« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
enemy to licentiousness, than fhe is to tyranny.— And thus ended our first converfation.'
[To be concluded in our next.]
HE following medical work has uncommon merit: Les Oracles de Cos, c. i. e. The Oracles of Cos, a Work useful for young Physicians and Surgeons, and even for other Readers. By M. AUBRY, M. D. King's Physician and Superintendent of the Mineral Waters of Luxeil. 8vo. One of the most fingular things that has happened in literature, is, that the writings of a man, who lived above two thousand years ago, are ftill cloathed with an oracular authority in the medical world. The writings of Hippocrates owe this diftinction to the method he purfued, even to his rifing above the fervitude of opinion, and turning all his efforts toward the ftudy of nature; and it was a very happy idea that led M. Aubry to connect the obfervations of this great man with his maxims, as this is really the best commentary he could make upon his author, and is, at the fame time, an important fervice done to the art of healing. A great number of medical focieties and feminaries have, accordingly, given high commendations to this work, which will ferve as an excellent manual not only for the young phyfician, but also for the fenfible and humane clergyman in the country, who is willing to do good to the bodies, as well as the fouls of his hearers. Such will find here, among other things, the fureft direction to the knowledge of the falutary or mortal crifis, in the diforders that afflict the human race. There is also prefixed to this work a curious difcourfe, relative to the hiftory of medical science, particularly in its ancient ftate.
II. L'Etat de la Medicine, de la Chirurgie, &c. i. e. The State of Phyfic, Surgery, and Pharmacy in Europe, for the Year 1776. The first part of this ufeful work contains a compendious hiftory of medical science, the royal edicts that have been publifhed to regulate the study of phyfic, particularly that of Marly in 1707, and an account of the officers at Paris, who belong to the department of health. The fecond part contains an account of all the books of phyfic, chirurgery, natural philofophy, botany, natural hiftory, and Veterinarian fcience, that have been published at Paris, fince the first of January 1775, as alfo of all the prizes propofed in the different academies of
Europe for the improvement of the art of healing, and of the difcoveries that have been made in this important branch of human knowledge, during that time. In the third part we have a lift of the officers of health in the different countries of Europe, and, among other things, a necrology, in which are noted the characters and merits of thofe eminent phyficians that have died in the course of the last year.
III. The Abbé GERMANES has published his third and last volume of the History of the Revolutions of Corfica, from its earlieft Population to the prefent Times. The French title is, Hiftoire des Revolutions de Corfe depuis fes premiers Habitans jufqu'à nos Jours. This volume comprehends the hiftory of that ifland, from the time that PAOLI put himself at the head of the fons of liberty, to the moment wherein he abandoned them (i. e. was forced to give them up) to their invaders. It comprehends, moreover, the ecclefiaftical hiftory of Corfica, an account of its illuftrious men, its ancient nobility, extracts from the acts of its national affemblies, and, among other pieces worthy of curiofity, the conventions that were made between the republic of Genoa and the colony of the Greek Maniotes, relative to the introduction and fettlement of the latter in Corfica. Without entering into a circumftantial account of the contents of this volume, we fhall lay before our Readers the different lines of the character of the once famous and fill respectable Paoli, who practifes in the fhade of private life the milder virtues, referving the heroic ones until the occafion calls them forth. The portrait of this eminent man comes, indeed, from a French, that is, a fufpected pencil, and we think it, in feveral places, falfe and malignant, both in the touches and the colouring; but it is, otherwife, drawn with fpirit, exhibits a mafterly hand, and offers to the fpectator a curious object of critical difcuffion.
This ancient general of the Corficans (it is the Abbé GERMANES that fpeaks) difcovered always an high degree of dexterity in flattering and gaining over thofe Corficans who were neceffary for his purpofe. He took great pains to come at the knowledge of their refpective characters, tafte, and inclinations, in order thus to fecure their attachment to him by addreffing himself to their weak fide. An uncommon memory, which recalled to him feasonably the moft minute circumftances, was of remarkable ufe to him in this artful method of proceeding. He difcovered, on all occafions, the most engaging marks of affability, and gave with a prudent, but liberal hand, money, employments, and hopes.
An air of patriotifm was that which Paoli affected moft. As often as his parents or relations took it into their heads to embellifh
embellish` the family-house, which was fituated in the pieve of Roftino, he ordered all the ornaments they had added to it to be pulled down and removed, that he might not be fufpected of fquandering away the public money for his private pleasures. He even avoided connexions of gallantry, and the gratifications of luxury, which he confidered as dangerous and pernicious vices in the founder of a state. His palace was furnished nobly, yet without magnificence; his table was well ferved, though not fumptuous, and the arms of the nation were engraven on his plate. He took pleasure in exhibiting to public view these external marks of modefty and difintereftedness, because they expreffed the fpirit and character of a grave republican. His outward appearance carried no marks of diftinction but what were neceffary to fhew the eminent place he filled. He wore ufually a coat of green cloth, laced with gold, and fometimes he appeared in the Corfican habit, which was the common drefs of the Highlanders of the island. He was very defirous of retaining the ancient fimplicity in point of drefs, and of allowing no exception here, but that which might be made in favour of the magiftrates, whom he defigned to diftinguish by black apparel, as the most suitable to the gravity of their office. As a zeal for promoting good morals made an effential part of his fyftem, he seemed to have no object of defire but the happinefs of the people.' (Why feemed, Mr. Abbé?) The ignorance, in which they had been kept, excited both his zeal and indignation. It is true, the means of inftruction which he provided for the Corficans were few in number; but he hoped, in procefs of time, to make the light of the arts and fciences arife upon them.'
