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substitute of the offerer, because its death took the place of his death. If both died there was no substitution. So if Christ's being made sin does not secure our being made righteousness, he was not our substitute. Righteousness does not here mean inward rectitude, or moral excellence. It is true that the word often has this sense; and it is true that the work of Christ does secure the holiness of his people, and was designed to produce that effect, as is often asserted in Scripture. But this was neither its only, nor its proximate design. Its immediate end was to reconcile us to God; to propitiate him, by the satisfaction of justice, so that he can be just and yet justify the ungodly. As the apostle is here speaking of the sacrificial effect of Christ's death, that is, of the proximate effect of his being made sin for us, the word righteousness must be understood ir. its forensic
It expresses our relation to the law, not our inward moral state. It is that which justifies, or satisfies the demands of the law. Those who have this dikatootvn are díxatól, just in the sight of the law, in the sense that the law or justice is satisfied as concerns them. It is called the righteousness of God, either because it is from him as its author; or, because it renders us righteous in his sight.”
“There is probably no passage in the Scriptures in which the doctrine of justification is more concisely or clearly stated than in this. Our sins were imputed to Christ, and his righteousness is imputed to us. He bore our sins; we are clothed in his righteousness. Imputation conveys neither pollution nor holiness. Christ's bearing our sins did not make him morally a sinner, any more than the victim was morally defiled which bore the sins of the people; nor does Christ's righteousness become subjectively ours, it is not the moral quality of our souls. This is what is not meant. What is meant is equally plain. Our sins were the judicial ground of the sufferings of Christ, so that they were a satisfaction of justice; and his righteousness is the judicial ground of our acceptance with God, 80 that our pardon is an act of justice.” pp. 148, 149, 150, 151.
Paul the PREACHER.* -It was a happy thought of Professor Eadie to treat the discourses of Paul in a half exegetical, half popular way, and thus to make the Acts of the Apostles a living history fraught with fresh interest to modern Christians. No method is so well fitted to ac. complish this object as to fix the interest upon the striking discourses of the noble apostle. As expanded and illustrated by the author, these discourses are made to comprehend the chief points of Christian truth, as it was proclaimed in the earliest days of the church, and also to bring in a series of striking pictures, the chief incidents of persecution and trial, of travel and flight, of imprisonment and arraignment, which make the book of the Acts so fraught with stirring interest. The historic sense of Professor Eadie, and his power to transport himself into the life of other times, comes here constantly into service. Besides the sermons of Paul bring up some of the toughest questions that test and task the modern critic and interpreter; as, for example, the interpretation of the Messianic psalms and prophecies, and the use of the Old Testament in the New. These are all thoroughly, yet not scholastically handled. The style of the book is abundant,--sometimes too diffuse and exuberant,-but is never diluted and watery. We would that this volume might be circulated by thousands and myriads of copies, and take the place of much of the stupid and deadening stuff that is called excellent religious reading. For the instructors of Sunday schools and Bible classes, the book is admirable, and as a kind of First book in Church History, it has the double merit of explaining the rise of the Church and of imparting a fresh interest to the New Testament.
* Paul the Preacher ; or, a popular and practical Exposition of his Discourses and Speeches, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles. By John Eadie, D. D., LL. D., Professor of Biblical Literature to the United Presbyterian Synod. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1859. 12mo. pp. 453.
The Still Hour.* _We are confident that this little volume upon “Communion with God," which goes out from Andover Hill, will speedily find its way to thousands of Christian homes in all parts of the country, where it will be read and re-read, and prized as it deserves. We give the titles of its fourteen short chapters : “ Absence of God in Prayer.—Unhallowed Prayer.—Romance in Prayer.—Distrust in Prayer. -Faith in Prayer.—Specific and Intense Prayer,—Temperament of Prayer.-Indolence in Prayer.--Idolatry in Prayer.—Continuance in Prayer.-Fragmentary Prayer.--Aid of the Holy Spirit in Prayer.Reality of Christ in Prayer.-Modern babits of Prayer.”
We do not know of any work upon the subject of prayer which seems so fitted to do good as this. The book of Dr. Hamilton, of London,—“The Mount of Olives,"—has had great popularity, and deservedly. The aptness, and beauty, and abundance of its illustrations cannot but attract attention and excite admiration. But this book of Professor Phelps pleases us better. There is no new theory of prayer offered; there is only a plain presentation of “standard ” thoughts upon the subject, and there is no attempt to invest it with the charms of novelty. But there is a directness and quiet simplicity about the book that turns the thought of the reader from the style to the subject, and invests it with an importance and an intense reality that we have never seen equaled. We cannot refrain from giving one or two short paragraphs.
* The Still Hour; or Communion with God. By Austin Prelps, Professor in
18mo. pp. Andover Theological Seminary. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1860.
“The Scriptural idea of prayer is that of one of the most downright, sturdy realities in the universe. Right in the heart of God's plan of government, it is lodged as a power. Amidst the conflicts which are going on in the evolution of that plan, it stands as a power. Into all the intricacies of Divine working, and the mysteries of Divine decree, it reaches out silently as a power.
In the mind of God, we may be assured, the conception of prayer is no fiction, whatever man may think of it.
