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All this is done with a close fan, and is generally times so very languishing, that I have been glad
P. S. I teach young gentlemen the whole art of gallanting a fan.
N. B. I have several little plain fans made for this use, to avoid expense.'
N° 103. THURSDAY, JUNE 28, 1711.
Speret idem: Sudet multum, frustraque laboret
HOR. Ars Poet. v. 240.
All men will try, and hope to write as well,
Upon my giving the word to Discharge their fans, they give one general crack, that may be heard at a considerable distance when the wind sits fair. This is one of the most difficult parts of the exercise; but I have several ladies with me, who at their first entrance could not give a pop ing La loud enough to be heard at the further end of a room, who can now discharge a fan in such a manner, that it shall make a report like a pocket-pistol. I have likewise taken care (in order to hinder young women from letting off their fans in wrong places or on unsuitable occasions) to show upon what subject the crack of a fan may come in properly: I have likewise invented a fan, with which a girl of sixteen, by the help of a little wind which is inclosed about one of the largest sticks, can make as loud a crack as a woman of fifty with an ordinary fan. My friend the divine having been used with words "When the fans are thus discharged, the word of of complaisance, which he thinks could be procommand in course is, to Ground their fans. This perly applied to no one living, and I think could teaches a lady to quit her fan gracefully when she be only spoken of him, and that in his absence, throws it aside in order to take up a pack of cards, was so extremely offended with the excessive way adjust a curl of hair, replace a falling pin, or of speaking civilities among us, that he made a apply herself to any other matter of importance. discourse against it at the club, which he concluded This part of the exercise, as it only consists in toss-with this remark, that he had not heard one com. ing a fan with an air upon a long table, (which pliment made in our society since its commencestands by for that purpose) may be learned in two ment.' Every one was pleased with his conclusion; days' time as well as in a twelvemonth. and as each knew his good-will to the rest, he was When my female regiment is thus disarmed, I convinced that the many professions of kindness generally let them walk about the room for some and service which we ordinarily meet with, are time; when on a sudden (like ladies that look upon not natural where the heart is well inclined; but their watches after a long visit) they all of them are a prostitution of speech, seldom intended to hasten to their arms, catch them up in a hurry, and mean any part of what they express, never to place themselves in their proper stations upon my mean all they express. Our reverend friend, upon calling out, Recover your fans. This part of the this topic, pointed out to us two or three paragraphs exercise is not difficult, provided a woman applies on this subject in the first sermon of the first voher thoughts to it. lume of the late archbishop's* posthumous works. The Fluttering of the fan is the last, and in-I do not know that I ever read any thing that deed the masterpiece of the whole exercise; but if pleased me more; and as it is the praise of Longia lady does not mis-spend her time, she may make nus, that he speaks of the sublime in a style suitherself mistress of it in three months. I generally able to it, so one may say of this author upon sinlay aside the dog-days and the hot time of the sum-cerity, that he abhors any pomp of rhetoric on mer for the teaching this part of the exercise; for this occasion, and treats it with a more than ordias soon as ever I pronounce Flutter your fans, the nary simplicity, at once to be a preacher and an place is filled with so many zephyrs and gentle example. With what command of himself does he breezes as are very refreshing in that season of the year, though they might be dangerous to ladies of a tender constitution in any other.
lay before us, in the language and temper of his profession, a fault, which by the least liberty and warmth of expression would be the most lively wit and satire! But his heart was better disposed, and the good man chastised the great wit in such manner, that he was able to speak as follows:
"There is an infinite variety of motions to be made use of in the flutter of a fan. There is the angry flutter, the modest Butter, the timorous fluta ter, the confused flutter, the merry flutter, and the Amongst too many other instances of the amorous flutter. Not to be tedious, there is scarce great corruption and degeneracy of the age whereany emotion in the mind which does not produce a in we live, the great and general want of sincerity suitable agitation in the fan; insomuch, that if in conversation is none of the least. The world is only see the fan of a disciplined lady, I know grown so full of dissimulation and compliment, very well whether she laughs, frowns, or blushes. that men's words are hardly any signification of I have seen a fan so very angry, that it would have their thoughts; and if any man measure his words been dangerous for the absent lover who provoked
it to have come within the wind of it: and at other
Tillotson's, on Sincerity, from John i, 47.
