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pine clothe the hills to the very summit. Farther E., in Labrador, it bears the name Wotchish.

(2.) Nearer to the S. Lawrence, and extending almost parallel to it from Lake Superior to its mouth, is a range of heights to be regarded rather perhaps as a succession of river-divided tablelands than as a continuous range of hills. The most marked portions are the heights of the Forest of Wisconsin, N. and W. of Lake Superior; La Cloche Hills and Blue Mountains; the tableland of Mississagua (750 ft.), N. of Georgian Bay.

South of the S. Lawrence, a range extends to Point Gaspe, under the names Notre Dame (1500 ft.), and Shickshock Mountains (4000 ft.)

C. In New Brunswick, &c., the hills extend from a low tableland on the N. southwards along the American border, and then eastwards along the W. shore of the Bay of Fundy. The local names are Tobique Mountains in the N., and Nerepis Hills in the S. A range of low hills runs from Cape Wrath in Cape Breton to Cape Sable in Nova Scotia, along the western shores of both. Between Northumberland Strait and the Bay of Fundy, the name Cobequid Mountains (1100 ft.), an iron-producing region, occurs. 3. Rivers and Lakes.

The Dominion presents four systems of drainage, viz.— (1.) The S. Lawrence Valley,

(2.) The Hudson Bay drainage, ATLANTIC REGION. (3.) The Arctic Slope.

(4.) The Pacific Slope.

Of these in order


As the Nile is the river of Egypt, so is the S. Lawrence of the Dominion. The river is first called S. Lawrence when it leaves Lake Ontario. Geographically its source is the small river S. Louis, which rises in the Forest of Wisconsin and runs into the W. end of Lake Superior. Including the great lakes, it contains the largest body of fresh water (nearly half) in the world, the total length is about 2000 miles, and the area of its basin nearly half a million square miles.

A. The Great Lakes.

i. LAKE SUPERIOR (355 × 160) is about 1650 miles from the ocean, has an area of about 32,000 square miles, i.e., is nearly as large as Scotland, and is about 630 feet above the sea-level. It is connected with Lake Huron by a narrow channel, in which are the rapids of

Sault S. Marie. Copper and silver are worked along its shores, which resemble sea-shores in everything but the salt water.

ii. LAKE HURON (280 × 190) is about 1350 miles from the ocean, has an area of 27,000 square miles, or about three-fourths of Ireland, and is about 580 feet above the sea-level, and 450 feet deep. Its northern portion is called Georgian Bay. It contains several islands. Into it the long and large Lake Michigan (25,600 square miles), wholly in the States, empties itself; also Simcoe by the Severn, and Nipissing by the French River. Huron is connected with Erie by the River and Lake S. Clair, into which flow the Thames, and the River Detroit (30 miles). Huron is famous for its fisheries, its numerous islands, and the copper-mines along its shores. Considerable towns are rising rapidly along its shores, e.g., Goderich, Kincardine, Southampton, and Collingwood. On the Detroit are Windsor and Sandwich.

iii. LAKE ERIE (240 × 80), noted for storms, is about 1040 miles from the ocean, has an area of about 12,000 square miles, or nearly twice as large as Wales, and is 560 feet above the sea-level, and 102 deep. The great length of Superior is from E. to W.; of Huron, from N. to S.; but the direction is changed in Erie and Ontario to S. W. to N.E. Towns on Erie-Ports Stanley, Dover, and Colborne. Between Erie and Ontario are the world-renowned Falls of NIAGARA, just below Grand Island. The total fall from Erie to Ontario is 326 feet. For the first twenty miles the River Niagara falls only 15 feet; but in the half mile of fierce Rapids the fall is 55. Goat Island divides the fall. The Canada, or Horseshoe Fall, is 153 feet high and 1800 feet broad. The American Fall is 164 feet high and 600 feet broad. In the upper part of the river the banks are nearly on a level with the stream, which hurries along with fearful rapidity, as if conscious of doom. Below the fall the banks are from 250 to 300 feet in perpendicular height. The roar and rush can be heard forty miles, and a cloud of mist marks the locality. The water is shot sheer over the rock, so that it is possible to go under. It was illuminated for the Prince of Wales. Blondin foolhardily walked over on a rope. It is calculated that 710,000 tons of water, 159,000,000 gallons, go over every minute, i.e., a gallon a day for two months for every inhabitant of London. The rock is gradually wearing westwards.

The lakes are connected for navigation purposes by the Welland Canal, from Port Colborne on Erie to Port Dalhousie on Ontario.

iv. LAKE ONTARIO (180 × 65), the smallest but most important Canadian trading lake, is about 760 miles from the ocean, more than half as large as Erie, 234 feet above the sea-level, and 600 feet deep. The peninsula between Huron and the Georgian Bay on the one side, and Lakes Erie and Ontario on the other, is the most fertile, and is rapidly becoming the most thickly-peopled portion of Canada. Towns on Ontario-Hamilton, Toronto, Cobourg, Kingston, and Belleville.

Thus the great lakes may be regarded as occupying three platforms-on the highest, Lake Superior; on the middle, Huron, Michigan, and Erie; and on the lowest, Ontario.

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(An attempt to illustrate comparative size is made in the horizontal, and comparative fall in the vertical line.)

