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It may be inquired how it is possible that the term Behemoth could be applied to any creature that may seem to b.aze perished from off the earth so many centuries before the book of Job can be supposed to have been written. My reply to this is, in the first place, that many of the associated animals, such as the bears, the great cat of the caverns, &c., left some survivors, enduring to historic times.*

The Megaceros Hibernicus, or Irish elk, and the reindeer + are not unknown even to tradition. The bears of Kent's Cavern, if we are to judge by iron found along with their bones, must have left some survivors even till Roman times.

“Thef state of our exact knowledge at the present time


No. 1. Elephas primigenius, last true molar, lower jaw, right side.

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No. 2. Elephas Africanus, first true molar, lower jaw, left side. regarding the duration, geographical range, climate, habits, and food of the mammoth appears to be thus :—The species existed before the Glacial period in Europe, and survived long after it in Europe and America. The constitutional flexibility, which is evident by its extending through two cycles' term in time, is equally evinced in its vast geographical range of habitat; extending from the valley of the Tiber to the Lena, and from Eschcholtz Bay to the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. Making due allowance for the interference of the

* "In the Apennine valley of the Chiana, in Tuscany, Elephas primigenius existed so late as to have been a contemporary of the Irish elk (Megaceros Hibernicus), Bos primigenius and Bison priscus ; bringing down the period to the very modern date of the superficial marly beds of the Isle of Man.”— Memoirs, Falconer, p. 240.

+ See Appendix E. I Falconer, vol. ii. p. 289.

§ Falconer, vol. ii. plate 6.

glacial phenomena, the extremes of north and south latitude, in which undoubted remains of this ancient elephant have been found, necessarily imply that his constitutional flexibility was like that of man, capable of adaptation to very great differences of climate." In Siberia he was enveloped in a shaggy thick covering of fur like the musk-ox, impenetrable to cold or rain. But we are not obliged to suppose that in his southern habitat he was thus clad. The fine silky fleece clothing the Cashmere goats, at 16,000 feet elevation, disappears in the valleys in the same animal.

The character of his teeth accords with a more promiscuous and more herbivorous alimentation than belongs at the present day to the Indian elephant. The surface is extremely like a well-dressed millstone.

The African elephant has teeth more adapted to bruising branches of trees, and its range is consequently more limited.

Dr. Falconer says, " If there is one fact which is impressed on the conviction of the observer with more force than any other, it is the persistence and uniformity of the characters of the molar teeth in the earliest known mammoth and his most modern successor

(p. 252). Here, then, is a most valuable testimony to stability in creation, given as the result of life-long research by the greatest anthority in this particular line.

Assuming the observation to be correct, what strong proof does it not afford of the persistence and constancy throughout vast intervals of time of the distinctive character of those organs

which are most concerned in the existence and habit of the species” (p. 252).

“ The whole range of the mammalia, fossil and recent, cannot furnish a species which has a wider geographical distribution, and at the same time passed through a longer period of time and through more extreme changes of climatical conditions, than the mammoth. If species are so unstable, and so susceptible of mutation through such influences, why does that cætinct form stand out so signally A MONUMENT OF STABILITY ?” (p. 254).

I am delighted to find that he adds, though apparently unwillingly,

Another reflection is equally strong in my mind, that the means which have been adduced to explain the origin of species by 'natural selection,' or a process of variation from external influences, are inadequate to account for the phenomena(p. 254).

I have, then, the following facts to present as the result of my researches, such as may be admitted as fairly proven, and we shall see to what deductions they lead.

First, that at a certain period of the world's history man and the mammoth both appeared upon the scene. Man the head and chief of the whole creation, the mammoth the head and chief of the behemah or cattle. They are creations in the language of Scripture) of the sixth day, and neither the one nor the other is found associated with the ferocious saurians of the fifth day's creation, with whom indeed they would have been incompatible.

I have the greatest objection to forcing a supposed agreement between Genesis and geology, when in truth we are as yet so far from having attained the complete knowledge either of one or the other, but it is absolutely necessary to define with some precision the terms we use. We may speak of æons or of Indian Kalpas, or, as it seems to me, with more advantage, in Scriptural phrase of days to indicate periods, whose duration passes our comprehension.

In the earliest cons then of which we have any records—in the rocks-life, whether vegetable or animal, was perfect in its kind, but apparently sparsely scattered in the midst of uncongenial circumstances. The world was not yet prepared for great creations.

