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and the Addresses, just as they stand in this book, might be spread throughout the country; for we hardly know where to look for a more attractive exhibition of Congregationalism as it is, in spirit and substance. The three great traits which shine most conspicuously through its pages, are

1. The sincere and substantial orthodoxy of evangelical belief, which pervades the words of all the different speakers, in all these free and unrestricted addresses.

2. The genius of mutual liberality which shows itself in the very make-up of the book, in which no pains have been taken to obviate small disagreements, and inconsistencies real or apparent. Hartford and Windsor are each suffered to glory in having the First Church in Connecticut. East Windsor Hill answers mildly back to the "fair plain of Quinnipiack," each speaking in love the truth as each understands it. And the steady consociationalism of Dr. Porter and Dr. Eldridge agrees comfortably to disagree with the decided federalism of Dr. Hawes on the one hand, and with the large independency of Dr. Bacon and the Western brethren, on the other.

3. A generous catholicity, or predominating love for "the universal church,—the communion of saints." This appears not only in words, (although it is the topic of the address of President Woolsey), but in the glow of affectionate feeling which pervades the whole volume, and in the very facts of the history which it commemorates. The key-note of the whole book is struck in the following passage from the close of Dr. Bacon's Historical Discourse, where he is estimating the progress accomplished in the one hundred and fifty years under review:

"Meanwhile, in proportion as that old and true idea of the communion of churches, in distinction from the idea of national, provincial and classical jurisdiction, has been more clearly developed,—and in proportion as our ecclesiastical forms and practices have been progressively disentangled from their unnatural connection with principles which our New England polity originally rejected, there has been a steady progress in the feeling of forbearance and kindness toward all evangelical dissenters from our order, and in the free sense of catholic unity with all the churches of Christ around us, whatever their distinctive names or forms. Our relations to other bodies of professed Christians holding the vital truths of the common salvation, are gradually putting off the unseemly form of ecclesiastical separation and non-intercourse, and are becoming more and more transformed by the spirit of Christian brotherhood, of mutual recognition, and of coöperation in the common cause. We have learned that such acts of church fellowship with churches outside of our own connection, as

we find to be practicable, are our privilege and our duty. We are learning to avoid all needless conflict with their prejudices against our forms of order and discipline, and of doctrinal statement, and to count it among our advantages that we can recognize them as churches of Christ, even where it happens that by their subjection to some law of commandments contained in ordinances' they are unable to acknowledge us. I trust we are learning not to annoy with obtrusive offers of coöperation those whose forms forbid them to cooperate with us, nor to demand a sacramental communion as the first condition of Christian fraternity with those whose misfortune is that they find themselves forbidden not so much by their feelings as by their logic or their traditions, to commune with us in the recognition of our sacraments. In this respect the true genius of our Congregational system is better developed with us than it was with our fathers; and is it not in this direction that the prospect opens of the coming age, when differences of judgment in the less momentous things shall no longer produce alienation of feeling, or any incapacity of cooperation for Christ and his kingdom, among those who unite in accepting the faithful saying, that 'Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners,' and in maintaining the apostolic principle that with the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation? Let us be willing to learn more thoroughly, as God in his providence and by his grace has already constrained us to learn in part, the wisdom that can bear the infirmities of the weak, and that can be tolerant and patient toward the ignorance and the errors, the defects and the excesses, and even toward the narrowness and schismatic exclusiveness, which are not wholly inconsistent with the reality of a professed faith in the Saviour of sinners. As we have learned to cooperate with other churches in all good works in which they can coöperate with us, let us be willing to learn the added lesson of a larger and more catholic charity toward those who separate themselves and work apart. So shall we, cheerfully following others when they go before us, and gently winning and leading onward those who can be moved by our example, leave still further behind us the days and the spirit of sectarian strife. He who leads the blind by a way which they know not, has led us in this way; and as we find ourselves brought out by no wisdom of our own, from the chilling enclosure of high and strong division walls, into the warm sun shine of a new and brighter day,

The breath of heaven, fresh blowing, pure and sweet,
With day-spring born,'-

let us say to that guiding spirit of catholic freedom and fraternity which we have learned already to enjoy-nay, rather let us say to that Holy Spirit of God who seals and sanctifies his elect not under our forms of ministration only, but under many forms—

'A little onward lend Thy guiding hand

To these dark steps-a little further on.'

"Our churches, then, in recovering their original Congregationalism from an unfortunate complication with ideas and principles derived from other systems, have become, and are still becoming, not more sectarian, but less so. They are gaining, year by year, if I mistake not, a larger and more catholic habit of 15


thought and practice in relation to other Christian bodies, than our fathers knew; and in this way the true genius of our system, with its two cardinal principles of the completeness and self-government of each local church under Christ, and of the free communion of the churches with each other-is finding its natural and full development." pp. 65-67.

