as Canals for irrigation, &c., are also in progress.

5. The Independent States connected with this Presidency are Travancore, noted for its coffee cultivation, and Cochin. 6. Towns.-MADRAS, the capital, on Coromandel coast, where the surf is lashed into fury by the Monsoons. Once called Fort S. George, as Calcutta was Fort William. It is a bishop's see. Other towns are

Tinnevelly, Madura, Coimbatore, Trichinopoly, and Saleman, the chief towns in South Carnatic; Cuddalore, Chingleput, Arcot, Vellore, and Nellore, in North Car

natic; Cuddapah, Bellary, and Kurnool, in the Ceded Districts; Masulipatam, Rajahmundry, Vizagapatam, and Ganjam, in Circars; Mangalore, Beypore, in Malabar.

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1. This Presidency, a narrow strip of territory, some 1050 miles long, occupies the western shores of India. There are many fine harbours along the coast. The territory is made up of

(a.) Regulation Districts, divided into 17 Collectorates. The South Division includes N. and S. Concan, Dharwar, Belgaum, Sattara, and Poona; and the North Division, Candeish, Broach, and Ahmedabad.

(b.) Sinde, which comprises one-fourth of the whole area, is governed on the Non-Regulation system. It includes the whole southern valley of the Indus below the Punjaub.

(c.) Native States, 12 in number, occupying one-third of the total area. The largest are Gujerat or Kattywar, and Baroda. In each of these states a representative of the British Government is maintained.

2. This Presidency exhibits in its population traces of the successive waves of conquering tribes that have poured over it. (a.) Aborigines occupy the sandy tracts round Cutch. (b.) The proud and warlike Rajpoots have maintained their ascendancy in outlying provinces E. of Sinde. (c.) The Mahrattas (Marathas), the latest conquerors, occupy the rich and fertile valleys of Gujerat. (d.) The Mohammedans, whom they ousted, are yet found in the distant districts. (e.) The Parsees are wealthy merchants from Persia.

3. SALT is extensively made in the Runn of Cutch. In 1871 nearly four million maunds (100 lb. Troy) were made, yielding to the revenue £730,000. OPIUM is grown extensively. In the above year nearly 40,000 chests yielded a revenue of £2,500,000.

Vast and important public works are in progress, e.g., the harbour's defence and other works at Bombay, canals for


irrigation, bridges over many rivers, &c. In 1871 there were under the control of the Government no less than 1946 miles of railway, of which 1676 were open. The main lines will eventually be fed by branch lines from the Nizam's Dominions, the Guikowar of Baroda's, and the Maharaja Holkar's. The INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH works well.

COTTON is one of the most important products of this province. Four and a half million acres are cultivated. In 1870 over a million bales, nearly £13,000,000 worth, was shipped from Bombay, and half a million's worth from Kurrachee. Steam-gins have been introduced.

4. Education is well looked after, and culminates in the University of Bombay. There are in all 2731 Governmentaided schools.

5. Government.-Governor and Council of 3, and Legislative Council, consisting partly of Englishmen and partly of natives.

6. Towns:

BOMBAY, on an island, magnificent city, with an excellent harbour, and the terminus of three great lines of railway. The name is said to mean good harbour. It is a bishop's see. Other towns:

Dharwar, in the middle of a famed cotton district.

Karwar, south of Gca, a famous harbour.

Poonah and Sholapore, on the G.I.P.R.

Broach, at mouth of Nerbudda.

Ahmedabad, N. of Gulf of Cambay.
In Sinde:-

Hydrabad and Kotree, on opposite sides of Indus, connected with Kurrachee by rail. The latter has an important harbour, and is yearly increasing in importance.



Hyderabad Assigned Districts. (144 × 150 miles.)

80,000 sq. m. (British ter. 17,400). 2,220,074.


Population, 1871,

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Under charge of British Resident at Hyderabad.


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British Territory,

£2,395,000 (three-fifths raised by native governments).

This territory was assigned by the Nizam in 1853 as payment for arrears of tribute due to the British Government. The "Berars" includes the districts between the Upper

Faptee, the Wurdah, and its affluent, the Pain Gunga. It is crossed by a branch of the G.I.P.R. to Nagpore. 13,000 square miles are capable of cultivation. There is no water communication. Length of road, 376 miles; rail, 166, including Khamgaon State Railway, and Oomrawatee Railway.