After having looked upon as calumnies, the accufations which fome had brought against the Corfican chief of violating or neglecting the ecclefiaftical laws, the Abbé GERMANES thus goes on with his portrait and infidious colouring: It may be affirmed boldly, that Paoli had genius and art enough to lead blindly and implicitly a nation, which it was difficult to govern, confidering the tumults and troubles in which they were involved. The last revolution in Corfica proves (continues our Abbé) that Paoli was not so much a general as a politician. He had the art of appearing brave, which made amends for his want of courage. Pretending to face, nay to run in the way of danger in the beginning of a battle, he always found difcreet and prudent friends, who tempered his ardour, and befeeched him not to expofe a life on which depended the fate of the nation. Though timid in the field, he is bold and refolute in the council, and ftedfast in his projects and purposes. Like Auguftus Cæfar, he poffeffes that fpecies of fortitude that faces death, which, in the midft of civil tumults prefents itself un
der fuch different forms to the head of a faction. If, when he faw he could no longer maintain the liberty of the country, of which he afpired to be the deliverer, he had died, fword in hand at the head of his fellow-citizens, he would be looked upon as a hero if he had come to an agreement with France, and, renouncing all advantageous terms for himself, had facrificed to the good of his country his employments and his authority (that authority which is more dear to ambition than life itfelf) he would still be confidered as a great man:' (this we deny by the French, perhaps, the Author means: even this we queftion.) This noble and fublime felf-denial would have ranked him, in the public efteem, with those famous Greeks whofe only object was the good of their country; but the defire of perpetuating his authority was the leading prin'ciple in his political fyftem; and he always preferred his perfonal authority and elevation before the liberty of his fellow
Such is the portrait that the French Abbé draws of the Corfican lawgiver.
IV. Lettres de Madamoifelle la Comteffe de la Riviére à Madamoifelle la Baronne de Neufpont, &c. i. e. Letters from the Countess de la Riviere to the Baronejs de Neufpont; containing the principal Events of her Life, as alfo thofe that happened in her Family; interfperfed with feveral Anecdotes relative to the Reign of Lewis XIV. from 1686 to 1712, Thele Letters are pleafing, fenfible, and, in many places, curious, as they contain feveral political anecdotes. They comprehend a feries of real facts and events, and yet affect us as a romance would do. They are the productions of a lady of uncommon merit, great beauty, high rank, and ample fortune; who lived, untainted, amidst all the feductions of the court of Lewis XIV. where gallantry wore the most variegated and enchanting forms; and who, in the very centre of temptation, and amidst perpetual fcenes of intoxicating pleafures, exhibited, in her fentiments and conduct, an illuftrious model of piety and virtue. Thefe Letters, and the fituation of the fair Writer, fhew that it is poffible to be merry and wife, and the efore they may be ufeful reading to our modern ladies.
V. Principes du Droit Civil Romain, &. i. e. Principles of the Roman or (what is commonly called the) Civil Law, by M. OLIVIER, LL. D. 2 Vols. 12mo. 1776. A very elegant and judicious abridgment of that immenfe and heterogeneous body of laws contained in the Roman codes and pandects, which the ftudent in civil law will read with profit, and even the adept with pleasure.
VI. De l'Architecture: i. e. A Treatife on Architecture, by M. J. F. SOBRY. The ingenious Author of this Treatise, who propofes publishing it in folio, in a fplendid manner, with all
the engravings that are neceffary to illuftrate this elegant and ufeful fcience, has thought proper to publish firft the Treatife alone, in a fmaller fize, in order to try the tafte of the Public, before he undertakes a more expenfive edition of his work. This Treatife is both ingenious and inftructive, and requires but a little previous knowledge, which may easily be obtained, in order to its being well understood. The Author's defign is to re-unite, in one point of view, the general and particular rules of architecture, to unfold its ufes, principles, extent, and limits; with the fpirit and turn of mind that muft direct the ftudent in his application to it. He paffes alfo in review the different authors who have treated concerning this noble art, difplays its excellence, and traces its hiftory from the earliest monuments of ancient times, down through the fucceffive periods of its improvement or decline, and points out the various characters of Grecian, Roman, Gothic, Arabic, and modern architecture.
VII. It is common, but not always equitable, to confider the minifters who hold, under the fovereign, the reins of government, as the authors of all the grievances that excite the flame of popular oppofition and refentment; and many victims have been facrificed, fome defervedly and some unjustly, to this favourite opinion. A vindication of the character and memory of one of these unfortunate victims is attempted with fuccefs in the following work, which was lately published at Berlin, and at Hamburgh, under the title of Rettung der Ehre und Unschuld, &c. i. e. A full Juftification and Proof of the Innocence of the late Baron George Henry Von Schlitz, called GOERTZ, Minister of State to the King of Sweden, &c. drawn from the original Papers of Charles XII. King of Sweden, of the Senate, and of several PerJons of Rank, employed by Government at that Time, and accompa nied with 30 authentic Papers. Every body knows the tragical end of Baron Goertz, who expiated on the fcaffold the calamities in which the defpotic government of Charles XII. had involved Sweden. Sixty years have paffed fince his death, and now, for the first time, he has found an apologist, who, after the moft laborious researches into the pureft and molt authentic fources of evidence, has declared and proved him guiltless. The Swedes, themfelves, are probably ignorant of many particular details, relations, and anecdotes, that are to be found in this curious publication, which not only anfwers the principal purpose of the anonymous Apologift, but alfo throws confiderable light upon the hiftory of the latter part of the reign of Charles XII.