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me give hemend to you to talk in a humbler strain than your tice to some time ago, in acknowledging that I am i from ber predecessors have done, and, instead of presuming perfect mistress of the fan, and use it with the utto be happy, instruct us only to be easy. The most knowledge and dexterity. Indeed, the world, thoughts of him who would be discreet, and aim malicious as it is, will allow, that from a hurry of at practicable things, should turn upon allaying laughter, I recollect myself the most suddenly, our pain rather than promoting our joy. Great make a courtesy, and let fall my hands before me, inquietude is to be avoided, but great felicity is closing my fan at the same instant, the best of any not to be attained. The great lesson is equani-woman in England. I am not a little delighted mity, a regularity of spirit, which is a little above that I have had your notice and approbation; and cheerfulness and below mirth. Cheerfulness is al- however other young women may rally me out of ways to be supported if a man is out of pain, but envy, I triumph in it, and demand a place in your mirth to a prudent man should always be acci- friendship. You must therefore permit me to lay dental. It should naturally arise out of the occa. before you the present state of my mind. tras sion, and the occasion seldom be laid for it; for reading your Spectator of the 9th instant,† and those tempers who want mirth to be pleased, are thought the circumstance of the ass divided be like the constitutions which flag without the use of tween two bundles of hay which equally affected brandy. Therefore, I say, let your precept be, his senses, was a lively representation of my pre"Be easy." That mind is dissolute and ungo. sent condition, for you are to know that I am verned, which must be hurried out of itself by extremely enamoured with two young gentlemen loud laughter or sensual pleasure, or else be wholly who at this time pretend to me. One must hide nothing when one is asking advice, therefore I will There are a couple of old fellows of my ac-own to you that I am very amorous, and very coquaintance who meet every day and smoke a pipe, vetous. My lover Will is very rich, and my lover and by their natural love to each other, though Tom very handsome. I can have either of them they have been men of business and bustle in the when I please; but when I debate the question in world, enjoy a greater tranquillity than either my own mind, I cannot take Tom for fear of loscould have worked himself into by any chapter ing Will's estate, nor enter upon Will's estate, and of Seneca. Indolence of body and mind, when bid adieu to Tom's person. I am very young, and we aim at no more, is very frequently enjoyed; yet no one in the world, dear sir, has the main but the very inquiry after happiness has something chance more in her head than myself. Tom is the restless in it, which a man who lives in a series of gayest, the blithest creature! He dances well, is temperate meals, friendly conversations, and easy very civil, and diverting at all hours and seasons. slumbers, gives himself no trouble about. While Oh he is the joy of my eyes! But then again Will men of refinement are talking of tranquillity, he is so very rich and careful of the main. How possesses it. many pretty dresses does Tom appear in to charm 'What I would by these broken expressions re-me! But then it immediately occurs to me, that a commend to you, Mr. Spectator, is, that you would man of his circumstances is so much the poorer. speak of the way of life which plain men may Upon the whole, I have at last examined both pursue to fill up the spaces of time with satisfac-these desires of love and avarice, and upon strictly tion. It is a lamentable circumstance, that wis. weighing the matter I begin to think I shall be dom, or, as you call it, philosophy, should furnish covetous longer than fond; therefore if you have ideas only for the learned; and that a man must nothing to say to the contrary, I shall take Will. be a philosopher, to know how to pass away his Alas, poor Tom! time agreeably. It would therefore be worth your pains to place in a handsome light the rela tions and affinities among men, which render their conversation with each other so grateful, that the highest talents give but an impotent pleasure in comparison with them. You may find descriptions and discourses which will render the fireside of an honest artificer as entertaining, as your own club is to you. Good-nature has an endless source off pleasures in it; and the representation of domestic life filled with its natural gratifications, (instead of the necessary vexations which are generally insisted upon in the writings of the witty) will be a very good office to society.