The objects of cultivation are cotton, sugar-cane, ginger, turmeric, wheat, sorghum, barley, and pulse. About 5,000,000 acres are cultivated, of which 1,500,000 are sown with Cotton, which is one of the most noted productions. Of 1,500,000 bales sent to England by India in 1868-9, no less than 250,000 came from the Berars. Teak is the chief timbertree. One of the most marked peculiarities in the agriculture is the absence of ploughing, the practice in Berar being to leave the land untouched till a short time before the season of sowing, when a rude kind of harrow is passed over it.

Hæmatite Iron of great richness, accompanied with limestone, has been discovered. It yields from 53 to 68 per cent. pure iron.

The Wurdah Coal-Field, in East Berar, has been calculated to contain 480,000,000 tons. Borings have shown seams of 45, 39, and 26 feet in thickness. This field will furnish a supply practically inexhaustible for the railways of Central India. Lunar is a small salt lake.


Mysore (a tableland 230 × 190 miles) was taken under British management in 1834 in consequence of the misrule of the late Maharaja, and will continue so during the minority of his son. Of the total area (30,000 sq. m.) rather less than a third is cultivated, and of the remainder not more than one-fifth is cultivable. The rivers are unnavigable. There are 2857 miles of roads. The chief productions are food grains, coffee, and mulberry. The manufacture of Silk is carried on to a considerable extent.

The little state of Coorg, which forms part of the charge of the Commissioners of Mysore, has an area of 1214 square miles, and a population of 112,000, chiefly Hindoos. About one-tenth of the country is covered with Coffee Plantations. C. RAJPOOTANA.



(460 × 530 miles.)
123,000 sq. m.

This is a collection of seventeen more or less independent states, enclosed by Sinde, the Punjaub, and the North-West

Provinces, governed by various petty chieftains called Rajah, Maharaja, Nawab, Maharao Raja, Rana, &c., whom the Viceroy occasionally meets at Durbar at Ajmere. An English Resident is maintained at most of the courts.

As an instance of the excellence of the roads which are now to be found in Rajpootana, it is mentioned that in a single day the Viceroy's party (Lord Mayo) traversed the distance between Bhurtpoor and Jeypoor, over a portion of the magnificent road which is in course of construction between Agra and Ahmedabad.

West of Rajpootana, bordering on the Indus, are the States of Bhaugulpoor, or Bhawulpoor, and Khyrpoor (Ali Moorad's territory).

The north-west portion of these states, covering an area larger than England and Wales, is semi-desert. Its wealth consists of cattle and sheep, which are supplied to our military stations, the Bombay markets, and the surrounding provinces. In 1868, Marwar, one province larger than Ireland, possessed 2,250,000 head of cattle. In this disastrous famine year, of grain, grass, and water, it is calculated that 1,250,000 human beings perished.


The native states, 71 in number, 32 of which are noticed in the Indian Government returns, having an area of 84,000 square miles, a population of 8,000,000, and a revenue of £4,000,000, are superintended by the Central India or Indore Agency. The most important of these rulers are the great Maratha houses of Sindia and Holkar, governed by Maharajahs so called. Sindia's dominions, Gwalior or Malwa, has an area nearly as large as Ireland, and a population about as numerous as London. His capital is GWALIOR, a famous hill-fort. Holkar's dominions, or Indore, extend on both sides of the middle Nerbudda, but are very much intermingled with those of Sindia (Sindhia or Scindia). Holkar's dominions are famous for their opium, the revenue collected from which, on entering the Presidency of Bombay, was in 1869-70 £2,500,000. Bhopal is also an important state. The two most important of what are called the Bundlecund states are Rewah and Punnah.

HYDERABAD. (80,000 sq. m.)

The NIZAM'S DOMINIONS, including the larger part of the Deccan, between the Pain Gunga and the Toombudra, is the most important native state. Its capital is HYDERABAD, near which is Golconda. The G.I.P.R. crosses the S.W. part of these dominions, connecting Bombay and Madras. Thus the great cotton districts are opened up. Important engineer

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