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character might then have stamped upon the religion of England the essential characteristic o.. a sect. But from this the goodness of God preserved the Church of this land. Like the birth of the beautiful islands of the great Pacific Ocean, the foundations of the new convictions which were so greatly to modify and purify the medieval fai h were laid slowly, unseen, unsuspected by ten thousad souls, who laboured they knew not for what, Eave to accomplish the necessities of their own spiritual belief. The mighty convulsion which suddenly cast up the subunarine foundations into p ak, and niountain, und crevasse, and lake, aud plain, came not from man's devisi g, and obeyed not man's rule. Influences of the heaven above, and of the daily sur ounding atmosphere, wrought their will upon the new-born islands Fresh convuhiops changed, modified, and completed their shape, and so the new and the old were i lended together into a harmony which no skill of mau could have devised. The English Reformers did not attempt to develop a creed or a community out of their own internal conscionsness. Their highest aim was only to come back to what had been brore. They had not the gifts which created in others the ambition to be the foundera of a new system. They did not even set about their task with any fixed plan or recognised set of doctrines. Their inconsistencies, their variations, their inierual differences, their very retractations witness to the gradualness with which the new light dawned upon thein, and dispelled the old darkness. The charges of hypocrisy and time-serving which have been made so wantonly against Cranmer and his brethren are all bonourably interpreted by the real changes which took place in their own opinions. ! he patient, loving, accurate study of Holy Scripture was an emiDent characteristic of all these men. Thus the opinions they were receiving froin others who had advanced far before them in the new faith, were continually modified by this continual voice of God's Word sounding in their ears, and by corresponding changes in their own views. Thus they were enabled by God's grace, out of the utter disintegration round them, to restore in its primitive proportions the ancient Church of England.
BISHOP ELLICOTT. DR. CHARLES JOAN ELLICOTT, Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, a distinguished Scripture commentator and divine, was born in 1819, son of the Rev. C. S. Ellicott, Rector of Whitwell, near Stamford, Lincolnshire. He studied at St. John's College, Cambridge; obtained the Hulsean prize in 1843;* in 1858 was chosen to succeed Dr. French as Professor of Divinity in King's College, London; in 1860 was elected Hulsean Professor of Divinity in Cambridge; in 1861 was made Dean of Exeter; and in 1-63 was promoted to the sec of Gloucester and Bristol. Dr. Ellicott's first work was a · Treatise on Analytical Science,' 1842, which was followed by the Hulsean lecture on the
History and Obligation of the Sabbath,' 1844. His most important work is a series of Critical and Grammatical Commentaries on St. Paul's Epistles,' published separately (all of which have gone through several editions), namely, Galatians,' ' Ephesians,' 'Philippians, 'Colossians,' • Philemon, Thessalonians;' also Pastoral Epistles.' A volume of Historical Lectures on the Life of Our Lord' by the bishop is now in its sixth edition; and he has also published • Considerations on the Revision of the Authorised Version of the New Testament.' In the preface to his Lectures, Bishop Ellicott says:
“I neither feel nor affect to feel the slightest sympathy with the so
• The Rev. John Hulse of Elworth, in the county of Chester. by his will, bearing date 1777. directed that the proceeds of certain esta es should be given yearly to a disseriator and a lecturer who should shew the evidence for revealed religion, and demonstrate the truth and excellence of Christianity! The discourses were to be twenty in number but the Court of Chancery in 1830 reduced the pumber to eyht
called popular theology of the present day, but I still trust that, in the many places in which it has been almost necessarily called forth in the present pages, no expression has been used towards sceptical writings stronger than may have been positively required by allegiance to catholic truth. Towards the honest and serious thinker who may feel doubts or difficulties in some of the questions connected with our Lord's life, all tenderness may justly be shewn.'
The Lectures do not aim at being a complete Life of our Saviour, but go over the leading incidents-the birth and infancy, the Judean, Eastern Galilee, and Northern Galilee ministries, the journeyings towards Jerusalem, the Last Passover, and the Forty Days. Copious notes from the great Greek commentators and German expositors are given. The critical and grammatical commentaries on St. Paul's Epistles are also copious and invaluable to students. A passage is here subjoined from the “Historical Lectures.'
The Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem. In the retirement of that mountain-bamlet of Bethany-a retirement soon to be . broken in npon--the Redeemer of the world may with reason be supposed to have spent His last earthly Sabbath. There too, either in their own house or, as seems more probable, in the house of one who probably owed to our Lord his return to the suciety of his fellow-men, did that loving household make a supper' for their Divine Guest. Joyfully and thankfully did each one of that loving family instinctively do that which inight seein most to tend to the honour and glorification of Him whom one of them had declared to be, and whom they all knew to be, the Son of God that was to come into the world. So Martha serves ; Lazarus it is specially noticed takes his place at the table, the visible living proof of the omnipotence of his Lord; Mary performs the tender office of a mourufully foreseeing love, that thought nought too pure or too costly for its God-that tender office, which, though grudgingly rebuked by Judas and, alas! others than Judas, wbo could not appreciate the depths of such a devotion, neverthelese received a praise which it has been declared shall evermore hold its place on the pages of the Book of Life.
But that Sabbath soon passed away. Ere night came on, numbers even of those who were seldom favourably disposed to our Lord, pow came to see both Him
and the living monument of His merciful omnipotence. The morrow probe bly brought more of three half-curiour, half-awed, yet, as it would now seem, in a great measure 'believing visitants. The deep heart of the people wus stirred, and the iime was fully come when ancient prophecy was to receive its inlfilment, and the daughter of Zion was to welcome her King. Yea and in kingly state shall he come. Begirt not only by the emaller band of His own disciples but by the great and now hourly increasing multitude, our Lord leaves the little wooded vale that had ministered to Him its Sab bath-day of seclusion and repose, and directs his way onward to Jerusalem. As yet, however, in but humble guire and as a pilgrim among pilgrims He traverses the rough mount in-track which the modern traveller can even now somewbat hopefully identify, every step bringing him Dearer to the ridge of Olivet, and to that hamlet or district of Berlipbage, ihe exact site of which it is so hard to fix, but which was Beparated perhaps 'oniy by some narrow valley from the road along which the procession was now welding its way. But the Son of David must not solemnly enter the city of David as a scarcely distinguishable wayfarer amid a mixed and wayfaring throny. Prophecy must have its full and exact fulfilment; the King must approach the city of the King with some meek symbols of kingly majesty. With. haste, it would
seem, two disciples are despatched to the village over against them, to bring to Him “who bad need of it' the colt.whereon yet never man sat:' with haste the zealous followers cast upon it their garments, and all-unconscious of the significant nature ot their ac, place thereon their Master-the coming King. Strange it would have been if feelings such as now were eagerly stirring in every
heart had not found vent in words. Strange indeed if, with the Hill of Zion now breaking upon their view, the long prophetic past had not seemed to mingle with the present, and evoke those shouls of mysterious welcome and praise, which, first beginning with the disciples and those immediately round our Lord, soon were he:ırd from every month of that glorifying multitude. And not from them alone. Numberless others there were f::st streaming up Olivet. a palm-brunch in every band. to greet the raiser of Lazarus and the Conqueror of Death; and now all join. One cominon feeling of holy euthasiasm now pervadas that mighty multitude, and displays itself in befitting acts. Garments are torn off and cast down before the Holy One; green boughs bestrew the way; Zion's King rides onward in meek majesty, a thousand voices before, and a thousand voices behind rising up to heaven with Hosuunas and with mingled words of magnifyiug acclamation, some of which ouce had been suug to the Psalmist's harp. and some heard even from angelic tongues.
... But the hour of triumph was the hour of deepest and most touching compassion. If, as we have ventured to believe, the suddenly opening view of Zion may have causad the excited feelings of that ibronging multitud. to pour themselves forth in words of exalted and triumphant praise. full surely we know from the inspired narrative, that on our Redeemer'e nearer approach to the city, as it rose up, perhaps suddenly, in all its extent and magnificence before Him who ever Dow beheld the trenches cast about it, and Roman legions mustering round its fated walls, tears fell from those Divine eyes-yea, the Saviour of the world wept over the city wherein He had come to suffer apd die. ... The lengthening procession again moves onward, slowly descending into the deep valley of the Celron, an I slowly winding up the opposite slope. until at length by one of the Eastern gates it passes into oue of t.e now crowded thoroughfares of the Holy City. Such was the 'Triumphal Entry into JeruBalem.