'The vicissitudes of labour and rest in the lower part of mankind, make their being pass away with that sort of relish which we express by the word comfort; and should be treated of by you, who are a Spectator, as well as such subjects which appear indeed more speculative, but are less instructive. In a word, sir, I would have you turn your thoughts to the advantage of such as want you most; and show that simplicity, innocence, industry, and temperance, are arts which lead to tranquillity, as much as learning, wisdom, knowledge, and contemplation. 'I am, SIR, 'Your most humble servant, • T. B.'
'Your humble servant,
N° 197. TUESDAY, OCTOBER 16, 1711.
Alter rixatur de lana sæpe caprina, et
HOR. Ep. xviii. l. i. ver. 15:
One strives for trifles, and for toys contends:
That I should not be trusted, right or wrong,
And not bawl what I please! To part with this,
EVERY age a man passes through, and way of life he engages in, has some particular vice or imperfection naturally cleaving to it, which it will require his nicest care to avoid. The several weaknesses to which youth, old age, and manhood are exposed, have long since been set down by many
both of the poets and philosophers; but I do not in his reasons for my so doing. Upon which the remember to have met with any author who has Templar again recovered his former posture, and treated of those ill habits men are subject to, not confuted both himself and me a third time. In so much by reason of their different ages and tem-short,' says my friend, I found he was resolved pers, as the particular professions or business in to keep me at sword's length, and never let me which they were educated and brought up. close with him; so that I had nothing left but to
I am the more surprised to find this subject so hold my tongue, and give my antagonist free leave little touched on, since what I am here speaking of to smile at his victory, who I found, like Huis so apparent, as not to escape the most vulgar dibras, "could still change sides, and still con observation. The business men are chiefly con-fute.""*
versant in, does not only give a certain cast or For my own part, I have ever regarded our inns turn to their minds, but is very often apparent in of court as nurseries of statesmen and law-givers, their outward behaviour, and some of the most in-which makes me often frequent that part of the different actions of their lives. It is this air dif-town with great pleasure.
fusing itself over the whole man, which helps us to Upon my calling in lately at one of the most find out a person at his first appearance; so that noted Temple coffee-houses, I found the whole the most careless observer fancies he can scarce be room, which was full of young students, divided mistaken in the carriage of a seaman, or the gait into several parties, each of which was deeply enof a tailor. gaged in some controversy. The management of The liberal arts, though they may possibly have the late ministry was attacked and defended with less effect on our external mien and behaviour, great vigour; and several preliminaries to the make so deep an impression on the mind, as is very peace were proposed by some, and rejected by apt to bend it wholly one way. others; the demolishing of Dunkirk was so eagerly The mathematician will take little less than de- insisted on, and so warmly controverted, as had monstration in the most common discourse, and the like to have produced a challenge. In short, I ob schoolman is as great a friend to definitions and served that the desire of victory, whetted with syllogisms. The physician and divine are often the little prejudices of party and interest, geneheard to dictate in private companies with the rally carried the argument to such a height, as same authority which they exercise over their pa- made the disputants insensibly conceive an aver tients and disciples; while the lawyer is putting sion towards each other, and part with the highest cases, and raising matter for disputation, out of dissatisfaction on both sides.
every thing that occurs.
The managing an argument handsomely being
I may possibly some time or other animadvert so nice a point, and what I have seen so very few more at large on the particular fault each profes-excel in, I shall here set down a few rules on that sion is most infected with; but shall at present head, which, among other things, I gave in writ wholly apply myself to the cure of what I last ing to a young kinsman of mine, who had made mentioned, namely, that spirit of strife and con- so great a proficiency in the law, that he began tention in the conversations of gentlemen of the to plead in company, upon every subject that was long robe.