N° 104. FRIDAY, JUNE 29, 1711.
Qualis equos Threissa fatigat
VIRG. En. i. 320.
With such array Harpalyce bestrode
by his heart, and speak as he thinks; and do not but he is discovered to want it; and then all his express more kindness to every man, than men pains and labour to seem to have it, are lost." usually have for any man, he can hardly escape the In another part of the same discourse, he goes on censure of want of breeding. The old English to show, that all artifice must naturally tend to the plainness and sincerity, that generous integrity of disappointment of him that practises it. nature, and honesty of disposition, which always 'Whatsoever convenience may be thought to be argues true greatness of mind, and is usually ac-in falsehood and dissimulation, it is soon over; but companied with undaunted courage and resolu- the inconvenience of it is perpetual, because it tion, is in a great measure lost amongst us. There brings a man under an everlasting jealousy and hath been a long endeavour to transform us into suspicion, so that he is not believed when he speaks foreign manners and fashions, and to bring us to a truth, nor trusted when perhaps he means honestly. servile imitation of none of the best of our neigh-When a man hath once forfeited the reputation of bours, in some of the worst of their qualities. The his integrity, he is set fast, and nothing will then dialect of conversation is now-a-days so swelled serve his turn, neither truth nor falsehood.' with vanity and compliment, and so surfeited (as I may say) of expressions of kindness and respect, that if a man that lived an age or two ago should return into the world again, he would really want a dictionary to help him to understand his own Janguage, and to know the true intrinsic value of the phrase in fashion, and would hardly at first believe at what a low rate the highest strains and expressions of kindness imaginable do commonly pass in current payment: and when he should come to understand it, it would be a great while before he could bring himself with a good countenance and a good conscience to converse with men IT would be a noble improvement, or rather a reupon equal terms, and in their own way. covery of what we call good-breeding, if nothing And in truth it is hard to say, whether it should were to pass amongst us for agreeable which was more provoke our contempt or our pity, to hear the least transgression against that rule of life what solemn expressions of respect and kindness called decorum, or a regard to decency. This will pass between men, almost upon no occasion; would command the respect of mankind, because how great honour and esteem they will declare for it carries in it deference to their good opinion, as one whom perhaps they never saw before, and humility lodged in a worthy mind is always at how entirely they are all on the sudden devoted to tended with a certain homage, which no haughty his service and interest, for no reason; how infi-soul, with all the arts imaginable, will ever be nitely and eternally obliged to him, for no benefit; able to purchase. Tully says, virtue and decency and how extremely they will be concerned for are so nearly related, that it is difficult to separate him, yea and afflicted too, for no cause. I know them from each other but in our imagination. As it is said, in justification of this hollow kind of the beauty of the body always accompanies the conversation, that there is no harm, no real deceit health of it, so certainly is decency concomitant in compliment; but the matter is well enough, so to virtue. As beauty of body, with an agreeable long as we understand one another; et verba va- carriage, pleases the eye, and that pleasure con lent ut nummi, "words are like money;" and when sists in that we observe all the parts with a certain the current value of them is generally understood, elegance are proportioned to each other; so does no man is cheated by them. This is something, if decency of behaviour which appears in our lives such words were any thing; but being brought into obtain the approbation of all with whom we conthe account, they are mere ciphers. However, verse, from the order, consistency, and moderation it is still a just matter of complaint, that sincerity of our words and actions. This flows from the and plainness are out of fashion, and that our lan- reverence we bear towards every good man, and guage is running into a lie; that men have almost to the world in general; for to be negligent of quite perverted the use of speech, and made words what any one thinks of you, does not only show to signify nothing; that the greatest part of the you arrogant but abandoned. In all these consi conversation of mankind is little else but driving a derations we are to distinguish how one virtue trade of dissimulation; insomuch that it would make differs from another. As it is the part of justice a man heartily sick and weary of the world, to see never to do violence, it is of modesty never to the little sincerity that is in use and practice among commit offence. In this last particular lies the whole force of what is called decency; to this purpose that excellent moralist above-mentioned talks of decency; but this quality is more easily comprehended by an ordinary capacity, than ex pressed with all his eloquence. This decency of behaviour is generally transgressed among all or ders of men; nay, the very women, though themselves created it, as it were for ornament, are often very much mistaken in this ornamental part life. It would methinks be a short rule for beha viour, if every young lady in her dress, words, and actions, were only to recommend herself as a sis ter, daughter, or wife, and make herself the more esteemed in one of those characters. The care of themselves, with regard to the families in which women are born, is the best motive for their being courted to come into the alliance of other houses
When the vice is placed in this contemptible light, he argues unanswerably against it, in words and thoughts so natural, that any man who reads them would imagine he himself could have been
the author of them.
