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Testament, which had been made by Jerom from the Hebrew; but he often compares it with the older translation, which had been made from the Greek of the Seventy.
2. Gregory deals much in mystical interpretations, still maintaining the truth of the history, or literal sense. Hey frequently observes an allegorical, and a moral interpretation, besides the historical, or literal.
3. He believed original sin; and, by way of proof, alleges Ps. li. 8.
4. Gregory supposed, the woman that was a sinner, mentioned Luke vii. 36-50, and Mary Magdalene, and Mary, sister of Martha and Lazarus, to be one and the same person.
5. Explaining the parable of the labourers hired into the vineyard at several hours of the day, Matth. xx. 1, 16, he applies it, first, to the several people and ages of the world; afterwards, to the several ages of men.
6. He had, in his copies, the latter part of the sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's gospel; for he has quoteda Mark xvi.
y Hoc itaque sub intellectu triplici diximus, ut fastidienti animæ varia alimenta proponentes, aliquid, quod eligendo sumat, offeramus. Hoc tamen magnopere petimus, ut qui ad spiritalem intelligentiam mentem sublevat, a veneratione historiæ non recedat. In Job. 1. 1. c. ult. p. 38. B.-Hæc juxta historiam breviter tractata percurrimus. Nunc ad allegoriarum mysterium verba vertamus. Ib. 1. 3. c. 13. p. 83. C.-Igitur quia allegoriæ mysteria membratim enodantes explevimus, nunc moralitatis intelligentiam raptim tangentes exsequamur. In Job. 1. 3. c. 28. p. 95. D. Vid. et l. 4. c. 12. p. 114. C.-Servatâ historiæ veritate, beati Job dicta, amicorumque illius, mysticâ proposui interpretatione discutere. Ib. 1. 6. c. 1. in p. 181. A.
Nam quia unusquisque cum primi parentis culpâ concipitur, propheta testatur, dicens: Ecce in iniquitatibus conceptus fui.' Et quia is, quem salutaris unda non diluit, originalis culpæ supplicia non amittit, aperte per semetipsam veritas perhibet, dicens: Nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aquâ,' &c. [Joh. iii. 5.] Exp. in Job. 1. 4. c. 3. p. 132. D.
Maria Magdalene, quæ fuerat in civitate peccatrix, amando veritatem, lavit lacrymis maculas criminis, &c. In Evangelia, 1. 2. Hom. 25. in T. i. p. 1544. E.-Hanc vero, quam Lucas peccatricem mulierem, Johannes Mariam nominat, illam esse Mariam credimus, de quà Marcus [xvi. 9.] septem dæmonia ejecta fuisse testatur. In Evang. 1. 2. Hom. 33. in. p. 1593. De. E.
Mane etenim mundi fuit ab Adam usque ad Noë. Hora vero tertia a Noë usque ad Abraham. Sexta quoque ab Abraham usque ad Möysen. Nona autem a Möyse usque ad adventum Domini. Undecima vero ab adventu Domini usque ad finem mundi.-Operator ergo mane, horâ tertiâ, sextâ et nonâ, antiquus ille Hebraïcus populus designatur.-Ad undecimam vero Gentiles vocantur, quibus et dicitur: Quid hic statis totâ die otiosi?' In Evang. 1. 1. Hom 19. n. 1. 1510, 1511.
c Possumus vero et easdem diversitates horarum etiam ad unumquemque hominem per ætatem momenta distinguere. Ib. n. 2.
d Unde et discipulis veritas dicit: Euntes in mundum universum, prædicate evangelium omni creaturæ.' In Job. 1. 6. c. 16. p. 190. Vid. et ib. 1. 33. c. 17. p. 1096. E.
15, and there is an homily of his upon ver. 14-20, of that chapter.
7. He speaks distinctly of the ordinary and extraordinary gifts of the Spirit; one sort, necessary to men's own salvation; the other bestowed for the benefit of others.
8. Gregory celebrates the progress of the christian religion, as prevailing in the East and the West, particularly in Britain.
9. He seems to acknowledge, though somewhat unwil lingly, thath miraculous powers had ceased in the church; and that they were not necessary among believers, especially in a time of ease and prosperity; whereas, in times of persecution, and when heathenism prevailed, they were expedient; and God, wisely and graciously, vouchsafed them; and he can bestow them, whenever the exigence of things requires,
• In Evangel. 1. 2. Hom. 29. p. 1568, &c.
f-Mansuetudo namque, humilitas, patientia, fides, spes, caritas, dona ejus sunt sed ea, sine quibus ad vitam homines pervenire nequâquam possunt. Prophetiæ autem, virtus curationum, genera linguarum, interpretatio sermonum, dona ejus sunt. Sed quæ virtutis ejus præsentiam pro correctione intuentium ostendunt, &c. In Job. 1. 2. c. 56. p. 73. A. B.
