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the work ultimately extended to seven volumes, of which a second edition has since been published. The period of seventy years thus copiously treated had been included in Smollett's hasty, voluminous History, but the ground was certainly not pre-occupied. Great additional information had also been accumulated in Coxe's Lives of Marlborough aud Walpole, Lord Hervey's Memoirs of the Court of George II., the Stuart Papers, the Suffolk and Hardwicke Correspondence, and numerous other sources. In the early portion of his work --the Queen Anne period—there is a strong and abiding interest derived from the great names engaged in the political struggles of the 'day, and the nearly equal strength of the parties. Lord Mahon thus sketches the contending factions:

Whig and Tory in the Reign of Queen Anne. At that period the two great contending parties were distinguished, as at present, by tue nicknames of whig and Tory. But it is very remarkable that in Queen Anne's reign the relative meaning of these terms was not only different but opposite to that which they bore at the accession of William IV. Iu theory, indeed, the main principle of each continues the same. The leading principle of the Tories is the dread of popular licentiousness. The leading principle of the Whigs is the dread of royal encroachment. It may, thence, perhaps, be deduced that good and wise men would attach themselves either to the Whig or to the Tory party, according as there seemed to be the greater danger at that particular period from despotism or from democracy. The same person who would bave been a Whigiu 1712 would have been a Tory in 1830. For, on examination, it will be found that, in nearly all particulare, a modern Tory resembles a Whig of Queen Anne's reigu, and a Tory of Queen Anne's reign a modern Whig.

First as to the Tories. The Tories of Queen Anne's reign pursued a most anceasing opposition to a just and glorions war against France. They treated the great general of the age as their peculiar advers:ry. To onr recent enemies. the French, their policy was supple and cronchmg. They had an indifference, or even an aversion, to our old allies the Dutch ; they had a political leaving towards the Roman Catholics at home; they were snipported by the Roman Catholics in their elections; they had a love of triennial parliaments, in preference to septennial; they attempted to abolish the protecting duties and restrictions of commerce; they wished to favour our trade with France at the expense of our trade with Portugal; they were spa port:d by a faction whose war-cry was • Repeal of the Union,' in a sister-kingdom. To serve a temporary purpose in the House of Lords, they had recourse-for the first time in our annals--to a large and overwhelming creation of peers. Like the Whigs in May 1831, they chose the moment of the highest popular passion and excitement to dissolve the thouse of Commons, hoping to avail themselves of a short-lived cry for the purpose of permanent delusion. The Whigs of Queen Anne's time, on the I other hand, supported that splendid war which led to such victories as Ramillies and

Blenheim. They had for a leader the great man who gained those victories; they advocated the old principles of trade; They prolonged the duration of parliaments; they took their stand on the principles of the Revolution of 1688; they raised the cry of No Popery;' they loudly inveighed against the subserviency to France, the desertion of our old allies, the outrnge wrought upon the peers, the deceptions practised upon the sovereign, and the other incasures of the Tory administration. Such were the Tories, and such were the Whigs of Queen Anne. We give a specimen of the noble historian's character-painting:

Charles Edvard Stuart, the Young Pretender. Charles Edward Stuart is one of those characters that cannot be portrayed at a single sketch, but bare so greatly altered, as to require a new delineation at different periods. View him in his later years, and we bebold the ruins of intemperance as

wasted but not as venerable as those of time; we find him in his anticipated age a besotted drunkard, a peevish husband, a tyrannical muster-his understanding de based, and his temper soured. But not such was the Charles Stuart of 1745. Not such was the ga'lant Prince full of youth, of hope, of courage, who, landing with seven men in the wilds of Moidart, could rally a kingdom round his banner, and scatter his foes before him at Preston and at Falkirk. Not such was the gay and courtly host of Holyrood. Not such was he, whose endurance of fatigue and eagernese for battle sbone pre-eminent, even amongst Highland chiefs; while tairer critics proclaimed bim the most wivning in conversation, the most graceful in the dance ! Can we think lowly of one who could acquire such unbounded popularity in fo few months, and over so noble a nation as the Scots: who could so deeply stamp bis image on their hearts that, even thirty or forty years after his departure, his name, as we are told, always awakened the most ardent praises from all who had known hím--the most rugged hearts were seen to melt at his remembrance-and tears to steal down the furrowed cheeks of the veteran ? Let us, then, without denying the faults of his character, or extenuating the degradation of his age, do justice to the lustre of his manbood.