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B. The remaining course of the S. Lawrence is a succession of small lakes, containing innumerable islands, rather than an ordinary river. Thus there are (1.) Lake of the Thousand Islands, opposite Kingston, near which the Rideau River and Canal connects the lake navigation with that of the River Ottawa at Bytown, now OTTAWA. (2.) Lake S. Francis, S. of Montreal. (3.) The large expansion, including the island of Montreal and Isle Jesus. (4.) Lake S. Peter, just south of Three Rivers, &c.

Some idea of the enormous size of the S. Lawrence may perhaps be gathered from the following facts :-It is 2 miles wide at Quebec, 25 miles opposite the Saguenay, and 100 miles at the commencement of the Gulf. Ships of 1000 tons ascend to Quebec, and of 600 to Montreal, where the huge Victoria tubular bridge spans the stream. The water is salt at Quebec, and the tide felt occasionally as far as Three Rivers.

To name all the Tributaries and smaller lakes would require the fabled hundred tongues. The following are the chief tributaries on the north or left bank :

(1.) Nipigon (30), draining the lake of the same name into Lake Superior.

(2.) Severn, draining Lake Simcoe into Georgian Bay. (3.) Thames, into Lake S. Clair, and on it, of course, London and Chatham.

(4.) Trent, draining a large number of lakes into the

channel which separates Prince Edward peninsula in Ontario from the mainland.

(5.) OTTAWA (600), famous for its beautiful scenery of lakes and waterfalls, its lumber trade, and as the boundary between Quebec and Ontario, formerly Canada East or Lower Canada, and Canada West or Upper Canada. It issues from Lake Temiscaming. On it is the capital of the Dominion, so it is destined to play an important part in the future of the country.

(6.) S. MAURICE (400), a long and beautiful lake-river joining at Three Rivers, 24 miles above which is a grand fall of 150 feet.

(7.) SAGUENAY (300), a black, deep, and sombre stream, draining Lake S. John and many more lakes. It flows between stupendous cliffs through a country of marvellous beauty, and rich in iron; but almost unpeopled. Owing to the vast deposits of magnetic iron ore in its valley, the compasses of ships passing up and down are said to be visibly affected. Its mouth is 2 miles wide.

(8.) Montmorency, famous for its falls of 250 feet. It enters the main stream a little below Quebec.

On the south or right bank are

(1.) RICHELIEU (so called from the famous Cardinal) or S. John, draining the beautiful Lake Champlain into L. S. Peter. (2.) S. FRANCIS, draining an important corn-producing district into Lake S. Peter.

(3.) CHAUDIERE, a river of waterfalls and sand-bearing gold, entering the main stream nearly opposite Quebec.

All these streams, and many more, are full of islands and lakes, foaming rapids and waterfalls, nameless yet, but dwarfing the celebrated ones in the Old World. Their banks are in some cases stupendously high and rocky, in others covered with magnificent trees. The islands in the streams are also thickly wooded. In some places the banks are level and well cultivated, thus presenting a beauty of another kind.

The rivers of New Brunswick which empty into the Gulf of S. Lawrence are

(1.) Ristigouche (200) into Chaleur Bay, on which are the ports of Carlisle in Canada, and Dalhousie and Bathurst in New Brunswick.

(2.) Miramichi (200) into the bay of the same name. On it are Newcastle and Chatham Both have many tributaries. The chief river is the

S. JOHN (450 miles), which rises in Maine; flows first E., then S., forming part of the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick. The lower part of its course, forming a huge

fiord-like inlet from the Bay of Fundy, is entirely in the colony. On it are Woodstock, Frederickton, up to which it is navigable, Kingston, and at its mouth S. JOHN, the capital. It receives many tributaries, and has two celebrated falls, called the Little and Grand, in its upper course, which is famous for beautiful scenery. The S. boundary between New Brunswick and Maine is formed by the S. Croix from the Shodiac Lakes into Passamaquoddy Bay.

There are many rivers into the numerous fiord-like harbours of Nova Scotia, but they are chiefly mountain torrents. The S. Mary and the Shubenacadie may be mentioned. The latter, with a canal, connects Halifax Harbour with Cobequid Bay, the N. part of the Bay of Fundy.


The Hudson Bay takes the drainage of a basin extending about 100 miles from its shores, except in the case of the Nelson valley, which extends to the Rocky Mountains.

The chief rivers are

(1.) CHURCHILL or MISSINNIPPI, which issues from Buffalo Lake near the Athabasca, from which it is separated by a Portage. It takes the drainage of Wollaston, Deer, and other lakes, and empties into the W. side of the bay at Fort Churchill. Wollaston Lake is also connected by a bifurcation with Lake Athabasca,

(2.) NELSON, a stream destined to be of much more importance when Manitoba is populated. It rises by two streams in the Rocky Mountains

(a.) The North Saskatchewan, navigable 700 miles for boats, rises between Mounts Lyell and Murchison on the west slope of the range near the Columbia and the Athabasca, at an elevation of about 13,400 feet.

(b.) The South Saskatchewan rises between Mounts Murchison and Balfour. The Vermilion Pass (4944 feet) and the Kananaskis Pass (4100 feet E., 3575 feet W.) connect its valley with that of the Kotani, a tributary of the Columbia. By means of one of these passes it is probable that the line of railway which the Dominion is bound by the treaty of union to make in ten years will pass into British Columbia. Both branches have many tributaries. After separating to a distance of more than 3o, the two branches unite, and flow E. into the N. end of LAKE WINNIPEG, and thence N.E. into Hudson Bay. At its mouth is PORT NELSON, the capital of the Hudson Bay Company's Settlements. Into the S. end of Lake

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