If the show of any thing be good for any thing, I am sure sincerity is better: for why does any man dissemble, or seem to be that which he is not, but because he thinks it good to have such a quality as he pretends to? For to counterfeit and dissemble, is to put on the appearance of some real excellency Now the best way in the world to seem to be any thing, is really to be what he would seem to be. Besides, that it is many times as troublesome to make good the pretence of a good quality, as to kave it; and if a man have it not, it is ten to one
tend to the
ought to be
alousy nhe spet na honest pretation will the
Nothing can promote this end more than a strict Jus in more shapes than her own, and affect to be
GOING lately to take the air in one of the most beautiful evenings this season has produced; as I was admiring the serenity of the sky, the lively colours of the fields, and the variety of the landscape every way around me, my eyes were, sudRdenly called off from these inanimate objects by a little party of horsemen I saw passing the road. The greater part of them escaped my particular observation, by reason that my whole attention was fixed on a very fair youth who rode in the midst of them, and seemed to have been dressed by some description in a romance. His features, complexion, and habit had a remarkable effeminacy, and a certain languishing vanity appeared in his air. His hair, well curled and powdered, hung to a considerable length on his shoulders, and was wantonly tied, as if by the hands of his mistress, in a scarlet riband, which played like a streamer behind him; he had a coat and waistcoat of blue camlet trimmed and embroidered with silver; a cravat of the finest lace; and wore, in Ta smart cock, a little beaver hat edged with silver, becas and made more sprightly by a feather. His horse
'Your most humble servant." STEELE. [The letter by HUGHES.]
N° 105. SATURDAY, JUNE 30, 1711.
Adprime in vita esse utile, ne quid nimis.
TER. And. Act. 1. Sc. 1.
I take it to be a principal rule of life, not to be too much addicted to any one thing.
too, which was a pacer, was adorned after the My friend Will Honeycomb values himself very same airy manner, and seemed to share in the much upon what he calls the knowledge of manhavanity of the rider. As I was pitying the luxury kind, which has cost him many disasters in his of this young person, who appeared to me to have youth; for Will reckons every misfortune that he de been educated only as an object of sight, I per- has met with among the women, and every renceived on my nearer approach, and as I turned counter among the men, as parts of his education; my eyes downward, a part of the equipage I had and fancies he should never have been the man he not observed before, which was a petticoat of the is, had he not broke windows, knocked down consame with the coat and waistcoat. After this dis- stables, disturbed honest people with his midnight covery, I looked again on the face of the fair serenades, and beat up a lewd woman's quarters, Amazon who had thus deceived me, and thought when he was a young fellow. The engaging in those features which had before offended me by adventures of this nature Will calls the studying" their softness, were now strengthened into as im- of mankind; and terms this knowledge of the town, proper a boldness; and though her eyes, nose, and the knowledge of the world. Will ingenuously mouth seemed to be formed with perfect sym-confesses, that for half his life his head ached every metry, I am not certain whether she, who in ap-morning with reading of men over-night; and at pearance was a very handsome youth, may not be present comforts himself under certain pains which in reality a very indifferent woman. he endures from time to time, that without them "There is an objection which naturally presents he could not have been acquainted with the galitself against these occasional perplexities and lantries of the age. This Will looks upon as the mixtures of dress, which is, that they seem to break learning of a gentleman, and regards all other kinds in upon that propriety and distinction of appear of science as the accomplishments of one whom ance in which the beauty of different characters is he calls a scholar, a bookish man, or a philosopher. preserved; and if they should be more frequent For these reasons Will shines in mixed compathan they are at present, would look like turning ny, where he has the discretion not to go out of our public assemblies into a general masquerade. his depth, and has often a certain way of making The model of this Amazonian hunting-habit for his real ignorance appear a seeming one. Our ladies, was, as I take it, first imported from club, however, has frequently caught him tripping, France, and well enough expresses the gaiety of at which times they never spare him. For as Will a people who are taught to do any thing, so it be often insults us with his knowledge of the town, with an assurance: but I cannot help thinking it we sometimes take our revenge upon him by our sits awkwardly yet on our English modesty. The knowledge of books.
