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ham, in his expedition to Mandara, reached latitude 9 degrees 15 minutes; thus adding 14 (legrees, or 900 miles, to the extent explored by Europeans. Tornemann, it is true, had previously crossed the desert, and had proceeded as far southward as Nyffe, in latitude 105 degrees; but no account was ever received of his journey. Park in his first expedition reached Silla, in longitude 1 degree 34 minutes west, it distance of 1100 miles from the mouth of the Gambia. Denham and Clapperton, on the other hand, from the east side of Lake Tchad in longitude in degrees, to Sokoto in longitude 54 degrets, explored a distance of 700 miles from east to west in the heart of Africa; a line of only 400 miles remaining unknown between Silla and Sokoto. But ini second journey of Captain Clapperton added tenfold value to these discoveries. Ble had the good-fortune to detect the shortest and most easy road to the populous countries of the interior; and he could boast of being the first who had completed an itinerary across the continent of Africa from Tripoli to Benin.'*
The honour of discovering and finally determining the course of the Niger was left to RICHARD LANDER. Under the auspices of government, Lander and his brother left England in January 1830, and arrived at Badagry on the 191h of March. From Bussa they sailed down the Niger, and ultimately entered the Atlantic hy the · river Nun, one of the branches from the Niger. They reiurned from their triumphant expedition in June, 1831, and publishes en account of their travels in three small volumes, for which Mr. Murray, the eminent bookseller, is said to have given a thousand guineas. Richard Lander was induced to embark in another expedition to Africa-a commercial speculation fitted out by some Liverpool merchants, which proved an utter failure. A party of natives attacked the adventurers on the river Niger, and Lander was wounded by a musket-ball. Ile arrived at Fernando Po, but died from the effects of his wound on the 16th of February 1834, aged thirty-one. A narrative of this unfortunate expedition was published in 1837 in two volumes, by Mr. Macgregor Laird and Mr. Oldfield, surviving officers of the expedition.
DOW DICII-CAMPTELL-BURCHELL. Of Western Africa, interesting accounts are given in the ‘Mission to Ishantee,' 1819, by MR. BUWDICII; and of Southern Africa, in the · Travels' of MR. CAMPBELI., a missionary, 1822; and in Travels in Southern Africa,' 1822, by MR. BURCHELL. Campbell was the first to penetrate beyond Lattaku, the capital of the Bechuana tribe of the Matchapins. He made two missions to Africa, one in 1813, and a second in 1820, both being undertaken under the auspices of the Missionary Society. He founded a Christian establishment at
. Il story of Maritime and Inland Discovery,
Lattaku, but the natives evinced little disposition to embrace the pure faith, so different from their sensual and superstitious rites. Until Mr. Bowdich's mission to Ashantee, that powerful kingdom and its capital, Coomassie (a city of 100,000 souls), although not nine days' journey from the English settlements on the coast, were known only by name, and very few persons in England had ever formed the faintest idea of the barbaric pomp and magnificence, or of the state, strength and political condition of the Ashantee nation.
