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It is highly debatable that these great disparities in institutional resouros make for a healthy situation.

A radical view of the situation would plead for the equalizing of support colleges. An intermediate point of view would argue for increased support to promising colleges with low resources and reduced support to colleges having is ordinately high resources.

NOD

The quality of education and research are at stake in this decision.

A comparison of the "wealth" of high endowment private institutions with the Nor "wealth" of low endowment private institutions

Total enrollment..
Endowment per student..

Student quality:

Average academic ability of entering students-National Merit Scholar-
ship Qualifying test.

Percent of entering students aspiring to doctoral degree-
Merit scholars per 10,000 students.
Faculty quality: Percent of faculty holding doctorates..
Financial resources:

Per student income for capital purposes.

Per student income for educational and general purposes..
Per student income from contract research and services.
Scholarship and fellowship funds available per student..
Average tuition per year...

196th percentile.

187th percentile.

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Senator PROUTY (presiding pro tempore). Senator Yarborough do you have any questions?

Senator YARBOROUGH. Yes, thank you.

PROGRESS AT FAIRLEIGH DICKINSON

Dr. Sammartino, I want to congratulate you on founding a private university in 1942, with 60 students which now has 16,000, with $24 million worth of buildings and an endowment of $10 million. I cannot help but ask, how did you do it? What tuition rates do you the pupils must have to pay a higher tuition rate than they do in the State-supported schools, do they not?

Dr. SAMMARTINO. Curiously enough, our tuition has been moderate. For instance, it has been always half, or maybe a little more than half what it has been in the older institutions.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Where are your three campuses?

Dr. SAMMARTINO. In Rutherford, N.J., in Teaneck and in Madison,

Senator YARBOROUGH. You mean older private institutions! Dr. SAMMARTINO. Yes, we are, of course, a private institution. I would add we are quasi-public in character, in that we are heavily articulated with the communities which we serve, but we do not enjoy State tax funds or any other tax funds. We have been fortunate in two things: (1) in having the help of many people and companies in the area that have helped us to grow, and, (2) that we have kept our lines of operation simple and within the budget that we have had.

At the same time, I would want to point out that faculty salaries have been competitive with comparable institutions.

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Senator YARBOROUGH. What percent of your students live on the campuses in these dormitories, and what percent commute from their bones?

Dr. SAMMARTINO. We did not start as a residential college, but at this time, one-fifth of our students are either living in college dormitories or in houses nearby Senator YARBOROUGH. Eighty percent are able to commute? Dr. SAMMARTINO. Eighty percent are commuting students, yes. Senator YARBOROUGH. Is that one of the strengths of your growth, that you are within commuting distance for these students, which enables them to live at home and commute? Dr. SAMMARTINO. Yes. Senator YARBOROUGH. Is yours a liberal arts college or a technical college!

Dr. SAMMARTINO. We have six schools. The largest is the college of liberal arts. Then we have the college of science and engineering, ard incidentally, we are one of the two engineering, straight engineering colleges to be organized since the last war-I think I am correct in that. There is a college of business administration, a college of education, the graduate school, and the school of dentistry.

NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT TITLE I LOANS

Senator YARBOROUGH. Do your students borrow money under the
National Defense Education Act?
Dr. SAMMARTINO. Yes, we do.
Senator YARBOROUGH. Are your comments directed to the student
loans under the National Defense Education Act?

Dr. SAMMARTINO. No, they are directed to the bond issues that are necessary for loans for college dormitories and student unions. Senator Y:I BORCU GH. Ilave you found i he requirements made by the National Defense Education Act on student loans burdensome?

Dr. SAMMARTINO. I am not near enough to that situation. I do not believe they are. There, the loans have been direct and the paperwork has been made relatively simple.

Senator YARBOROUGH. I am very much interested in this because one college in my State has recently cut off loans and denied them to students

. The reason they gave for this was that the paperwork was so burdensome and so hard on the college that they could not keep it up.

Dr. SAMMARTINO. But I should point out that the Federal Government does make no allowance for the cost of that paperwork. Senator YARBOROUGH. I think it is very valuable that fact be included in the record, and I thank you for including it. Thank you for your contribution. Senator PROUTY. Senator Pell? Senator Pell. I defer to you, sir. Senator PROUTY. I, too, think, Dr. Sammartino, that we should all very proud of the progress that has been made at your university over such a very short period of time. It certainly speaks well for the

GRANTS FOR FACILITIES

I notice in your statement that you make no reference to grants Most institutions of higher learning suggest that the grants are fal as important, if not more so, than loans. I believe that-I think am right in saying that in 45 of the States, public institutions are prohibited by statutory or constitutional provisions from borrowing money for non-revenue-producing purposes.

Of course, their problem will not be solved, in their view at least, without a grant program of some kind. I wonder if you would comment on that?

Dr. SAMMARTINO. I did not mean to imply that I am against the idea of grants. I think that as I said, in certain situations. you have to have grants. In our own institutions, we have a new college of enga neering, but we have had to keep it extremely small, because it is a matter of losing money on each student.

Now, you cannot multiply that indefinitely, so that I would say that in certain areas-engineering is one and medical schools and dental de schools, are others the way to meet that is through grants, grants for buildings, curriculum development, or laboratories.

To give you one example, we should be having a graduate school for social service workers. Now, we have not established one. Why! Simply because we would have a deficit of about $200,000 a year. Now, there is nothing for which there is a greater need in this country than r social service workers. Yet we have had to stay out of that field.