petticoat is a kind of incumbrance upon it; and if He was last week producing two or three letthe Amazons should think fit to go on in this plun- ters, which he writ in his youth to a coquette lady. der of our sex's ornaments, they ought to add to The raillery of them was natural, and well enough their spoils, and complete their triumph over us, for a mere man of the town; but, very unluckily, by wearing the breeches. several of the words were wrong spelt. Will If it be natural to contract insensibly the man- laughed this off at first as well as he could; but ers of those we imitate, the ladies who are pleased finding himself pushed on all sides, and especially with assuming our dresses will do us more honour by the Templar, he told us with a little passion, than we deserve, but they will do it at their own that he never liked pedantry in spelling, and that *xpense. Why should the lovely Camilla deceive he spelt like a gentleman, and not like, a scholar :
upon this Will had recourse to his old topic of commonwealth of letters, and the wonder of his showing the narrow spiritedness, the pride, and age; when perhaps upon examination you find ignorance of pedants; which he carried so far, that he has only rectified a Greek particle, or laid that upon my retiring to my lodgings, I could not out a whole sentence in proper commas. forbear throwing together such reflections as occurred to me upon that subject.
A man who has been brought up among books, and is able to talk of nothing else, is a very indifferent companion, and what we call a pedant. But, methinks, we should enlarge the title, and give it to every one that does not know how to think out of his profession and particular way of life.
They are obliged indeed to be thus lavish of their praises, that they may keep one another in countenance; and it is no wonder if a great deal of knowledge, which is not capable of making a man wise, has a natural tendency to make him vain and arrogant.
N° 106. MONDAY, JULY 2, 1711.
-Hinc tibi copia
Manabit ad plenum, benigno
HOR. 1 Od. xvii. 14.
-Here to thee shall plenty flow,
To raise the honour of the quiet plain,
What is a greater pedant than a mere man of the town? Bar him the playhouses, a catalogue of the reigning beauties, and an account of a few fashionable distempers that have befallen him, and you strike him dumb. How many a pretty gentleman's knowledge lies all within the verge of the court! He would tell you the names of the principal favourites, repeat the shrewd sayings of a man of quality, whisper an intrigue that is not yet blown upon by common fame; or, if the sphere of his observations is a little larger than ordinary, HAVING often received an invitation from my will perhaps enter into all the incidents, turns, and friend Sir Roger de Coverley to pass away a revolutions in a game of ombre. When he has month with him in the country, I last week accom gone thus far, he has shown you the whole circle panied him thither, and am settled with him for of his accomplishments; his parts are drained, some time at his country-house, where I intend to and he is disabled from any further conversation. form several of my ensuing speculations. Sir RoWhat are these but rank pedants? and yet these are the men who value themselves most on their exemption from the pedantry of colleges.
