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In the Middle Ages, Spain, Portugal, Hoiland, and France had vast colonial possessions, improperly so called; for although they conquered various portions of the Americas, Africa, or Asia, they rarely sent out many colonists to settle, if we except the French colonists in Canada and the Dutch at the Cape. The conquests of Spain in America, of Portugal in Brazil, Africa, and India, were mostly undertaken for the sake of the gold and silver which those countries yielded, the prosecution of the slave trade, or the monopoly of their commerce.

7. Colonisation from England may be regarded as one of the results of the Reformation. An adventurous spirit was awakened in men like Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Humphry Gilbert, &c., which led them to plant colonies in America.

The first permanent colony was founded at James Town early in the 17th century.

After this, colonising went on rapidly and from different motives. It was almost a chance that prevented Oliver Cromwell from being one of the New England colonists or Puritan Fathers. Puritans went to escape the persecutions of James I., Laud, &c., and settled in the Northern States; royalists and aristocrats when Cromwell held sway, and settled in Carolina, &c.; Jacobites because they hated Hanoverians; the Irish to escape from a land liable to potato famine, &c.

8. Colonies have been obtained in various ways, as in or after war, by capture, capitulation, cession, treaty, &c.; by actual colonisation or settlement; by right of discovery, by purchase, &c.

9. The uses of colonies are numerous. Those that are anxious to receive emigrants from the mother country, like the Australasian and Dominion Colonies, have uses co-extensive with emigration in its benefits on the working class.

(1.) They afford a good home, where the surplus population of the mother country may live plentifully under the same laws, manners, customs, language, and religion, as in England. A colonist may regard himself as still a subject of the Queen.

(2.) They furnish an extended market for British manufactures. (3.) They produce raw materials-cotton, sugar, wool, preserved beef and mutton-for the home market.

Others, Possessions rather than Colonies, such as Gibraltar, Malta, &c., are of value in a naval, military, and commercial point of view.

The smaller Asiatic Possessions are valuable chiefly in a commercial point of view. They afford safe harbours, coaling stations, &c., for our frigates that look after the safety of our commercial marine, keep down piracy, check slavery, &c. They may be compared to "sentry-boxes" scattered over the ocean.

10. Some are of opinion that colonies like the Australias, the Dominion, &c., having served their apprenticeship, ought now to "take their freedom. The colonists as a rule do not think so. They are proud to remain under the British crown; and indeed

it is better to be a citizen of a powerful empire, able to protect its subjects anywhere, rather than of a petty state that exists on sufferance. Wiser men advocate a Federated British Empire. The "Dominion" is already a Federation. The day may not be far distant when Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand shall see the wisdom of forming a central government; after which the grand idea of a GREATER BRITAIN may be realisable.

11. Men suitable for colonists are such as know how to work hard, whether at farming, cattle-rearing, mining, &c.; prudent men, that know how to save money when they have earned it; men of a somewhat adventurous turn of mind, able to rough it, and to turn their hand to the nearest employment. Nearly every colony publishes a Handbook for Intending Emigrants, which may be had on application from the agents for the colony in London, whose names, addresses, &c., and many other particulars, are given in the Colonisation Circular (price 6d.), issued annually by H.M.'s Emigration Commissioners.

The great obstacle to the more rapid prosperity of many of our Colonial Possessions is want of population, especially labourers, maid-servants, and men with capital. Many of the colonies give FREE or assisted passages to such emigrants, and free grants of land from twenty acres, to such as pay their own passage.

12. If the student will compare the number and extent of the British Colonies with those of every other nation, he will see that Britain has been of all nations the most successful in colonising. This may be attributed to the greater pluck and energy of our race. But it is also to be remembered that, after the fatal attempt to tax the American Colonies, the Imperial Government never attempted to obtain any revenue from its dependencies, as Holland does now, for example, from Java. English law was introduced. Property and life were protected. Christianity has been spread by bishops, clergy, schoolmasters, &c. The colonies have been allowed to govern themselves, and have representative institutions on the model of the English, almost as soon as they requested them. These are some of the reasons which account for our success. It is not contended that no mistakes have been made in British colonial government, but that, on the whole, a policy favourable to the success and development of the colonies has been pursued.

13. The colonies have received increasing attention as they increased in importance.

In 1768 a Secretary of State for the American or Colonial Department was appointed, but the office was abolished in 1782.