Let me give you another example. We have nursing education on two of the campuses. Why do we not have it on the third campus! Because we do not have the money to do it on that third campus.

Now, it would make sense for the Government to come along and say, here, we are going to give you money for the setting up of the laboratories you need for nursing education or for a building for a medical school.

Private institutions can no longer do this on their own, unless some fantastic gift comes along, running into six or seven figures.

Senator PROUTY. Tax laws sort of preclude that now.
Dr. SAMMARTINO. Yes, sir.

Senator PROUTY. Thank you, Doctor, very much.
Senator Pell?

Senator PELL. Thank you.

Dr. Sammartino, I am sorry to have missed your testimony. I would have especially liked to hear it, because I am quite an admirer of the Dickinson family and know of their close connection with you. Dr. SAMMARTINO. I did not know that. I am happy to hear that you know the Fairleigh Dickinson family.

LOSS OF LOWER PERCENTAGE STUDENTS

Senator YARBOROUGH. Mr. Chairman, I have another question. I note, Dr. Sammartino, that you say the upper tenth of students in the high school graduating classes are showered with scholarships and financial aid. Now, the national average shows that of the top 30 percent in grades among high school graduates in America-only

ating grades lose their college opportunity. But if the top 10 percent are showered with aid, that must mean that of the next 20 percent we may be losing as much as three-fourths from college.

The reason given in the survey made is that over 90 percent of the half of the top 30 percent of the grades who do not go to college do not go for financial reasons. Their families are unable to afford it and they are unable to afford it. So this is a pretty tragic result we have here if the top 10 percent is showered with scholarships and financial aid and the next 40 percent do not get in the doors. It seems to me we ought to try to remedy that.

NEED FOR SCHOLARSHIPS

We do a little of it with National Defense Education Act. I think we ought to have scholarships, as well as a small number of loans that we now have, averaging about 185,000 students. I think we need something like the GI bill. That would put hundreds of thousands of students in college and take that drain off the National Defense Education Act.

Do you have any other suggestions along that line, as to how we might-I note your concern for those that you say are in the 70 or 75 percentile

, who may not be top luminaries, but if they are well motivated and hard workers, they deserve a chance. Do not some of those coming in those percentiles, if they have the motivation and the will to apply themselves, ultimately catch up with those in the top percentile of grades in the battle for life?

Dr. SAMMARTINO. Yes; I think they do. There are a number of points involved in what you say. I would agree with all the remarks that you make. There are two factors that come into these statistics three, probably. One is that some students prefer to do their military service at the end of high school, so that while the statistics may indicate that they do not go to college, the situation may not be as bad as the statistics indicate.

The second thing is that, while the student may get a scholarship to go to college and even a grant for room and board, there is the additional problem in many families that they need the income of this student. Even if he can go to college and have all his expenses paid, the family is denied that income, and that student may decide not to go to college, which leads to the third point, which is taken care of

in our area.

EVENING SESSIONS

At our university we have a very important evening session and the student who needs income can go to work and pursue his education in the evening. Thus he is not denied the opportunity of attending college. It will take him a little bit longer, probably a year longer if he goes to summer sessions. In many cases, the company he works for will pay for his college education. So that in America, we have a pattern operating that puts us far ahead of many other nations. I remember talking not so long ago at one of the United Nations dinners to the Ambassador from Byelorussia who happened to be at the same table. He was amazed at the

While you look at the statistics and say, Well, we are not having enough students go to engineering schools in the daytime, if you begin to examine the statistics for the evening session, you find that an institution like ours does have a great many young people wh while they may not go to the day session, are working at jobs and a training themselves to assume greater responsibilities in the eng neering field by attending evening college.

Senator YARBOROUGH. Thank you, Dr. Sammartino.

Senator PROUTY. Thank you, Dr. Sammartino, very much. Your testimony has been most helpful.

Dr. SAMMARTINO. Thank you, sir.

Senator PROUTY. I think it is most fitting that we close the publi: hearings with a representative of Congress. I am very happy to call on L. Quincy Mumford, the Librarian of Congress.

STATEMENT OF L. QUINCY MUMFORD, LIBRARIAN OF CONGRESS

Mr. MUMFORD. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and members of your subcommittee, for this opportunity to testify on the library provi. sions of S. 580.

Across the square from our Nation's Capitol stands the Library of Congress with a collection of some 42 million items and a staff of subject specialists, scholars, and qualified experts drawn from many fields, a library established through the foresight of Congress for its

own use.

With the same vision that characterized the establishment of the Library, the same belief in the need for recourse to recorded knowledge, Congress has extended the use of the Library to other Government agencies, to other libraries, and to the general public. The Library has shared its resources and the talents of its staff through serv ices to libraries and through cooperative programs. It has also shared the concerns, problems, and aspirations of the library commu nity and of the people who seek library service. Today, in all proba bility the world's largest library, it stands as a symbol of this country's belief in the value of the inquiring mind.

As head of that Library, and as a former president of the American Library Association and of the Ohio Library Association, I speak today in the support of the library provisions in S. 580. Knowing what a good library can mean to men, I have a special concern for the 110 million Americans in the United States who have inadequate public library service, for the 18 million more who have none at all, for the 10 million children who have no school library, and for the students in our colleges and universities who must rely on libraries which fail to meet even the minimum standards set by the American Library Association.

PRESENT INADEQUACIES

From testimony on title II-D, presented earlier, the members of this subcommittee know the effects of the population explosion on enrollment in our colleges and universities. A third of our population was born since World War II and will reach college age in 1965.

You also know that the increasing insistence on independent re

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