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VI. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY.

The following are the most important facts in the history of Natal

1497. Vasco de Gama, the celebrated Portuguese navigator discovered this part of the African coast on Christmas day. Hence its name.

1721. Dutch formed a settlement, but soon abandoned it.

1824. First English colony under Lieutenant Farewell settled by permission of Chaka, chief of the Zulus.

1836. Emigration of Dutch Boers from the Cape to Natal. Many of these murdered by Dingaan, the Zulu chief, the murderer and successor of his brother, Chaka.

1838. Dutch conquered Kaffirs.

1842. Dutch submitted to English troops.

1843. Natal proclaimed a British colony, and constituted a part of the Cape in 1845.

1856. Erected by royal charter into a distinct and separate colony, with a Legislative Council of 16, enlarged to 19 in

1873.

1866. No-Man's Land annexed as Alfred County.

III. GRIQUA LAND (WEST). (140 x 180 miles.)

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The official notification of the regular constitution of this colony was as follows:

"DOWNING STREET, April 2, 1873.-The Queen has been pleased to create a constitution for the province of Griqua Land West, and to appoint Richard Southey, Esq., C.M.G., to be Lieutenant-Governor thereof."

The following account is taken from the Times :

"A NEW COLONY.-Griqua Land West, in which the South African diamond-fields are situated, and which was, on the 27th of October 1871, proclaimed British territory on the petition of Nicholas Waterboer, the paramount chief, and his Raad, or council, is called Griqua

Land West to distinguish it from the eastern portion of Griqua Land, which formerly belonged to the Griquas, under Adam Kok, and which now forms part of the Orange Free State. Sir Henry Barkly, Governor of the Cape Colony, has transmitted to the Colonial Office a map and descriptive account of Griqua Land West. It extends from the Orange river to the territory of the chief of the Batlapin, and stretches about 140 miles from north to south, and 180 from east to west, the area being about 17,800 square miles. The whole is reported good grazing country. Copper, lead, iron, and coal are all stated to have been found there, and there are rumours of auriferous quartz reefs; but little is known about these. It is in its diamonds that the wealth of Griqua Land mainly consists. There are two descriptions of diggings; those on the banks of the Vaal River, where the diamonds are obtained by washing the gravel, and those called "dry diggings," at which shafts are sunk through decomposed volcanic rocks, the diamonds occurring chiefly in tufaceous limestone, clay, &c., which are dried and then sifted. The most remarkable of the dry diggings is the famous Colesberg Kopje, at De Beer's New Rush, where the first diamond was discovered in July 1871, under the roots of an old thorn-tree which then crowned a grassy knoll of some ten acres in extent; but which has now, from excavations, assumed the form of a circular crater, and is honeycombed with pits from 50 feet to 100 feet in depth, according to the amount of labour employed by the 1300 claimholders. The diamonds which have been dug out of this limited area were estimated last year, at the lowest prices current, at the value of a million sterling. The Kopje, when work is at the full, presents one of the most interesting and surprising spectacles of human industry in the world. Sir H. Barkly has forwarded a photograph to give some idea of the scene. There is great difference of opinion as to the depth at which the soil will be found to contain diamonds, but there can be no question that the expenses of working are greatly enhanced by increased depth, the whole of the stuff to be sorted having to be hauled up in buckets. Sir H. Barkly estimates the population of Griqua Land West at 40,000 at the utmost; considerably less than half are whites, and of these it is considered that not above a fourth have recently emigrated to South Africa. Bands of natives have poured in from all parts. The climate is naturally salubrious, as the general elevation of 3000 to 4000 feet above the sea diminishes the temperature; but the unnatural conditions of life at the diggings produce much sickness. The revenue of Griqua Land West is chiefly raised from diggers' licences and shop licences, and would probably reach or exceed £60,000 in the year 1872. The public expenditure for the year was estimated at less than half that amount, but will be larger with the government separated from that of the Cape. Sir H. Barkly has found it impossible, at a distance of 700 miles, to meet the requirements of the peculiar state of affairs at the Diamond Fields. He has appointed Mr Southey, late Colonial Secretary at the Cape, Lieutenant-Governor of Griqua Land West, and he may be assisted by a Council, consisting in part of elective inembers. Sir H. Barkly recommends that Girqua Land West be made a separate province, with a constitution something like that of Natal, in a certain subordination to the Government of Cape Colony. He hopes to see a South African Federation."

IV. WEST AFRICAN SETTLEMENTS.

(Map 11.)

The settlements on the West Coast of Africa belonging to

the British Crown are

a. Sierra Leone.

b. Gambia.

c. Cape Coast Castle.

d. Lagos.

e. Elmina and Dutch Guinea.