ger, who is very well acquainted with my humour, lets me rise and go to bed when I please, dine at his own table or in my chamber as I think fit, sit I might here mention the military pedant, who still and say nothing without bidding me be merry. always talks in a camp, and is storming towns, When the gentlemen of the country come to see making lodgments, and fighting battles, from one him, he only shows me at a distance. As I have end of the year to the other. Every thing he been walking in his fields I have observed them speaks smells of gunpowder; if you take away his stealing a sight of me over a hedge, and have artillery from him, he has not a word to say for heard the knight desiring them not to let me see himself. I might likewise mention the law pe- them, for that I hated to be stared at. dant, that is perpetually putting cases, repeating I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's family, the transactions of Westminster-Hall, wrangling because it consists of sober and staid persons; for with you upon the most indifferent circumstances as the knight is the best master in the world, he of life, and not to be convinced of the distance of seldom changes his servants; and as he is beloved - a place, or of the most trivial point in conversa- by all about him, his servants never care for tion, but by dint of argument. The state pedant leaving him; by this means his domestics are is wrapped up in news, and lost in politics. If all in years, and grown old with their master. you mention either of the kings of Spain or Po-You would take his valet de chambre for his brofand, he talks very notably; but if you go out of ther, his butler is grey-headed, his groom is one the Gazette, you drop him. In short, a mere of the gravest men that I have ever seen, and his courtier, a mere soldier, a mere scholar, a mere coachman has the looks of a privy-counsellor. any thing, is an insipid pedantic character, and You see the goodness of the master even in the equally ridiculous. old house-dog, and in a gray pad that is kept in
Of all the species of pedants which I have men- the stable with great care and tenderness out of tioned, the book pedant is much the most support-regard to his past services, though he has been able; he has at least an exercised understanding, useless for several years.
and a head which is full, though confused; so that I could not but observe with a great deal of a man who converses with him may often receive pleasure the joy that appeared in the countenances from him hints of things that are worth knowing, of these ancient domestics upon my friend's arri and what he may possibly turn to his own advan-val at his country-seat. Some of them could not tage, though they are of little use to the owner. refrain from tears at the sight of their old master; The worst kind of pedants among learned men, are every one of them pressed forward to do some such as are naturally endued with a very small thing for him, and seemed discouraged if they were share of common sense, and have read a great not employed. At the same time the good old number of books without taste or distinction. knight, with a mixture of the father and the mas The truth of it is, learning, like travelling, and ter of the family, tempered the inquiries after his all other methods of improvement, as it finishes own affairs with several kind questions relating to good sense, so it makes a silly man ten thousand themselves. Thus humanity and good nature entimes more insufferable, by supplying variety of gages every body to him; so that when he is plea matter to his impertinence, and giving him an opportunity of abounding in absurdities.
Shallow pedants cry up one another much more than men of solid and useful learning. To read the titles they give an editor or collator of a manuscript, you would take him for the glory of the
sant upon any of them, all his family are in good humour, and none so much as the person whom he diverts himself with: on the contrary, if he coughs, or betrays any infirmity of old age, it is easy for stander-by to observe a secret concern in the looks of all his servants.
My worthy friend has put me under the parti- man in the pulpit, but I very much approved of ation yecular care of his butler, who is a very prudent my friend's insisting upon the qualifications of a article, man, and, as well as the rest of his fellow-servants, good aspect and a clear voice; for I was SO wonderfully desirous of pleasing me, because they charmed with the gracefulness of his figure and thus lanigi have often heard their master talk of me as of his delivery, as well as with the discourses he prone another particular friend. nounced, that I think I never passed any time f a great dea My chief companion, when Sir Roger is divert-more to my satisfaction. A sermon repeated after of making himself in the woods or the fields, is a very this manner, is like the composition of a poet in to make a venerable man who is ever with Sir Roger, and the mouth of a graceful actor.
has lived at his house in the nature of a chaplain | I could heartily wish that more of our country
I have observed in several of my papers, that my friend Sir Roger, amidst all his good qualities, is something of a humorist; and that his virtues, as well as imperfections, are as it were tinged by a certain extravagance, which makes them parti|cularly his, and distinguishes them from those of other men. This cast of mind, as it is generally n from very innocent in itself, so it renders his conversaassation highly agreeable, and more delightful than weeks the same degree of sense and virtue would appear ith hain their common and ordinary colours. As I was lines walking with him last night, he asked me how I sliked the good man whom I have just now men
No 107. TUESDAY, JULY 3, 1711.