The person of Charles—I begin with this for the sake of female readers-was tall and well formed; bis limbs athletic and active. He excelled in all mauly exercises, and was inured to every kind of toil, especially long marches on foot, having applied himself to field-sports in Italy, and become an excellent walker. His face was strikingly handsome, of a perfect oval and a fair complexion; his eyes light-blue; his features high and noble. Contrary to the custom of the time, which prescribed perukes, his own fair bair usually fell in long ringlets on his neck. This goodly person was enhanced by his graceful manners; frequently condescending to the most familiar kindness, yet always shielded by a regai dignity, he had a peculiar talent to please and to persuade, and never failed to adapt his couversation to the taste or to the station of those whom he addressed. Yet he owed nothing to his education : it bad been intrusted to Sir Thomas Sheridan, an Irish Roman Catholic, who has not eecaped the suspicion of being in the pay of the British government, and at their insti. gation betruying his duty as a teacher. I am bound to say that, I have found in corroboration of so foul a charve. Sheridan appears to me to have lived aud de man of honour; but bistory can only acquit him of base perfidy by accusirgim cf gross neglect. He had certainly left bis pupil uninstructed in the most common close ments of knowledge. Charles's letters, which I have seen amongst the Suart i'apers, are written in a large, rude, rambling hand like a school-boy's. In spelling. Ihrý are still more deficient. With him humour,' for exemple, becom's UMER; the weapou be knew so well how to wield, is a SORD; and even his own fatner's name appears under the alias of GEMS. Nor are these errors confired to a single langnage : who. to give another instance from his French-would recognize a banting knife in cooTO DE CHAS? I can, therefore, readily believe that. as Ur. Kiig assures us, he knew very little of the history or constitution of Erglund But the letters of Charles, while they prove his want of edncation, no less clearly display his natarel powers, great energy of character, and great warmth of beart. Writing confider!. ally, just before he sailed for Scotland, he says: •1 made my devotions on Penterort Day, recommending myself particularly to the Almighty on this occasion to { uide and direct me, and to continue to me always the same sentiments, which are router to suffer anything than fail in any of my duties.' His young brother. Herry of York, is mentioned with the utmost tenderness; and, though on his return from Scotland, he conceived that he had reason to complain of Henry's coldness and reserve, the fault is light y touched upon, and Charles observes that, whatever may be his brothers want of kindness, it shall never diminish his own. To his father's tone is both affectionate and dutiful: he frequently acknowledges his goodness; and when, at the outset of his great enterprise of 1745. he entreats a bleeding from the pope, surely the sternest Romani-t might forgive him for addiny, that he shall think a blessing from his parent more precious and more holy still. As to his friends and partisans, Prince Charles has been often accused of not being sufficiently moved by their sufferings, or grateful for their services. Bred up amidst monks and bigots, who seemed far less afraid of his remaining excluded from power, than that on gaining he should use it liberally, he had been tangbt the highest notions of prerogalive and hereditary right. From thence he might infer that those who served him

in Scotiaad did no more than their duty; were merely fulfilling a plain social obligation; and were not, therefore, entitled to any very especial praise and adiniration. Yet, on the other hand, we must remember how prone are all siles to saggerate their own desert to think lo rewards sufficient for it, and to compluiz of neglect even where bone really exists; and mor over that, in point of fuct, many passayer from Charles's most familiar correspondence inight be adduced tosheka watchfui and affec ionate care for his :dherents. As a very young man, he determined that he would sooner submit to personal privation than en barras: his friends by contracting debts. On returning from Scotland, he told the French minister. D'Argefon, that he would nviosakunything for himself, but wus rendy to go down on his knees to obtain favours for his brother-exiles Once. after la menting some divisions and iniscon.inct amongst his servants, be declures that, Devertheless, an honest inau is so higlily to be prized that. unless your na jesty orders ne. Isl.ould part with them with a sore heart Nay, more, as it appars to me. this warm feling of Charles for luis fortunate friends survived almost alone, when, in his decline of life. nearly every other noble quality had been dimmed and defaced from his wind. In 1783, Mr. Greathead, a personal friend of Mr. Fox, fucceeded in obtaining an interview with him at Rome. Being alone with him for some time, the English traveller studiously led the conversation to his enterprise in Scotlard. The Prince bewed some reluctance to enter upon the subject, and seemed to suffer much pain at the reILembrance; but Mr. Greathead with more of curiosity than of discretion, still persevered. At length, then, the Prince appeared to shake off the load which oppressed him; his eye briglitened, his face assumed unwonted animation; sud he began the perrauve of bis Scottish campaigns with a vehement energy of manner, recounting nie marcher, his battles. his victories, and his defent ; lie hairbreadih (scapee, and The inviolable and devoted attachment to his li:hland followers, and at length' proceeding to the dreadful penalties which sowany of them bad suber quently underfone But the recital of their sufferings appeird to wound him far more deeply ihan his own; then, und vot till then, his fortitude forsook him, his voice faltered, his eye became fixed, and he fell to the floor in convulsions. At the noise, in rushed the Duchess of Albany, bis illegit minte daughter. who happened to be in the next apartment. 'Sir' she exclaimed to Mr. Giri aiheed, what is this? Yon must bare been speaking to my father about Scotland and the Highlanders? No one dares 10 mention these subject: in his presence.'