This is the more ordinary, because these gentle- Having the entire manuscript by me, I may, permen regarding argument as their own proper pro- haps, from time to time, publish such parts of it vince, and very often making ready-money of it, as I shall think requisite for the instruction of the think it unsafe to yield before company. They British youth. What regards my present purpose are showing in common talk how zealously they is as follows: could defend a cause in court, and therefore frequently forget to keep that temper which is abso- Avoid disputes as much as possible. In order to lutely requisite to render conversation pleasant appear easy and well-bred in conversation, you and instructive. may assure yourself that it requires more wit, as Captain Sentry pushes this matter so far, that I well as more good humour, to improve than to conhave heard him say, he has known but few plead-tradict the notions of another; but if you are at ers that were tolerable company.' any time obliged to enter on an argument, give The captain, who is a man of good sense, but your reasons with the utmost coolness and modry conversation, was last night giving me an ac-desty, two things which scarce ever fail of making count of a discourse, in which he had lately been an impression on the hearers. Besides, if you are engaged with a young wrangler in the law. I neither dogmatical, nor show, either by your ac was giving my opinion,' says the captain, without tions or words, that you are full of yourself, all apprehending any debate that might arise from it, will the more heartily rejoice at your victory. of a general's behaviour in a battle that was fought Nay, should you be pinched in your argument, some years before either the Templar or myself you may make your retreat with a very good were born. The young lawyer immediately took grace. You were never positive, and are now glad me up, and by reasoning above a quarter of an to be better informed. This has made some aphour upon a subject, which I saw he understood no- prove the Socratical way of reasoning, where, thing of, endeavoured to show me that my opinions while you scarce affirm any thing, you can hardly were ill-grounded. Upon which,' says the cap-be caught in an absurdity; and though possibly tain, to avoid any further contests, I told him, you are endeavouring to bring over another to your that truly I had not considered those several argu- opinion, which is firmly fixed, you seem only to ments which he had brought against me, and that desire information from him. there might be a great deal in them.' Ay, but,'
In order to keep that temper which is so diffisays my antagonist, who would not let me escape cult, and yet so necessary to preserve, you may so, there are several things to be urged in favour please to consider, that nothing can be more unjust of your opinion which you have omitted; and or ridiculous, than to be angry with another be thereupon began to shine on the other side of the cause he is not of your opinion. The interests, question. Upon this,' says the captain, I came
over to my first sentiments, and entirely acquiesced.
Part I. Canto i, ver. 70.
third time t he was reso nd never let othing left be agonist free
found, like &
es, and stil
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One of the Found the wh tudents, da was deers
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gare ho hada
education, and means by which men attain their or three hours by moonlight, and is extremely
When an argument is over, how many weighty reasons does a man recollect, which his heat and violence made him utterly forget.
It is not therefore for the use of the Salamander, whether in a married or single state of life, that I design the following paper; but for such females only as are made of flesh and blood, and find themselves subject to human frailties.
It is yet more absurd to be angry with a man because he does not apprehend the force of your reasons, or give weak ones of his own. If you argue for reputation, this makes your victory the easier; he is certainly in all respects an object of your pity, rather than anger; and if he cannot As for this part of the fair sex who are not of comprehend what you do, you ought to thank na- the Salamander kind, I would most earnestly adture for her favours, who has given you so much vise them to observe a quite different conduct in the clearer understanding. their behaviour; and to avoid as much as possible You may please to add this consideration, that what religion calls temptations, and the world opamong your equals no one values your anger, portunities. Did they but know how many thouwhich only preys upon its master; and perhaps sands of their sex have been gradually betrayed you may find it not very consistent either with from innocent freedoms to ruin and infamy; and prudence or your ease, to punish yourself when- how many millions of ours have begun with flatever you meet with a fool or a knave.
Lastly, if you propose to yourself the true end Soof argument, which is information, it may be a seasonable check to your passion; for if you search purely after truth, it will be almost indifferent to you where you find it. I cannot in this place omit an observation which I have often made, namely, That nothing procures a man more esteem and less envy from the whole company, than if he chooses the part of moderator, without engaging directly on either side in a dispute. This gives him the character of impartial, furnishes him with an opentportunity of sifting things to the bottom, showing his judgment, and of sometimes making handsome compliments to each of the contending parties. I shall close this subject with giving you one caution. When you have gained a victory, do not push it too far; it is sufficient to let the company and your adversary see it is in your power, but that you are too generous to make use of it.