A. SIERRA LEONE. (18 x 12 miles.)

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1. Sierra Leone (Lion mountain) is the name of a small settlement at the mouth of the Rokelle or Sierra Leone river. It lies in 8° 30' N. lat, and 13° 18′ W. long. The climate is humid and enervating to Europeans, subject to epidemics, and from May to Nov. especially pestilential. Tropical fruits and plants grow luxuriously, and coffee has been introduced. The settlement includes the Isles de Los and Sherboro Island. 2. Trade.

a. The Imports are ale and porter, apparel, including boots, shoes, and hats, flour and biscuits, cotton and woollen goods, cutlery, earthenware and glass, guns and powder, haberdashery, hardware, iron pots, lumber, provisions, rum, tobacco, and wine. b. Exports.-Seeds, cocoa-nuts, ginger, ground-nuts, gum copal, hides, PALM-OIL, palm kernels, &c.

3. The Government is administered by Governors and Executive Council since 1863; Legislative Council of 5 official and 4 non-official members.

The Governor of Sierra Leone is Governor-General of the West African settlements since 1865. The present is the fourth Governor-in-chief. The Governor-General has to visit each settlement once a year.

4. HISTORY.-Sierra Leone was ceded to Great Britain in 1787 by native chiefs. It was obtained in order that any slaves taken from slave-ships by the West African cruising squadron might be liberated and employed in it. "L. E. L." terminated her sad life here.

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1. The GAMBIA is a great river of West Africa, which empties into the Atlantic about lat. 13° N. by an æstuary in some places 27 miles wide, but between Bird Island and Cape S. Mary only 10. It is 500 miles from Sierra Leone, and nearly 200 from the Senegal. The advantages of this noble river for traffic were known to English merchants in the reign of Elizabeth.

2. Climate hot and unhealthy for five months in the year. Bathurst, Jan., max. 80°, min. 75°; Sept., max. 85°, min. 80. M'Carthy's Island, in interior, 95° to 106°. Bathurst is much tempered by sea-breezes. The Governors exercise no authority over the natives. The settlements are mere forts, small towns, or trading depôts, as were the first possessions in India.

3. There are four settlements, viz.-Bathurst; British Combo ; Barra (ceded mile); M'Carthy's Island.

4. The forts or stations are in order up-stream

BATHURST or S. Mary's Island, at the mouth of the river; Albreda and Fort James; Jillifree and Vintang; M'Carthy's Island and Fort George; Pisania. Albreda, Jillifree, and Pisania are on the north.

5. The trade is chiefly in exporting ground-nuts, wax, hides, ivory, gold-dust, rice, PALM-OIL, timber; but it is less than formerly, owing to French competition.

Efforts have been made by distributing seed, &c., to introduce the cultivation of COTTON.

6. It is governed by a Governor and Executive and Legislative Councils. Separate colony from 1843 to 1865, but now under Governor of Sierra Leone. The present Governor is the ninth since 1843.

7. HISTORY.-1588. Elizabeth granted a patent to Exeter mer. chants to trade.

1618. Company formed, but failed at first.

1724. SLAVE TRADE extensively carried on until Emancipation.

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1. The name GOLD COAST is given to that portion of the shores of G. of Guinea between the rivers Asini (or Asinee) and Volta. Farther W., as far as Cape Palmas, is the Ivory Coast, to which succeeds the Grain Coast, now the Free Black Republic of LIBERIA. These names date back to Elizabethan times, and express the characteristic production then.

2. The trading forts or settlements are in order E. to W.Apollonia; Axim; Dixcove; Elmina; CAPE COAST CASTLE; Anamaboe; Apam, or James Town; Accra; Christiansborg; Fredericksborg; Ada; and Quittia.

3. "It is an interesting fact, that these settlements, which were originally and pre-eminently occupied as slave factories at an early date, are now maintained as the most effectual check on the slave trade, and also as centres of Commerce, carrying with it Civilisation and Christianity. The produce of the settlements of the Gold Coast is chiefly sent to Great Britain. Gold, one of the chief exports, is found in small grains, mixed with red loam, gravel, and sometimes in quartz. It is also fished up from the beds of streams, and is used as a currency by the natives, who even hoard it up in coffins and under the floors of their houses. Ivory and gum are also chief articles of export. The skins of the monkeys, who tenant the woods in thousands, form another important item of export to England. The southern coast is of all others the region of the oil-palm, where it grows in great profusion." -Whittaker.

4. Government. These settlements are governed by an Administrator and a Legislative Council, under the Governor. of Sierra Leone. From 1850-65 they formed a separate colony. 5. HISTORY.-1750. African Company constituted, with liberty to trade and form establishments from 20° N. to 20° S.

1821. Forts transferred to Crown. Only four retained, viz., Cape Coast Castle, Anamaboe, Dixcove, and Accra.

1824. On account of war with Ashantee and declining commerce, the public establishments were withdrawn.

1868. Treaty with Holland. Dixcove, Apollonia, Secondee, and Commendah, and the protectorate over E. and W. Wassaw and Denkera, given to Holland in exchange for Dutch Accra, Berraco, Apam, Cormantyne (or Cornantin), and Moree. But the natives objected, and war followed. Accordingly, in

1872, the Dutch transferred the whole of their possessions on

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