J. L. BURCKHARDT-J. B. ELLZONI.
Among the numerous victims of African discovery are two eminent travellers-Burckhardt and Belzoni. John LUDWIG BURCKHARDT (1784–1817) was a native of Switzerland, who visited England, and was engaged by the African Association. He proceeded to Aleppo in 1809, and resided two years in that city, personating the character of a Mussulman doctor of laws, and acquiring a perfect knowledge of the language and customs of the East. He visited Palmyra, Damascus, and Letanon; stopped some time at Cairo, and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, crossing the Nubian desert by the route taken by Bruce. He returned to Cairo, and was preparing to depart thence in a caravan för Fezzan, in the north of Africa, when he was cut off by a fever. His journals, letters, and memoranda, were all preserved, and are very valuable. He was an accurate observer of men and manners, and his w crks throw much light on the geography and moral condition of the countries he visited. They were published at intervals from 1819 to 1860.- JOHN BAPTIST BELZONI was a native of Padua, in Italy, who came to England in 1803. He was a man of immense stature and muscular strength, capable of enduring the greatest fatigue. From 1815 to 1819 he was engaged in exploring the antiquities of Egypt. Works on this subject bad previously appeared–The Egyptiaca’ of Hamilton, 1809; Mr. Legh's 'Narrative of a Journey in Egypt,' 1816; Captain Light's Travels,' 1818; and Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey,' &c., by Mr. R. Walpole, 1817. Mr. Legh's · account of the antiquities of Nubiathe region situated on tae upper part of the Nile-had attracted much attention. While the temples of Egypt are edifices raised above ground, those of Nu bia are excavated rocks, and some almost of mountain magnitude have been hewn into temples and chiseled into sculpture. Mr. Legh was the first adventurer in this career. Belzoni use teil as assistant to Mr. Salt, the British consul at Egypt, in explorng the Egyptian Pyramids and ancient tombs. Some of these remains of art were eminently rich and splendid, and one which he ijscovered near Thebes, containing a sarcophagus of the finest oriental alataster, minutely sculptured with hundreds of figures, he brought with him to Britain, and it is now in the British Museum. In 1820 le published ‘A Narrative of Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, &c. in Egypt ard Nubia,' which shews how much may be done by the labour and unremitting exertions of
one individual. Belzoni's success in Egypt, his great bodily strength, and his adventurous spirit, inspired him with the hope of achieving discoveries in Africa. He sailed to the coast of Guinea, with the intention of travelling to Timbuktu, but died at Benin of an attack of dysentery on the 3d of December 1823, aged sixty-five. We subjoin a few passages from Belzoni's Narrative:
The Ruins at Theues. On the 22d. we saw for the first time the ruins of great Thebes, and landed at Luxor. Here I beg the reader to observe, that but very imperfect ideas can be formed of the extensive ruins of Thebes, eveu from the accounts of the most skilful and accurate travellers. It is absolutely impossible to imagine the scene displayed, without seeing it. The most sublime ideas that can be formed from the most magnificent specimens of our pres nt architecture would give a very incorrect pictur: of these ruins; for such is the difference not only in magnitude, but in form, proportion, and construction that even the pencil can convey but a faint idea of the whole. It appeared to ine like entering a city of giants, who, after a long conflict, were all destroyed, leaving the ruins of their various temples as the only proofs of their former existence. The temple of Lux r presents to the traveller at once one of the most splindid groups of Egyptian grandeur. The extensive propylæon, with the two obelistis, aud colossal stuines in the front; the thick groups of enormous columns; the variety of apartments, and the sanctuary it containe; the beautiful ornaments which doru every part of the walls and columus, described by Mr. Hamilton-fause in the astonished traveller an ohlivion of all that he has sen before. If his attention be attracted to the north side of Thebes by the towering remains that project a great height above the wood of palm-trees, he will gradually anter that forest-like assemblage of ruis of teinples, columns, obelisks, colossi, sphinxes, portals, and an endless number of other astonishing objects, that will convince him at once of the impossibility of a description. On the west side of the Nile, still the traveller finds himiself anong wonders. The temples of Gournon. Memnonium, and Medinet Ahoo, attest the extent of the greut city on this side
The unrivalled colossal figures in the plains of Thebes, the numbr of tombs excavated in the rocks, those in the great valley of the kinys, with their paintings, sculptures, mummies, sarcophagi, figures, &c , are all objects worthy of the admiration of the traveller, who wil not fail to wonder how a nation which was once so great as to erect these stupendous edifices, conld so far fall into oblivion that even their language and writing are totally unknown to us.