In 1782 the affairs of the colonies devolved on the Secretary of State for the Home Department.

In 1794 a principal Secretary for War was appointed, and colonial affairs were transferred to his department in 1801.

In 1854 a fourth principal Secretary of State was added for the colonies alone.

In 1858 a fifth principal Secretary was appointed for India.

14. The following is the list of Secretaries of State for the Colonies:

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Right Hon. Henry Labouchere (Lord Taunton). 1859. Lord Stanley (Earl Derby).

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Right Hon. Sir E. B. (afterwards Lord) Lytton.
Duke of Newcastle.

1864. Right Hon. Edward Cardwell.

1866. Earl of Carnarvon.

1867. Duke of Buckingham.

1868. Earl Granville.

1870. Earl of Kimberley.

The office for the Emigration Commissioners is distinct from the Colonial Office.

15. It may probably be of service to the student if the Colonial Possessions be arranged under the reigns in which they were obtained. (Cf. Map 1.)

Reigns of Henry VII., VIII., and Edward VI., 1485-1553:Discoveries of Cabot on Eastern shores, in right of

which England claimed Newfoundland, Labrador, &c.

Reign of Elizabeth, 1558-1603 :

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1609, Bermuda settled.

1623, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island settled.

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Reign of George I., 1714-1727 :-None.

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George II., 1727-1760 :—

1759, Canada capitulated.

George III., 1760–1820:-
1763, Canada ceded.

Dominica, Tobago, Grenada, and S. Vincent. 1787, Sierra Leone.

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New South Wales.

1796, Ceylon.

1797, Trinidad.

1800, Malta and Gozo.

1803, Guiana, S. Lucia, Tasmania.

1806, Cape of Good Hope.
1810, Mauritius.

1814, Heligoland, New Zealand.

George IV., 1820-1830:

1829, West Australia.

William IV., 1830-1837 :

1836, South Australia, Falkland Islands. VICTORIA, 1837 :—

1838, Natal.

1839, Aden.

1843, Hong-Kong, Straits Settlements.
1846, Labuan.

1851, Victoria separated.

1859, Queensland

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1860, Kowloon and Lema Islands.

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From the above the United States and British India are omitted. A full account of the latter is given in its proper place.

16. The following notes on treaties having special reference to our colonies will help the student to classify colonial acquisi

tions :

1667. Breda,-between England, France, Netherlands, and Denmark. The English conquests of Albany and New York were recognised. Antigua, Montserrat, and part of S. Kitts were ceded. Nova Scotia was given up to France.

1713. Utrecht,-between England, France, and Netherlands, and afterward Spain. Hudson Bay Territory, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Gibraltar, and Minorca ceded.

1748. Aix la Chapelle,-England, France, Netherlands, Spain, and Austria. All conquests made during the war to be restored. 1763. Paris, England, France, and Spain :

Europe.-England to have Minorca.

Asia-France to recover Pondicherry and other Indian terri


Africa.-England to acquire Senegal, and restore Goree to France. America.-England to keep Tobago, Dominica, S. Vincent, and Grenada, but to restore S. Lucia and other islands to France, which renounced all claim to Canada, Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton. Spain to receive Florida in return for Cuba.

1783. Versailles,—England, France, Spain, and America :INDEPENDENCE OF UNITED STATES.

Europe.-England restored Minorca to Spain.

Asia.-Chandernagore, Pondicherry, and Mahé to be restored to France. Holland ceded Nagapatam to England.

Africa. England to give up Senegal, Goree, &c., but to retain Gambia and Fort James.

America.-England to retain Dominica, Grenada, S. Vincent, S. Kitts, Nevis, and Montserrat, but to cede S. Lucia and Tobago to France.

1802. Amiens,-England, French Empire, and Batavian Republic: -England to restore to France and her allies all conquests except Ceylon and Trinidad.

Malta to be restored to the Knights of S. John. England finding that Malta was to be given to Russia, refused to evacuate the island, and war was again declared.

1814. Paris, England, Russia, Prussia, and France:-Malta ceded to England. England to restore all the conquests she had made from France during the war, except Tobago, S. Lucia, and Mauritius.

There have been several subsequent treaties affecting the British Colonies in America made with the United States, as to boundary lines, fishing, and other rights.

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