HISTORY OF INDEPENDENCE HALL.*-There are few public buildings in the United States around which there gathers so much of historic interest as around the old Independence Hall in Philadelphia, from whose walls the immortal Declaration first went forth that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States. The object of this book, whose title we give, is to group together all that pertains to the history of the Hall, and of the numerous relics which are now collected there. It is a book of much interest, and no American can read its pages and recall the scenes which were witnessed in that old building, eighty-four years ago, without fresh feelings of gratitude to the men who then put in peril "their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor."

OLD MACKINAW.-A summer trip to the Upper Lakes is now becoming so common a thing that we doubt not that this book will find many readers. It gives just the information that intelligent, wide-awake travelers are always glad to pick up. It is not, however, a guide book in any technical sense of the word. But a full account will be found in it of the history of the country, of the aboriginal inhabitants, of the early missionaries, of the mines, of the natural curiosities, and of the present condition and prospects of the people who are living there in the new towns and villages which are everywhere springing up.

* History of Independence Hall: from the earliest period to the present time. Embracing Biographies of the Immortal Signers of the Declaration of Independence, with Historical Sketches of the sacred relics preserved in that sanctuary of American freedom. By D. W. BELISLE. Philadelphia: James Challen & Son. 1859. 12mo. pp. 396.

+ Old Mackinaw; or, the Fortress of the Lakes, and its Surroundings. By W. P. STRICKLAND. Philadelphia: James Challen & Son. 1860. 12mo. pp. 404.


MRS. BOTTA'S HAND-BOOK OF UNIVERSAL LITERATURE.*—This is a very valuable and useful manual, which deserves, and will doubtless obtain, a wide circulation. In the brief compass of about five hundred and fifty duodecimo pages, it gives us an outline view of all the literatures of the world, ancient and modern. Of the former we have placed before us the Hebrew, the Syriac, Chaldaic, and Phenician, the Hindu or Sanskrit, the Persian, the Chinese, the Egyptian, the Greek, and the Roman: the Arabian forms the transition to modern literature, of which we have the Italian, the French, the Spanish, the Portuguese, the Turkish and Armenian, the Slavic, the Scandinavian, the German, the Dutch, the English, and finally the American. A brief view of the division of languages, and of nations as founded upon them, is prefixed. It would be very unfair to examine with a microscope a work so encyclopedic in its character: doubtless the special student in any one of these branches of universal literature would find things to criticise and amend in our author's treatment of it. But the work, as a whole, has been carefully, conscientiously, and thoroughly done. Where standard works of acknowledged authority, covering the whole ground of a literature, were accessible, Mrs. Botta has made them the basis of her presentation of the subject. Where such were not to be had-as is especially the case with regard to more than one of the ancient literatures-she has had recourse to scattered sources of knowledge, and has also endeavored to submit her sketches to the examination of special scholars. By these means she has formed a compilation which is in the main to be relied upon for the correctness of the information which it affords, and for the justness of the views it presents. She has nowhere been content with giving a bare statement of periods, with names of authors, and titles and dates of works: under the head of each national literature she strives to place before the eyes of her readers a real living view of it, describing its

* Hand-book of Universal Literature, from the best and latest authorities: designed for popular reading, and as a text-book for Schools and Colleges. By ANNE C. LYNCH BOTTA. New York: Derby & Jackson. 1860. 12mo. pp. 567.

general characteristics, its varying tendencies, its value, adding bits of biographical sketches, descriptions of famous and important works, and the like. By so doing, she, of course, lays herself more open to criticism in detail, but she has also made the book vastly more valuable and more instructive. It is composed with modesty and good taste, and, making no pretentions to being what it is not, is worthy to be gratefully received for what it is-a compendium of valuable information on a highly important subject, respecting which, knowledge has been much more desirable than accessible to the gene. rality of readers. We presume that, besides being enjoyed by those who are in search of the general views it gives, it will also lead, in many cases, to more special and penetrating study of the subjects of which it offers a foretaste.

WHITTIER'S HOME BALLADS.*-Without remarking minutely on individual poems, we content ourselves with pointing out a few characteristic excellencies.

There is a gift of tongues to every genuine poet. We refer not to an exuberant overflow of words, nor merely to the logically accurate choice of terms, but to that instinctive sense of what is fit and good in language, whereby the poet uses a word which every reader feels to be the word, though no one has seen it so used before; or again gives to familiar and common place expressions a force and beauty which make them appear new and fresh. Mr. Whittier, especially in the ballads, is led to speak of the common and at times homely things in this New England life of ours, and he makes use of plain words in doing so, yet always without vulgarity, more often even with great poetic beauty.

We notice, also, in some of these poems, a polish of style which reminds us of the highly wrought stanzas of Campbell's lyrics. This consists not merely in the use of what is best in words, and their construction, but almost as much in the omission of what is unnecessary, and in the forbearance to press upon the attention what every thoughtful reader would think of for himself. The thoughts stand forth distinct and pointed, expressed in the fewest possible words, or it may be in single words; the stanzas are all

Home Ballads and Poems. By JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1860. [For sale in New Haven by T. H. Pease. 12mo. pp. 236. Price 75 cents.]

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