BISHOP EDWARD HAROLD BROWNE. The present learned Bishop of Winchester, son of the late Colonel Browne of Morton House, Bucks, was born in 1811, and was educated at Eton, and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he was wrangler in 1832. His academical career was highly distinguished. In 1833 he obtained the Crosse theological scholarship, in 1834 the first Hebrew scholarship, and in 1835 the Norrisian prize for a theological essay. He became Fellow and tutor of his college. From 1843 to 1849 he was Vice-principal and Professor of Hebrew in St. David's College, Lampeter; in 1854 he was elected Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the university of Cambridge; in 1857 canon residentiary of Exeter Cathedral; in 1864 he was consecrated Bishop of Ely; and in 1874, Bishop of Winchester. The principal theological work of Bishop Browne is his · Exposition of the Thirty nine Articles, Historical and Doctrinal,' which was published (1850–53) in two volumes, but is now compressed into one large volume of 864 pages (tenth edition, 1874). In his introduction (which is a clear and concise bistorical summary, relating to the Liturgy and Articles) the bishop has the following sensible remarks:
Interpretation of the Thirty-nine Articles. In the interpretation of them, our best gnides must be, first, their own natural, literal, grammatical meaning; next to th s. a knowledge of the controversies which had prevailed in the Church, and made such articles necessary; then, the other althorised formularies of the Church : af er them the writings : vd known opinions of such men as Cranmer, Ridley, and Parker, who dre hem up; then, the doctrines of the primitive Church, which they professed to follow; and, lastly, the general Bentiments of the distinguished Euglish divines who have been content to subscribe
the Articles, and have professed their agreement with them for now three hundred years. These are our best guides for their interpretation. Their authority is derivable from Scripture alone.
On the subject of subscription, very few words may be sufficient. To sign any document in a non-natural sense seems neither consistent with Christian integrity nor with common manliness. But, on the other hand, a National church should never be needlessly exclusive. It should, we can hardly doubt, be ready to embrace, if possible, all who truly believe in God, and in Jesus Christ whom He hath sept. Accordingly. our own Church requires of its lay members no confession of their faith except that contaived in the Apostles' Creed.
In the following pages an attempt is made to interpret and explain the Articles of the Church, which bind the cousciences of her clergy, according to their natural and genuine meaning; and to prove tbat meaning to be both scriptural and catholic. None cau feel so satisfied, nor act so straightforwardly, as those who subscribe them in such a sense. But if we consider how much variety of sentiment may prevail amongst persons who are, in the main, souud in the faith, we can never wish that s national Church, which ought to have all the marks of catholicity, should enforce 100 rigid and uniform an interpretation of its formularies and terms of union. The Church shonld be not only holy and apostolic, but as well, one and catbolic. Unity and universality are scarcely aitainable, where a greater rigour of subscription is required than such as shall insure an adherence and conformity to those great catholic truths which the primitive Christians lived by, and died for,
Besides his elaborate 'Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles,' Dr. Browne has published two volumes of Sermons, one on the · Atonement and other Subjects,' 1859, and the second on · Messiah as Foretold and Expected,' 1862. The latter is a vindication of the true predictive character of Messianic prophecy, derived chiefly from Jewish sources. He is author also of. The Pentateuch and the Elohistic Psalms,' written in reply to Bishop Colenso in 1863; and 'The Deaconess,' a sermon preached in 1871. The bishop is also one of the writers in ‘Aids to Faith,' in Smith’s • Dictionary of the Bible,' the Speakers' Commentary,' &c.