Opening a Tomb at Thebes. On the 16th of October 1817, I set a number of fellahs, or labouring Arabs, to work, and caused the urth to be opened at the foot of a steep hill, and under the bed of a torrent, which, when it rains, pours a great quantity of water over the spot in which they were digging. No one could imagine that the ancient Egyptians would make the entrance into such an immense and superb excavation just under a torrent of water ; but I had strong reasous to suppose that there was a tomh in that place, from indications I had previously observed in my search of other sepulchres. The Arabs, who were accustomed to dig, were all of opinion that nothing was to be found there, but I persisted in carrying on the work; and on the evening of the following day we perceived the part of the rock that had been hewn and cut way. On the 18th, early in the morning, the task was resumed ; and a'out woon, the workinen reached the opening, which was eighteen feet below the surface of the ground. When there was room enough for me to crrep through a passage that the earth had left under the ceiling of the first corridor, I percrived immediately. by the painting on the roof, and by the hieroglyphics in hassorelievo, that I had at length reached the entrance of a large and magnificent toinb. I hastily passed alon: this corridor. and came to a staircase 23 feet long, at the foot of which I entered another gallery 37 fert 3 inches long, where my progrig8 was suddenly arrested by a large pit 30 feet deep and 14 feet by 12 feet 3 inches wide. On the other side and in front of me. I observed a small aperture 2 feet wide and 2 fect 6 inches high, and at the bottom of the pit a quantity of rubbish. A rope fastened to a piece of wood, that was laid across the passage
against the projections which formed a kind of doorway, appeared to have been used formerly for descending into the pit; and from the small aperture on the opposite xide bung another which reached the bottom, no doubt for the purpose of ascending. The wood, and the rope fastened to it, crumbled to dust on being touched. At the bottom of the pit were several pieces of wood placed against the side of it, so as to assist the person who was to ascend by means of the rope into the apsture. It was not till the following day that we coutrived to make a bridge of two beams and crossed the pit, when we discovered the little aperture to be an opening forced through a wall, that had entirely closed what we afterwards found to be the entrance into magnificent halls and corridors beyond. 'I he ancient Egyptians had closely shut it up, plastered the wall over, and painted it like the rest of the sides of the pit, so that, but for the aperture, it would have been impossible to suppose that there was any further proceeding. Any one would have concluded that the tomb ended with the pit. Besides, the pit served the purpose of receiving the rain-water which might occasionally fall in the mountain, and thus kept out the damp from the inner part of the tomb. We passed through the small aperture, and then made the full discovery of the whole sepulchre.
An inspection of the model will exhibit the numerous galleries and halls through which we wandered; and the vivid colours and extraordinary figures on the walls and ceilings, which everywhere met our view, will convey an idea of the astonishment we must have felt at every step. In one apartment we found the carcass of a bull embalmed; and also scatiered in various places wooden figures of mummies covered with asphaltum, to preserve them. In some of the rooms were lying about statues of fine earth, baked, coloured blue, and strongly varuished; in another part were four wooden figures standing erect, four feet high, and a circular bollow inside, as it intended to contain a roll of papyrus. The sarcophagus, of oriental alabaster, was found in the centre of the half, to which I gave the name of the seloon, without a cover, wbich had been removed and broken; and the body that bad once occupied this superb coffin had been carried away. We were not, iberefore, the first who bad profanely entered this mysterious mansion of the dead, though there is no doubt it had remained uudisturbed since the time of the invasion of the Perslans.
The architectural ruins and monuments on the banks of the Nile are stupendous relics of former ages. They reach back to the period when Thebes poured her heroes through a hundred gates, and Ĝreece and Rome were the desert abodes of barbarians. From the tops of the Pyramids,' said Napoleon to his soldiers on the eve of battle, 'the shades of forty centuries look down upon you.' Learning and research have unveiled part of the mystery of these august memorials. Men like Belzoni ħave penetrated into the vast sepulchres, and unearthed the huge sculpture ; and scholars like Young and Champollion, hy studying the hieroglyphic writing of the ancient Egyptians, have furnished a key by which we may ascertain the object and history of these Eastern remains.
DR. E. D. CLARKE.