8 Ecce enim pene cunctarum jam gentium corda penetravit. Ecce in unâ fide Orientis limitem, Occidentisque conjunxit. Ecce lingua Britanniæ, quæ nil aliud noverat, quam Barbarum frendere, jamdudum in divinis laudibus Hebræum cœpit Alleluja resonare. In Job. 1. 27. c. 11. p. 862. C.
b Sunt namque nonnulli, qui cum mira apostolorum opera audiunt, quod, accepto Spiritu Sancto, mortuos verbo suscitarent, ab obsessis dæmonia pellerent, umbrâ infirmitates amoverent, ventura quæque prophetando prædicerent : -quia has virtutes nunc in ecclesiâ non vident, subtractam jam ecclesià supernam gratiam suspicantur, nescientes pensare quod scriptum est: Adjutor in opportunitatibus, in tribulatione.' [Ps. ix. 10.] Tunc quippe sancta ecclesia miraculorum adjutoriis indiguit, cum eam tribulatio persecutionis pressit. Nam postquam superbiam infidelitatis edomuit, non jam virtutum signa, sed sola merita operum requirit, quamvis et illa per multos, cum opportunitas exigit, ostendat.-Ubi ergo omnes fideles sunt, quæ causa est, ut signa monstrentur? Exp. in Job. 1. 27. c. 18. p. 869. E.
ISIDORE, BISHOP OF SEVILLE.
I. His time and works. II. Three or four catalogues of the books of scripture. III. Remarks upon them. IV. Respect for the scriptures. V. Select passages.
1. ISIDORE was bishop of Seville, in Spain, forty years; from the year of Christ 595, or 596, to 636. He was the author of many works, some of which are these: A Chronicle, from the beginning of the world, to the year of Christ 626; a book of Ecclesiastical Writers, or Illustrious Men, in 33 chapters; Sentences, in three books; Commentaries upon the historical books of the Old Testament; Allegories in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament; Of Ecclesiastical Offices, in two books; A book of Proëms, or Prolegomena, to the scriptures of the Old and New Testament; Origines, or Etymologies, in 20 books, left unfinished, and published after his death by Braulio, bishop of Saragossa: and, in the three last-mentioned works are catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament; of all which I shall take some notice.
II. 1. The twelfth chapter of the first book of Ecclesiastical Offices, is entitled," of the Writers of the sacred volumes; where, after having spoken of the writers of the books of the Old Testament, he says: In the New Testa
a Vid. Ph. Labbé de Scriptor. Ecc. T. i. p. 642-650. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 547. Du Pin, Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. vi. p. &c. Pagi an. 625. 18. 633. 29. 636. 6. Testimonia de Isidoro ap. Fabric. Bib. Ec. P. ii. p. 47, 48.
b De scriptoribus sacrorum voluminum.
In Novo autem Testamento quatuor libros evangeliorum quatuor evangelistæ singuli scripserunt: quorum solus Matthæus Hebræo scripsisse perhibetur eloquio, cæteri Græco. Paulus apostolus suas scripsit epistolas, ex quibus novem septem ecclesiis destinavit, reliquas discipulis suis misit, Timotheo, Tito, et Philemoni. Ad Hebræos autem epistola plerisque Latinis ejus incerta est, propter dissonantiam sermonis: camdemque alii Barnabam conscripsisse, alii a Clemente scriptam fuisse suspicantur. Petrus scripsit duas nomine suo epistolas, quæ catholicæ nominantur: quarum secunda a quibusdam ejus esse non creditur, propter styli sermonisque distantiam. Jacobus suam scripsit epistolam, quæ et ipsa a nonnullis ejus esse negatur, sed sub nomine ejus ab alio dictata existimatur. Joannes epistolas tres edidit, quarum tantum prima a quibusdam ejus esse asseritur, reliquæ duæ Joannis cujusdam presbyteri existimantur; cujus juxta Hieronymi sententiam alterum sepulchrum apud Ephesum demonstratur. Judas suam scripsit epistolam. Actus apostolorum Lucas composuit, sicut audivit vel vidit. Apocalypsin Joannes evangelista scripsit, eodem tempore, quo ob evangelii prædicationem in insulam Pathmos traditur relegatus. Hi sunt scriptores sacrorum librorum, divinâ inspiratione
ment, the four evangelists wrote severally the four books of the gospels: the apostle Paul wrote his own epistles; nine of which are sent to seven churches, the others to his disciples, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon. The writer of the epistle to the Hebrews is reckoned uncertain by most of the Latins, because of the difference of the style; some thinking it was written by Barnabas, others by Clement. Peter wrote two epistles, called catholic; the second of which is by some thought not to be his, because of the difference of the style: James wrote his epistle; which also is denied by some to be his, and said to be dictated by another in his name: John wrote three epistles; of which the first only is by some said to be his; the other two are thought to be written by John, a presbyter: Jude wrote his epistle: Luke composed the Acts of the Apostles, according to what he had heard or seen: John the evangelist wrote the Revelation, at the time that he was in banishment, in the island of Patmos, for preaching the gospel. These are the writers of the sacred books, speaking by divine inspiration, and declaring in the church the heavenly precepts for our instruction: but the Holy Spirit is esteemed the author of the said scriptures; for he is really the writer, who dictated them to be written by his prophets.'