Once more, however, let me tum irom the last glerms of the expiring flame to the hours of its mericicu brightness In estivating the abilitice of Prince Charles, I mes first observe that they stood in most direct contrast to his father's. Facb excelled in what the other wanted No mid could express himself wih n ore clearness and urgance than Jamer; it has betu ss.id of him that he wrote bet:er than any of those whom he employed; but, on the other hand, his conduct was alw: ya deficient in energy and entrpris. Charks, : 8 we bi ve Been, was 10 Junnan: while in action-in doing what deserves to be written and not in mirely writing what deserves to be read-he stood far fuperior. Lelnd some experience of mar--haring, wben very young, joined the Spanislı army at the siege of Gaela, ard distinguished lir self on that occasion--and he loved it as the birthright i oth of a Sobieski and a Strart. His quick intelligence, his promptness of decision, and his contempt of dauger, are recorded on unquestionable testimony. His talents as a leader probly nerer rose above the common level; pot, in some cases in Scotland. wher: he end his in' re practised officers differed in opinion, it will, I think, appear that they were wrong and he was right. No knight of the olden time cond have a loftier sepee of honour: judeed he pushed it to such wild extremes, that it often led him into error and misfortune. Thus he lost the battle of Culloden in a great measure because he disdained to takerdvantage of the ground. and deemed it more chivalrous to meet the enemy on equal terms Thus, also. his wilful and froward conduct at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle proceeded from a false poivt of honour, which he thonght involved in it. At other times, again, this generous spirit may deserve unmingled praise : he could never be persuaded or provoked into adopting any harsh measures of retaliation; his extreme linity to his prisoners, even to such as had attempted his life, was, it seems, a common matter of complaint among his troops; and even wben encoura agement had been given to his assassination, and a price pat upon liis head, he contind most earnestly to urge that in no possible case should 'the Elector,' as he called rival. suffer any personal injury or insult. This anxiety was always present in his mind. Mr. Forsyth, r gentleman wbosc description of Italy is far the best that

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has app'ared and whose scrupulous accuracy and superior means of information will be acknowledged by all travellere, relates how, only a few ye::rs after the Scottish erped con, Charles, r lying on the faitli of a single adhereni, set out for London in an hulle tuis, and un'r the bank of Suita. On arriving there, he was introen dit might intit room iud of conspirators who he had never previously

· Hure' said his conductor, is the person you want,' und left inim locked up in the mysterious simbuy. Thes: We e meu who imagined themselves qual. at that time. 10 treat with him for the throne of Eugland. Dispose of me, gentlemen, as you please.'sid Chiris; ' my life is in your power, and I therefore can stipulial for nothing Yet give in. I eutriat, one solemn promis-, ibat it your desigu Bbuild succeed, the pieseni fainy sail be sent sutly and honourably hoine,'

Another quality of char cs's minu was great firmness of resolution which pride, and sorrow afterward: bardeued into sullen obstinary. He was likewise at all times prone to gusts and sailies of anger, when his language b'came the more peremptory, from a hughty consciousness of his adversities. i have found among bis papers a pote withont directiou, but no doubt intended for some tardy officer. It contained ouly these words: I order you to execute my orders, or els : never to come back.' Such barshness might, probably, turu a wavering adherent to the latter alternative. Thus, also, bis public expressions of resentmnt against the court of France, at different periods, were certainly far more just the politic. There seemed always swelling at his heart a proud d termination that no mau should dare to us! hin the worse for his evil fortune, and that he should sacrifice anything or everything sooner than his diguity. This is a portrait of Ch'rles Edward as he appeared in his prime. In a subsequent volume, Lord Stanhope gives a sketch of him in his latter years, part of which we subjoin:

An English lady who was at Rome in 1770 observes : The Pretender is naturally above the middle size, but stoops excessively: he appears bloated and red in the face; his countenance heavy and slcepy, which is ultributed to his having given into excess of driuking; but, when a young man, he inust have been esteemned handsome. His complexion is of the far tint, his eyes blue, his hair light-brown, and the contour of his face a long oval; he is by no means tbin. has a noble person, and a graceful manner. Lis dress was scarlet. laced with broa i gold-lace; he wears the blue riband outside of his cout, from which depends a cameo antiqne, as large as the paim of my hand; and he wars the same garter and motto as those of the noble Order of Si. George in England. Upon the whole, he has a melancholy, mortified app arance. Two genilemen constantly attend him; they are of Irish extraction, and Roman Catholics you may be sure. At Princess Palestrini's he asked me if I nderstood the game of tirrochi, which they were about to play at. I answered in the negative: upon which, taking the pack in his hands, he desired to kuow if I had ever sin gach odd cards. replied that they wire very odd ind .cd. He then, displaying them, said: “ Here is everything in the world to be found in these cards--the suv, moon, the stars; and heri.” -uve he, throwing me a caril, " is the pope; bere is the devil; and," ad led he, there is but one of the trio wanting, and you know wbo that shonld bé!" [The Pretender). I was so amazed, so astonished, though he spoke this last in a laughing, good-humoured maoner, that I did not know which way to look; and as to a reply, I madenone'

In bis youth, Charles, as we have seen, hard formed the resolution of marrying only a Pro estant princess: however, he remained single during the greater part of his career; and when, in 1754, he was virged by his father to take a wife, he replied: • The unwortby behaviour of certain ministers, the 10th of December 1748 hus put it out of my power to settle anywhere withont honour or interest being at stake; and were ii even possible for me to find a place of abode. I think our family have had sufferings enough, which will always hinder me to marry, so long as in ini fortune, for that would only conduce to increase misery. or subject any of the family that shoull bave the spirit of their father in h tied neck and heel rather than yield to a vile ministry. Nevertheless, in 1972. at the age of tif y-two, Charles espoused a Roman Catholic. and a girl of twenty. Prinecos Louisi of Stolberg. This uuion proved as anhappy as it was ill assorted. Chir'es irealet his young wife with very littio kindness. He appears, in fact, to have coutucted a disparaging opinion of her sex in general; and I have found, in a paper of his writing about that period: As for meu, I have studied thein closely; and were I to live till fourscore. I could scarcely know them better than now; but us for women, I have thought it useless, they being 80 much more wicked and impenetrable.' Ungen:-rous and ungrateful words? Surely, as he wrote them, the image of Fiora Macdonald should have risen in his heart and restrained his pen!

The History of Lord Stanhope, in style and general merit, may rank with Mr. P. F. Tytler's ‘History of Scotland.' The narrative is easy and flowing, and diligence has been exercised in the collection of facts. The noble historian is also author of a “History of the War of the Succession in Spain,' one volume, 1932; a 'Life of the Great Prince Conde,' 1845; a ‘Life of Belisarius.' 1848; a volume of Historical Essays, contributed to the Quarterly Review,' and containing sketches of Joan of Arc, Mary, Queen of Scots, the Marquis of Montrose, Frederick II., &c. His lordship has also edited the · Letters of the Earl of Chesterfield,' four volumes, 1845, and was one of the executors of Sir Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington. In conjunction with Mr. E. Caldwell

, M.P., Lord Stanhope published Memoirs of Sir Robert Peel,' being chiefly an attempted vindication by that statesman of his public conduct as regards Roman Catholic Emancipation and the Corn Laws. His lordship has also published a ‘Life of the Right Hon. William Pitt,' valuable for the correspondence and authentic personal details it contains; and a * History of the Reign of Queen Anne until the Peace of Utrecht,' (1701–1713), a work in one volume (1870), which, however inferior, may be considered a continuation of Macauley's History.

Earl Stanhope was born at Walmer in 1805, was educated at Oxford, and was a member of the House of Commons, first for Wooton Bassett, and afterwards for Hertford, from 1830 to 1852. He was for a short time Under-secretary for Foreign Affairs, and Secretary to the Board of Control. He succeeded to the peerage in 1855, and died in 1875.

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H

THOMAS KEIGHTLEY.

A volume of Outlines of History' having appeared in 1830 in *Lardner's Cyclopædia,' Dr. Arnold urged its author, Mr. Thomas Keightley, to write a series of histories of moderate size, which might be used in schools, and prove trustworthy manuals in after-life. Mr. Keightley obeyed the call, and produced a number of historical compilations of merit. His . History of England,' two volumes, and the same enlarged in three volumes, is admitted to be the one most free from party-spirit ; and his Histories of India, Greece and Rome, each in one volume, may be said to contain the essence of most of what has been written and discovered regarding those countries. Mr. Keightley also produced a “History of the War of Independence in Greece,' two volumes, 1830 ; and The Crusaders,' or scenes, events and characters from the times of the Crusades. These works have all been popular. The Outlines' are read in schools, colleges, and uni.

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