teries, protestations, and endearments, but ended
Trust not a man: we are by nature false,
shall conclude it with a story which I lately heard
An inhabitant of the kingdom of Castile, being a man of more than ordinary prudence, and of a grave composed behaviour, determined about the fiftieth year of his age to enter upon wedlock. In order to make himself easy in it, he cast his eye upon a young woman who had nothing to recom
N° 189. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 17, 1711. mend her but her beauty and her education, her
Cervi luporum præda rapacium,
Sectamur ultro, quos opimus
We, like the stag, the brinded wolf provoke,
And, when retreat is victory,
Rush on, tho' sure to die.
parents having been reduced to great poverty by the wars, which for some years have laid that whole country waste. The Castilian having made his addresses to her and married her, they lived together in perfect happiness for some time; when at length the husband's affairs made it necessary for him to take a voyage to the kingdom of Naples, where a great part of his estate lay. The wife loved him THERE is a species of women, whom I shall dis- too tenderly to be left behind him. They had not tinguish by the name of Salamanders. Now a Sa-been a-shipboard above a day, when they unlucklamander is a kind of heroine in chastity, that ily fell into the hands of an Algerine pirate, who treads upon fire, and lives in the midst of fames, carried the whole company on shore, and made without being hurt. A Salamander knows no dis
tinction of sex in those she converses with, grows ing suspected of incontinence, was, as a trial of her innocence, Emma, the mother of King Edward the Confessor: who, befamiliar with a stranger at first sight, and is not so made to walk hood-wink'd and bare-foot over nine red-hot narrow-spirited as to observe whether the person ploughshares. This, which was called the ordeal-trial, Emma she talks to be in breeches or petticoats. She ad- is said to have performed unhurt.
mits a male visitant to her bed-side, plays with him Meaning, we suppose, one of the English officers who had a whole afternoon at picquet, walks with him two 1706. been employed under the Earl of Peterborough, in Spain, in
them slaves. The Castilian and his wife had the about break of day. In a word, her lover having comfort to be under the same master: who seeing got all things ready for their departure, they soon how dearly they loved one another, and gasped made their escape out of the territories of Algiers, after their liberty, demanded a most exorbitant carried away the money, and left the Castilian in price for their ransom. The Castilian, though he captivity; who partly through the cruel treatment would rather have died in slavery himself, than of the incensed Algerine his master, and partly have paid such a sum as he found would go near through the unkind usage of his unfaithful wife, to ruin him, was so moved with compassion towards died some few months after. his wife, that he sent repeated orders to his friend in Spain (who happened to be his next relation) to sell his estate, and transmit the money to him. His friend hoping that the terms of his ransom might be made more reasonable, and unwilling to sell an estate which he himself had some prospect of inheriting, formed so many delays, that three. whole years passed away without any thing being done for the setting them at liberty.
No 199. THURSDAY, OCTOBER 13, 1711.
· Scribere jussit amer. Love bade me write.
OVID. Ep. iv. ver. 10,
There happened to live a French renegado in THE following letters are written with such an air the same place where the Castilian and his wife of sincerity that I cannot deny the inserting of were kept prisoners. As this fellow had in him them: all the vivacity of his nation, he often entertained the captives with accounts of his own adventures; to which he sometimes added a song or a dance, THOUGH you are every where in your writings a or some other piece of mirth, to divert them during friend to women, I do not remember that you have their confinement. His acquaintance with the man- directly considered the mercenary practice of men ners of the Algerines, enabled him likewise to do in the choice of wives. If you will please to em. them several good offices. The Castilian, as he was ploy your thoughts upon that subject, you would one day in conversation with this renegado, disco- easily conceive the miserable condition many of us vered to him the negligence and treachery of his are in, who not only from the laws of custom and correspondent in Castile, and at the same time asked modesty are restrained from making any advances his advice how he should behave himself in that exi- towards our wishes, but are also, from the circumgency; he further told the renegado, that he found stance of fortune, out of all hope of being ad it would be impossible for him to raise the money, dressed to by those whom we love. Under all unless he himself might go over to dispose of his these disadvantages I am obliged to apply myself estate. The renegado, after having represented to to you, and hope I shall prevail with you to print him that his Algerine master would never consent in your very next paper the following letter, which to his release, upon such a pretence, at length is a declaration of passion to