2. In the next place, I shall take a part of his Proëm to the books of the New Testament, omitting some things relating to the particular design of each. Though the loquentium, ad eruditionem nostram præcepta cœlestia in ecclesiâ dispensantes. Auctor autem earundam scripturarum Spiritus Sanctus esse creditur. Ipse enim scripsit, qui per prophetas suos scribenda dictavit. De Ecc. Off. 1. 1. c. 12. p. 393, 394. Colon. 1617.
d Evangeliorum prædicatio quamvis quadrifaria sit, una est tamen, quia ex uno eodemque ore divinitatis processit. Et his primus et ultimus ea prædicaverunt, quæ ex ore Christi audierunt, vel quæ ab illo facta vel gesta viderunt; reliqui medii duo ea tantummodo, quæ ab apostolis cognoverunt; quorum quidem Matthæus evangelium in Judæâ primus scripsit. Deinde Marcus in Italiâ. Tertius Lucas in Achaiâ. Ultimus Joannes in Asiâ. Ex quibus solus tantum Matthæus prædicationis suæ historiam Hebraico perstrinxit stylo: reJiqui vero Græci sermonis eloquio ediderunt. Epistolas Paulus apostolus quatuor-decem prædicationis suæ perstrinxit stylo; ex quibus aliquas propter typum septiformis ecclesiæ septem scripsit ecclesiis, conservans potius, non excedens numerum sacramenti, propter septiformem Spiritûs efficaciam. Scripsit autem ad Romanos, ad Corinthios, ad Galatas, ad Ephesios, ad Philippenses, ad Thessalonicenses, ad Colossenses. Reliquas vero postmodum singularibus edidit personis. Argumenta autem earumdem epistolarum hæc sunt. Instruit quoque per Timotheum et Titum ecclesias. Philemonem de emendato servo Onesimo rogat. Ultimo Hebræos, qui in Christo crediderunt, et postmodum persecutionibus Judaicis torti a fide recesserunt, confortat, et ad gratiam evangelii revocat. Petrus duas scripsit epistolas, quæ catholicæ nominantur. Scripsit autem eas his qui ex circumcisione credentes in dispersione gentium erant. Jacobus frater Domini scripsit unam epistolam, ad
doctrine of the gospel be delivered to us by four, it proceeds from one and the same divine fountain. Of these four, the first and last relate what they had heard Christ say, or had seen him perform; the other two, placed between them, relate only those things which they had learned from apostles. Matthew wrote his gospel the first, in Judea; then Mark, in Italy; Luke, the third, in Achaia; John, the last, in Asia of whom Matthew alone wrote in Hebrew; the rest in Greek. The apostle Paul wrote fourteen epistles; of which some are written to the seven churches. They are these: To the Romans, to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, to the Thessalonians, to the Colossians; others are written to particular persons; and lastly, he wrote to the Hebrews, who believed, and suffered persecution.' Here are inserted the arguments, or contents, of the several epistles, which I omit.Peter wrote two epistles, called catholic: they are sent to such of the circumcision as had believed, and were scattered abroad among the Gentiles. James, the Lord's brother, wrote one epistle for the edification of the church. The apostle John wrote three epistles, the first of which is wholly taken up in recommending the love of God, and our brother; nor is the design of the other two very different. Jude reproves some blasphemers, and unchaste persons. The Acts of the Apostles contains the history of the infancy of the church: the writer is the evangelist Luke, as is well known. In the Revelation of John the evangelist are these several things :' where he largely shows the contents of that book.
3. The catalogue of the books of scripture, in the Origines, very much resembles that in the Offices; I therefore shall not transcribe it so much at length, as I have transcribed the other two: however, there are some things here, which are in neither of the other; these I would take notice of.
The first chapter of the sixth book of the said Origines is entitled, Of the Old and the New Testament. Here, having enumerated the books of the Old Testament, he says, 'In the New Testament are two parts or classes: the first
ædificationem ecclesiæ pertinentem, cujus sententiæ immensam scientiæ claritatem legentibus videntur infundere. Joannes apostolus tres scripsit epistolas, quarum prima officium caritatis commendans, tota in amore Dei et fraterna dilectione versatur. Secunda quoque, quæ electis scribitur, dilectionis hortatur officium. Judæ epistola increpat blasphemantes in Christo, et quosdam impudicos, sub exemplo impiorum. Actuum apostolorum historia nascentis ecclesiæ fidem opusque describit, cujus quidem scriptor Lucas evangelista monstratur. In Apocalypsi Joannis Præterea comedit evangelista librum testamenti, oris prædicatione suavissimum, &c. Pr. Libr. N. T. p. 282.
• In Novo autem Testamento duo sunt ordine; primus evangelicus, in quo