ARCHBISHOP THOMSON. The Archbishop of York, Dr. WILLIAM THOMSON, is a native of Whitehaven, Cumberland, born February 11, 1819. He was educated at Shrewsbury School and at Queen's College, Oxford, of which he was successively scholar, Fellow, and tutor. He took his degree of B.A. in 1840, was ordained priest in 1843, and was four years pastor at Guildford and Cuddesden ; in 1848 he was appointed select preacher at Oxford, and in 1853 was chosen to preach the Bampton Lecture. The subject was the 'Atoning Work of Christ.' Two years afterwards (1855) he became incumbent of All-Souls, Marylebone; and in 1858 was chosen preacher of Lincoln's Inn. This appointment is generally held to be preliminary to the bishopric, and Dr. Thomson was in 1861 made Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. In 1863 he was promoted to the archiepiscopal see of York. His first work was a logical treatise, acute and learned, entitled 'An Outline of the Neces. sary Laws of Thought,' 1842. This was followed by the Bampton Lecture; by “Sermons ed Lincoln's Inn Chapel,' 1861; 'Pastoral Letter,' 1864; “Life in the Light of God's Word,' 1867;
Limits of Philosophical Inquiry,' 1869; and by a Life of Christ and other articles in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible,' as well as contributions to reviews and other literary journals. One of the most valuable of Archbishop Thomson's professional labours was editing and assisting in the authorship of `Aids to Faith,' a series of theological essays by several writers, designed as a reply to · Essays and Reviews.' In this volume (third on, 1870) Dean Mansel took up the subject of the Miracles;' the Bishop of Cork (Fitzgerald), the Evidences ; ' Dr. M'Caul, Prophecy and the Mosaic Record of Creation;' Canon Cooke, Ideology and Subscription;' Professor Rawlinson, the ‘Pentateuch;' Dr. Browne, Bishop of Ely, 'Inspiration;' Dr. Ellicott, Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, . Scripture and its Interpretation;'while the archbishop himself, as editor, selected as the subject of his essay the · Death of Christ,' or the doctrine of Reconciliation:
What is there about this teaching that has provoked i: times past and present so much disputation ? Not, I am persuaded, the hardness of the doctrine, for none of the theories put in its place are any easier, but its want of logical completeness. Sketched out for us in a few broad lines, it tempts the fancy to fill it in and lend it colour; and we do not always remember that the hands that attempt this are trying to make a mystery into a theory, an infinite truth into a finite one, and to reduce the great things of God into the narrow limits of our little field of view. To whom was the ransom paid? What was Satan's share of the transaction? How can one suffer for anotber? How could the Redeemer be made miserable when He was conscious that His work was one which could bring happiness to the whole buman race? Yet this condition of indefiniten.88 is one which is imposed on us in the reception of every mystery: prayer, the incarnation, the immortality of the soul, are all subjects that pas far beyoud our range of thought. And here we see the wisdom of God in connecting so closely our redemption with our reformation. If the object were to give us a complete theory of salvation, no doubt there would be in the Bible much to seek. The theory is gathered by fragments out of many an exhortation and warning; nowhere does it stand ont entire and without logical flaw. But if we assume that the New Testament is written for the guidance of sinful hearts, we find a wonderful aptness for that particular end. Jesos is proclaimed as the solace of our fears, as the founder of our moral life, as the restorer of our lost relation with our Father. If He had a cross, there is a cross for us; if He pleased not Himself, let us depy ourselves; it he suffered for sin, let us hate sin. And the question ought not to be, what do all these mysteries mean, but are these thongbts really such as will serve to guide our life, and to assuage our terrors in the fear of death? The answer is twofoldone from history and
one from experience. The preaching of the Cross of the Lord even in this simple fashion converted the world. The same docirine is now the ground of any definite hope that we find in ourselves, of forgiveness of sins and of everlasting life.
DR. WILLIAM SMITH. Most of the divines who assisted Archbishop Thomson in his 'Aids to Faith' have been associated with DR. WILLIAM Smith in a *Dictionary of the Bible,' its antiquities, biography, geography, and natural history (1860-1863). This work is a complete storehouse of information on every subject connected with the Bibie. Dr. Smith has also edited Dictionaries of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Biog. raphy, Mythology, and Geography (1840–1852), and several students' manuals, grammars, and small dictionaries. In 1867 ne became ed.