one who has made contrived a method for the Castilian to make his some faint addresses to me for some time. I be escape in the habit of a seaman. The Castilian lieve he ardently loves me, but the inequality of succeeded in his attempt; and having sold his my fortune makes him think he cannot answer it estate, being afraid lest the money should miscarry to the world, if he pursues his designs by way of by the way, and determined to perish with it marriage; and I believe, as he does not want disrather than lose one who was much dearer to him cerning, he discovered me looking at him the other than his life, he returned himself in a little vessel day unawares in such a manner, as has raised his that was going to Algiers. It is impossible to de- hopes of gaining me on terms the men call easier. scribe the joy he felt upon this occasion, when he But my heart was very full on this occasion, and considered that he should soon see the wife whom if you know what love and honour are, you will he so much loved, and endear himself more to her, pardon me that I use no further arguments, with by this uncommon piece of generosity. you, but hasten to my letter to him, whom I call The renegado, during the husband's absence, so Oroondates; because if I do not succeed, it shall insinuated himself into the good graces of his look like romance; and if I am regarded, you shall young wife, and so turned her head with stories of receive a pair of gloves at my wedding, sent to you gallantry, that she quickly thought him the finest under the name of Statira.'' gentleman she had ever conversed with. To be brief, her mind was quite alienated from the honest Castilian, whom she was taught to look upon as a formal old fellow, unworthy the possession of AFTER very much perplexity in myself, and reso charming a creature. She had been instructed volving how to acquaint you with my own sentiby the renegado how to manage herself upon his ments, and expostulate with you concerning yours, arrival, so that she received him with an appear I have chosen this way, by which means I can be ance of the utmost love and gratitude, and at length at once revealed to you, or, if you please, lie conpersuaded him to trust their common friend the cealed. If I do not within few days find the effect renegado with the money he had brought over for which I hope from this, the whole affair shall be their ransom; as not questioning but he would buried in oblivion. But alas! what am I going to beat down the terms of it, and negotiate the affair do, when I am about to tell you that I love you? more to their advantage than they themselves could But after I have done so, I am to assure you, that do. The good man admired her prudence, and with all the passion which ever entered a tender followed her advice. I wish I could conceal the heart, I know I can banish you from my sight for sequel of this story; but since I cannot, I shall ever, when I am convinced that you have no indespatch it in as few words as possible. The Cas-clinations towards me but to my dishonour. But tilian having slept longer than ordinary the next alas! sir, why should you sacrifice the real and morning, upon his awaking, found his wife had left essential happiness of life to the opinion of a world, him. He immediately rose and inquired after her, that moves upon no other foundation but professed but was told that she was seen with the renegado error and prejudice? You all can observe, that riches
her lover her alone do not make you happy, and yet give up you, I to the fortune to which you introduced me. arture, they every thing else when it stands in competition with The commerce between you two will eternally tories of riches. Since the world is so bad, that religion is have the air of a bargain, between us of a friendthe Castleft to us silly women, and you men act generally ship: joy will ever enter into the room with you, cruel tre upon principles of profit and pleasure, I will talk and kind wishes attend my benefactor when he ster, and to you without arguing from any thing but what leaves it. Ask yourself how would you be pleased may be most to your advantage as a man of the to enjoy for ever the pleasure of having laid an world. And I will lay before you the state of the immediate obligation on a grateful mind? Such case, supposing that you had it in your power to will be your case with me. In the other marriage make me your mistress, or your wife, and hope to you will live in a constant comparison of benefits, I convince you that the latter is more for your in- and never know the happiness of conferring or ER 13,terest, and will contribute more to your pleasure. receiving any. A 'We will suppose then the scene was laid, and 'It may be you will, after all, act rather in the you were now in expectation of the approaching prudential way, according to the sense of the ordiD. Ep evening wherein I was to meet you, and be carried nary world. I know not what I think or say, when to what convenient corner of the town you thought that melancholy reflection comes upon me; but fit, to consummate all which your wanton imagina- shall only add more, that it is in your power to ith station has promised to you in the possession of one make me your grateful wife, but never your abaneiser who is in the bloom of youth, and in the reputation doned mistress.