“ It has, and God has determined that it should have, a positive and an appreciable influence in directing the course of a human life. It is, and God has purposed that it should be, a link of connection between human mind and Divine mind, by which, through His infinite condescension, we may actually move His will. It is, and God has decreed that it should be, a power in the universe, as distinct, as real, as natural, and as uniform, as the power of gravitation, or of light, or of electricity. A man may use it as trustingly and as soberly as he would use either of these. It is as truly the dictate of good sense that a man should expect to achieve something by praying as it is that he should expect to achieve something by a telescope, or the mariner's compass, or the electric telegraph. * The feeling which will become spontaneous with a Christian under the influence of such a trust, is this: 'I come to my devotions this morning on an errand of real life. This is no romance and no farce. I do not come here to go through a form of words. I have no hopeless desires to express. I have an object to gain. I have an end to accomplish. This is a business in which I am about to engage. An astronomer does not turn his telescope to the skies with a more reasonable hope of penetratiog those distant heavens, than I have of reaching the mind of God by lifting up my heart at the throne of Grace. This is the privilege of my calling of God in Christ Jesus. Even my faltering voice is now to be heard in heaven, and it is to put forth a power there, the results of which only God can know, and only eternity can develop. Therefore, O Lord! Thy servant findeth it in his heart to pray this prayer unto Thee.'”
Gotthold's Emblems.*—This is a charming addition to our devotional literature. It is a translation of a volume which nearly two hundred years ago had a popularity in Germany not inferior to that of the works of Luther. As long as the evangelical Church had living members it was read wherever the German language was known. But with the decay of true religious feeling, and the ascendancy gained by infidelity, it fell into temporary oblivion. It is a sign that there is another change for the better in Germany, that this ancient book seems to have regained something of its former popularity, and that its admirers are vieing with those of bygone years in praising and applauding the author. The book consists of over two bundred short “meditations"
* Gotthold's Emblems, or Invisible things understood by things that are made. By Christian Scriver, minister of Magdeburg in 1671. Translated from the twenty-eighth German edition, by the Rev. Robert Menzies, Hoddam, England. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1860. 12 mo. pp. 316.
the most familiar objects which daily present themselves to the eye, in the family and in the outdoor world. The design of the author is to draw from each some lesson of practical piety and to teach us how to make every familiar object illustrate to us God's dealings with man or man's obligations to God. There are those whose minds are so eminently practical, that they can feel no interest in tracing such analogies for themselves, and such will doubtless see no beauty in this work of the oll" court preacher," Christian Scriver, of Magdeburg. But by those who have the true poetic sense, we are confident that these prose" meilitations” will be received as the gems of one who really deserves the name of a Christian poet.
WORKS OF DR. Eumons.* -We have before us the second volume of the Works of Dr. Emmons, issued by the Congregational Board of Publication. Why the second volume has been published before the first, does not appear. We suppose, however, it must be because that, consisting wholly of sermons, it could be made ready for the press earlier than the first volume, which will contain a memoir of Dr. Emmons's life, and perhaps other preliminary matter. It does not appear, either, of how many volumes this edition is to consist. The present volume, which has 838 large octavo pages, begins with Systematic Theology, but has not completed it, carrying it only through the Work of Christ and as far as the subject of Justification. It contains that part of Dr. Emmons's Systematic Theology which is given in the fourth and a small portion of that which is given in the fifth of the six volume edition of his works which was published by Crocker & Brewster in 1842, under the editorial supervision of Dr. Ide. We are pleased to see, on comparing this volume with those, that this is enriched by the addition of ten sermons not contained in them. So that this edition is not a mere republication of the former one, but is made more full by a selection from Dr. Emmons's manuscripts. The volume is published in handsome style, on excellent paper, and in large clear type, which it is a pleasure to read. Of course this more full publication of the Works of one of the most independent thinkers and able theologians of New England, as Dr. Emmons unquestionably was, we regard as a valuable contribution to theological literature. Our object now, however, is simply to inform our readers of the general character of this volume, reserving our criticism till the appearance of the whole work.
* The Works of Nathaniel Emmons, D. D., Third Pastor of the Church in Franklin, Mass. With a Memoir of his Life. Edited by Jacob IDE, D. D, Vol. II. Boston: Congregational Board of Publication, 23 Chauncy Street. 1860. Sent prepaid by mail for $2 a volume.
Rev. Charles Kingsley's Sermons. The Good News of God.* The sermons contained in Mr. Kingsley's lately published volume are much superior to his former publications,—the “ Village Sermons " and the “Sermons for the Times." They are superior, both in style and in contents. The style is a model of condensation and of perspicuity in teaching abstract truth. Everything is made plain, and that without circumlocution or loss of force. In this feature, these thirty-nine sermons might be profitably studied by all ministers. The word of God, as far as the author inculcates it, is made a fire and a hammer. We regret that he is not more sound and scriptural in his theological opinions. While many of these discourses are, in respect of doctrine, admirable and edifying, others introduce serious errors. It is no secret to the readers of Mr. Kingsley's former works that he believes in the termination of future punishment and rejects the expiatory atonement of Christ, -a doctrine which he fails to understand and does not fairly state. We have felt that his passionate opposition to this truth and others congruous with it, indicated a want of repose in his own views of the Gospel and a yet unfinished struggle in his own mind.
Guinness's Sermons.f—The fifteen sermons of this popular preacher are fine examples of what has been called the Sunflower style of pulpit eloquence. It does not always happen, however, that the exaggerated rhetoric and gaudy word-painting of sensation preachers is redeemed by so much earnestness of purpose and warmth of Christian feeling as Mr. Guinness seems to possess. But it does no good to find fault with the tastes of preachers or hearers, as we know; for the world will have its own way of thinking on such matters.
+ The Good News of God.—Sermons. By Charles Kingsley, Rector of Eversley, etc. New York : Burt, Hutchinson & Abbey. 1859.
+ Sermons: By the Rev. Gratton GUINNESS. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1860. 12mo. pp. 363.