One of the most original and interesting of modern travellers was the Rev. Dr. EDWARD DANIEL CLARKE (1769-1822), a Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge, and the first Professor of Mineralogy in that univerșity. In 1799 Dr. Clarke set off with Mr. Malthus and some other college friends on a journey among the northern nations. He travelled for three years and a half, visiting the south of Russia, part of Asia, Turkey, Egypt, and Palestine. The first volume of his Travels appeared in 1810, and included Russia, Tartary, and Turkey. The second, which became more popular, was issued in 1812, and included Greece, Egypt, and the Holy Land; and three other volumes
appeared at intervals before 1819. The sixth volume was published after his death, part being contributed by Mr. Walpole, author of • Travels in the Levant.' Dr. Clarke received from his publishers the large sum of £7000 for his collection of Travels.
Their success was immediate and extensive. As an honest and accomplished wiiter, careful in his facts, clear and polished in his style, and compreliensive in his knowledge and observation, Dr. Clarke has not been excelled by any general European traveller.
Description of the Pyramids. We were ronsed as soon as the eun dawned by Antony, our faithful Greek servant and interpreter, with the intelligence that the Pyramids were in view. We hastened from the cabi:; and never will the impression made by their appearance be obliterated By reflecting the sun's rays, they appear as white as show, and of such surprising magnitude. that nothing we had previously conceived in our imagination bad prepared us for the spectacle we b held.' The sight instantly convinced us that no power of description, po delineation, can convey ideus adequate to the effect produced in viewing these stupendous monuments. The forinality of their construction is lost in their prodigious magnitude; the mind. clevated by wonder, freis at once the force or an axiom, wnich, however disputed, experience confirma--that in vastness, whatsoever be its nature, there dwells sublimity. Another proof of their indscribable power is, that no one ever approached them under other emotions than those of terror, which is another principal source of the sublime. In certain instances of irritable feeling, this impression of awe and fear has b en fo great as to canse pain rather than pleasure; hence, perhaps, have origin: ted descriptions of the Pyramids whiclı represent them as deformed and gloomy masse 8. without taste or biauty. Persons who have derived no satisfaction from the contemplation of them, may not have been conscious that the uneasiness they experienced was a result of their own sensibility. Others have acknowledged ideas widely different, excited by every wonderful circumstance of character and of situation-ideas of duration almost endless, of power inconceivable, of majesty supreme, of solitude most awful, of grandenr, of desolation, and of repose.
pon the 230 of August 1802 ve set out for the Pyramide, the inundation e1)abling us to approach within less than a mile of the larger pyramid in our djerm (or boat]. Messrs. Haminer and Hamilton Accompanied us. We arrived at Djiza at daybreak, and called upon some English officers, who wished to join our party upon this occasion. From Djiza our approach to the Pyramids was thronuh a swampy country, by means of a varrow canal, which, however was deep enough; and we srriv.d without any obstacle at nine o'clock at the bottom of a candy slope leading 1p to the principal pyrånud.' Some Bedouin Arabs, who had appen blert to receive nis upon our landing, were much amused by the eagerness excited in our whole party to prove who should first set his foot upon the summit of this ar ificial mountain. With what amazement did we survey the vast surface that was presented to us when ve arrived at this stupendous monuincnt, wbich seemed to reach the ciouds. Here and the re appeared some Arab guides upon the immense masses above us, like so many pigmies, waiting to shew the way to the summit. Now and then we thought welcard voices, and listened; but it was the wind in powerful gusts sweeping the iminense ranges of stone. Already some of our party liad begun the ascent, and wire paneing at the tremendous depth which they saw below. One of our military companions after having surmoured the most difficult part of the undertaking, became giddy in consequence of looking down from the elevation he had attained; and being compelled to abandon the project, he hired an Arab to assist bin in uiterting his descent. The rest of us, more accustomed to the business of climbing heights, with many a halt for respiration, and many an exclamation of wonder. pursned our way towards the summit. The mode of ascent has been frequently described; and yet, from the questions which are often proposed to travellers, it does not appear 10 be generally understood. The reader may imagine himself to be upon a staircase, every step of which, to a man of iniddle stature, is nearly breast-high, and the breadth of each step is equal to its height, consequently the footing is secure; and although a retrospect in going up be sometimes fearful to persons unaccustomed to look down