From the early Silurian dawn, however, we find the same contrast between the mathematical forms of crystallization and the spiral and elegant forms of life, which I have endeavoured before to illustrate, and which our “ scientists” choose to ignore.

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Afterwards followed the day when the earth brought forth the tender grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind,

and the tree yielding fruit whose seed was in itself after his kind :-not by development of the earlier creations, with which it would be difficult to trace any connection, but the earth itself bringing forth these things according to divinely conceived and implanted ideas.

So, in his better days, Sir C. Lyell expressed it :- It appears that species have a real existence in nature, and that each was endowed, at the time of its creation, with the attributes and organization by which it is now distinguished."

Next followed, according to Scripture, and, I think, according to the testimony of the rocks, the command to the waters to "swarm forth swarms" of creeping things having living souls, and fowls were to fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.

These would find their food ready prepared, both in the seas and in the abundant fruits and seeds with which the earth was already replenished, and their multitudinous increase was checked and kept down by appointed and most formidable destroyers.

But none of the animals suited especially to minister to the wants or to become the companions and friends of man had yet appeared upon the scene. It was needful to introduce the mammiferous animals, creatures of another origin and of blood entirely diverse; showing how impossible it is for the one to be derived from the other by “natural selection," for the effects produced by the injection of the blood of the one into the other are comparable to those which follow the introduction of the most energetic poison.

“Earth, air, and water have their mammiferous animals. This provision is a physical and even moral advance in animated nature, for amongst the animals thus furnished, man himself takes his place, and wherever the mother's breast is, there is there a strong parental affection for the offspring.

The creations of the sixth age were thus benevolently associated with man.

Between the head of the mammiferous cattle and the head of the whole creation there are these points of resemblance, that both appear upon the scene perfect, without, as far as geology can ascertain, any predecessors. They both “come,' as it will be seen, at a late period of the world's history. One is destined to survive, the other, after long ages, to disappear; but both have this peculiarity, that they have been adapted to spread over a very wide extent of the earth's surface, the mammoth to multiply exceedingly, the man to replenish the earth and subdue it. Wherever the mammoth, a quiet herbivore, could exist, man could doubtless find means to live.

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What, then, are we to say as to the period during which they lived together ?

iš It has been assumed that that epoch is removed by tens and hundreds of thousands of years from the present. Millions of years were the figures employed to describe the time which has elapsed since that great geological episode. In the tenth edition of his 'Principles,' Lyell estimated it to be about 800,000 years ago, which was moderate compared to the 1,280,000,000 years of some geologists. But in the eleventh and last edition of Lyell's great work, he substituted* 200,000 for 800,000! Dr. Andrews' calculations, drawn from very careful observations on the North American lakes, put 25,000 years as an extreme limit, and indicate in reality only some 7,000 years.”+

M. Chabas, who has written some of the best books on the subject of the antiquity of the human race, ridicules the statement of a contemporary writer, who says that the horse had been hunted, killed, and eaten by man before being brought into a state of domesticity from the commencement of the Quaternary age until the epoch of the age of Bronze, or not less than 300,000 years. Also that the Aryans first bethought themselves that the said animal might be made useful for other purposes than being eaten before the year 19,337 B.C.

I wish to pay all respect to the calculations of Mr. Pengelly, which assign 17,000 years as the period which has elapsed since the subsidence of the wood-covered shores of the bay. Mr. Pengelly, at all events, gives reasonable calculations (whether dependable or not) for his opinion ; nevertheless, they remind me of the above.

Only this calculation seems to me to prove too much, for nothing is more certain than that St. Michael's Mount, which is now surrounded by the sea at high water, used to be called in the Cornish language (carreg luz en kuz), “the hoary rock in the wool," and subsequently in Norman-English, hore rock in the wood; and notwithstanding the great opinion which I entertain of the antiquity of the Cornish and the allied Welsh and Breton languages, I hesitate to assign to them an unchanged duration of 17,000 years. If it be supposed that part of this interval may have been bridged over by tradition, I find that this supposition again fails to establish the theory, for distinct and unanimous tradition records great loss of land

66 Le

* Based on the theory of Mr. Croll. To this theory I attach no importance, as I see no reason to believe that any change in the obliquity of the earth's orbit has any connection with the Glacial period.

+ See Appendix F.

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