Esopo ingentem statuam posuere Attici,
PHÆDR. Epilog. 1.2.
The Athenians erected a large statue to Esop, and placed him, though a slave, on a lasting pedestal; to show, that the way to honour lies open indifferently to all.
tioned and without staying for my answer told me, that he was afraid of being insulted with Latin THE reception, manner of attendance, undisturbed and Greek at his own table; for which reason, he freedom and quiet, which I meet with here in the desired a particular friend of his at the university country has confirmed me in the opinion I always to find him out a clergyman rather of plain sense had, that the general corruption of manners in than much learning, of a good aspect, a clear servants is owing to the conduct of masters. The red voice, a sociable temper, and, if possible, a man aspect of every one in the family carries so much that understood a little of back-gammon. My satisfaction, that it appears he knows the happy lefriend,' says Sir Roger, found me out this gen- lot which has befallen him in being a member of it. tleman, who, besides the endowments required of There is one particular which I have seldom seen him, is, they tell me, a good scholar, though he but at Sir Roger's: it is usual in all other places, does not show it. I have given him the parsonage that servants fly from the parts of the house through of the parish; and, because I know his value, have which their master is passing; on the contrary, settled upon him a good annuity for life. If he here they industriously place themselves in his way outlives me, he shall find that he was higher in my and it is on both sides, as it were, understood as esteem than perhaps he thinks he is. He has now a visit, when the servants appear without calling. been with me thirty years; and, though he does This proceeds from the humane and equal temper not know I have taken notice of it, has never in of the man of the house, who also perfectly well all that time asked any thing of me for himself, knows how to enjoy a great estate, with such ecothough he is every day soliciting me for something nomy as ever to be much beforehand. This makes n behalf of one or other of my tenants, his pa- his own mind untroubled, and consequently unapt rishioners. There has not been a law-suit in the to vent peevish expressions, or give passionate or parish since he has lived among them: if any dis- inconsistent orders to those about him. Thus repute arises, they apply themselves to him for the spect and love go together; and a certain cheerfuldecision; if they do not acquiesce in his judgment, ness in performance of their duty is the particular which I think never happened above once or twice distinction of the lower part of this family. When at most, they appeal to me. At his first settling a servant is called before his master, he does not with me, I made him a present of all the good come with an expectation to hear himself rated sermons which have been printed in English, and for some trivial fault, threatened to be stripped, or only begged of him that every Sunday he would used with any other unbecoming language, which pronounce one of them in the pulpit. Accord mean masters often give to worthy servants; but ingly, he has digested them into such a series, that it is often to know what road he took that he they follow one another naturally, and make a con- came so readily back according to order; whether tinued system of practical divinity.” he passed by such a ground; if the old man who As Sir Roger was going on in his story, the gen-rents it is in good health; or whether he gave Sir eman we were talking of came up to us: and Roger's love to him, or the like. upon the knight's asking him who preached to- A man who preserves a respect founded on his morrow (for it was Saturday night) told us, the benevolence to his dependants, lives rather like a Bishop of St. Asaph in the morning, and Dr. South prince than a master in his family; his orders are in the afternoon. He then showed us his list of received as favours rather than duties; and the preachers for the whole year; where I saw with a distinction of approaching him is part of the regreat deal of pleasure Archbishop Tillotson, Bishop ward for executing what is commanded by him. Saunderson, Dr. Barrow, Dr Calamy, with several There is another circumstance in which my friend ving authors who have published discourses of excels in his management, which is the manner of practical divinity. I no sooner saw this venerable rewarding his servants. He has ever been of opi