N° 200. FRIDAY, OCTOBER 19, 1711.
Vincit amor patria
VIRG. Æn. vi. ver. 823.
The noblest motive is the public good.
of innocence. You would soon have enough of me, as I am sprightly, young, gay, and airy. When fancy is sated, and finds all the promises it made ouane itself false, where is now the innocence which that yo charmed you? The first hour you are alone, you will find that the pleasure of a debauchee is only that of a destroyer. He blasts all the fruit he tastes; and where the brute has been devouring, there is nothing left worthy the relish of the man. fastes Reason resumes her place after imagination is anacloyed; and I am, with the utmost distress and THE ambition of princes is many times as hurtful ather confusion, to behold myself the cause of uneasy to themselves as to their people. This cannot be of be reflections to you, to be visited by stealth, and doubted of such as prove unfortunate in their dwell for the future with the two companions (the wars, but it is often true too of those who are celemost unfit for each other in the world) solitude and brated for their successes. If a severe view were guilt. I will not insist upon the shameful obscurity to be taken of their conduct, if the profit and loss we should pass our time in, nor run over the little by their wars could be justly balanced, it would short snatches of fresh air, and free commerce, be rarely found that the conquest is sufficient to which all people must be satisfied with, whose repay the cost.
actions will not bear examination, but leave them As I was the other day looking over the letters to your reflections, who have seen of that life, of of my correspondents, I took this hint from that which I have but a mere idea. of Philarithmus; which bas turned my present 'On the other hand, if you can be so good and thoughts upon political arithmetic, an art of greater generous as to make me your wife, you may pro-use than entertainment. My friend has offered an mise yourself all the obedience and tenderness essay towards proving that Lewis XIV. with all with which gratitude can inspire a virtuous woman. his acquisitions is not master of more people than Whatever gratifications you may promise yourself at the beginning of his wars; nay, that for every from an agreeable person, whatever compliances subject he had acquired, he had lost three that from an easy temper, whatever consolations from were his inheritance. If Philarithmus is not misa sincere friendship, you may expect as the due of taken in his calculations, Lewis must have been your generosity. What at present in your ill view impoverished by his ambition.
you promise yourself from me, will be followed The prince, for the public good, has a sovereign by distaste and satiety; but the transports of a property in every private person's estate; and convirtuous love are the least part of its happiness. sequently his riches must increase or decrease in The raptures of innocent passion are but like lightning to the day, they rather interrupt than proportion to the number and riches of his subjects. For example; if sword or pestilence should advance the pleasure of it. How happy then is destroy all the people of this metropolis (God forthat life to be, where the highest pleasures of bid there should be room for such a supposition! sense are but the lowest parts of its felicity? but if this should be the case), the queen must 'Now am I to repeat to you the unnatural re-needs lose a great part of her revenue, or at least quest of taking me in direct terms. I know there what is charged upon the city must increase the stands between me and that happiness, the haughty burden upon the rest of her subjects. Perhaps the daughter of a man who can give you suitably to inhabitants here are not above a tenth part of the your fortune. But if you weigh the attendance whole; yet, as they are better fed, and clothed and behaviour of her who comes to you in part- and lodged, than her other subjects, the customs nership of your fortune, and expects an equivalent, and excises upon their consumption, the imposts with that of her who enters your house as honour-upon their houses, and other taxes, do very proed and obliged by that permission, whom of the bably make a fifth part of the whole revenue of two will you choose? You, perhaps, will think fit the crown. But this is not all; the consumption to spend the day abroad in the common entertain-of the city takes off a great part of the fruits of ments of men of sense and fortune; she will think the whole island; and as it pays such a proportion herself ill used in that absence, and contrive at of the rent or yearly value of the lands in the home an expense proportioned to the appearance country, so it is the cause of paying such a prowhich you make in the world. She is in all things
to have a regard to the fortune which she brought
See No. 180,