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which act prohibited any but Church ministers from preaching, unless licensed, under rigorous penalties . Those societies unanimously desiring the sacrament from their preachers, allowed the privilege
Resolved, that every preacher desisting from traveling be considered for four years a supernumerary, then superan
The first general collection for missions
The 51st conference affectionately entreated all the brethren,
The plan of pacification formed.
Alex. Kilham, being contentious, expelled by the conference 1796 Every circuit recommended to provide the horse or horses necessary for the preachers
Second general collection for missions
A declaration, expressive of approbation of existing rules, signed by 145 preachers. Three refused to sign, left the conference, and joined Kilham: and together they formed "The New Itinerancy." Many discontented and troublesome members joined them
Resolved, that chairmen of districts be chosen by the ballot of conference after the appointments are read; and that superintendents invite the chairmen, on important occasions, to their quarterly meetings
Trustees of some chapels unfaithfully surrendering them to Kilham's followers, a general collection ordered through the societies for erecting new chapels
English conference sympathizes with and helps the Irish
The Preachers' Fund merged into "The Itinerant Methodist Preachers' Annuity." [This fund was fed by legacies, donations, annual subscriptions from members or friends, and by admission fees, annual subscriptions, and occasional fines, from preachers. It gave to a supernumerary or superannuated preacher, or his widow, 24 guineas per annum; but to a preacher traveling twenty years, 30 guineas]
"The Preachers' Friend Society" instituted. [This fund was begun and conducted by the people. It originated among some members in London; was designed for the "casual relief of itinerant Methodist preachers, and their families, when in sickness, or otherwise distressed;" was encouraged by many wealthy members throughout Great Britain, and paid, in 1801, to preachers in distress, the sum of 2407.a noble manifestation of the love the British Methodists
entertained for their ministers, and is like the love the Ga-
Messrs. Jabez Bunting and Robert Newton admitted on trial
An address to the king, on the attempt to shoot him, pre-
A mission in North Wales appointed
The distress of the connection continuing. the conference sent
A committee appointed to attend to the business of missions
State of the connection in the 63d year of Methodism: 217 circuits, 589 preachers, and 149,660 members. The four collections produced 10,7721. Os. 9d., viz.:
Kingswood School collection
1.2,676 12 0
3,263 16 9
Mr. Joseph Pawson died, after traveling 43 years
The Committee of Privileges ordered to commence a suit
A collection for the Bible Society ordered in the principal congregations, which amounted to 12981. 16s. .
Agreed that no preacher shall return to a circuit, unless absent 8 years
Camp meetings judged highly improper for England
Mr. Clarke addressed the societies for increased aid to the Superannuated Preachers' Fund. The Methodists felt his arguments, and the collection was increased more than 5007.
All the chapels required to have conveniences for kneeling 1808
A chapel fund projected
Mr. Richard Watson admitted on trial
No preacher to stay more than two years on a circuit, unless in some special case
His majesty repealed a persecuting law passed by the assembly of Jamaica
The pecuniary distress of the conference being again great,
The conference resolved on having a second school for educating the sons of preachers, and purchased "Woodhouse Grove." The whole expense estimated at 6,000l. [By the next conference the preachers and people had subscribed 7,231l. 17s. 2d.
Lord Sidmouth's bill defeated
At this time there were 350 circuits, 852 preachers, and
The number of Methodist chapels in England was 1,286; in
BY CHARLES H. LYON,
Associate Principal of the Irving Institute, Tarrytown, N. Y.
For the Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review.
ART. V.-CONSIDERATIONS IN FAVOR OF THE STUDY OF THE ANCIENT CLASSICS.
"Select Orations of Cicero; with an English Commentary, and Historical, Geographical, and Legal Indexes." By Charles Anthon, LL.D., Jay-Professor of Ancient Literature in Columbia College, New-York. Harper & Brothers, 1838.
THE name of Charles Anthon is permanently identified with the literature of Greece and Rome. The student of antiquity can scarcely glance at his library without being reminded of his obligations to that distinguished scholar. His labors have contributed more to augment and enrich the stock of ancient lore in this country than those of any other single individual. To the votary of classical literature his criticisms and illustrations are an invaluable treasure, and display a degree of scholarship and research which he alone knows how to prize.
It is too commonly the fate of those who pursue the least frequented walks of literature to fail of receiving the just reward of
their efforts. Their works, of whatever degree of merit, are confined within a narrow circle beyond which they are scarcely known and never appreciated. Toiling in a field that is but little cultivated they have but few coworkers, few followers, and few admirers. However successful their efforts, however great their attainments, however able their productions, they win but few golden opinions from the bulk of mankind, and their names are scarcely heard without the limits of their own sphere of action. But what the fame of the scholar wants in diffusion is made up in perpetuity. He has the sympathy and admiration of kindred minds through all succeeding
If the name of our author is not familiar in every circle, if it is not as often heard in the parlor as in the study, his merits as an antiquarian and a critic are not the less known to the general scholar, nor the less appreciated by the lover of classic lore. The volume which we have before us is one of the professor's latest productions, and belongs to his "series of classical works for schools and colleges now in the course of publication." The series, we understand, will consist of about thirty volumes, of which five are now published and may be regarded as specimens. In addition to these, Professor Anthon has already enriched the classical literature of both hemispheres by other productions of his prolific pen. His edition of L'Emprier's Classical Dictionary has superseded every other work of the kind in this country and in England; the first edition of his Horace (which was subsequently abridged) is the most learned and elaborate American classic that has yet appeared; and, the Greek Grammar of Dr. Valpy derives its chief value from the additions which he has made to it. These and other critical and scholar-like productions attest the patient research and profound erudition of that remarkable man.
If he who vindicates ancient learning by the acuteness of argu. ment or the force of eloquence thereby advances its interest, still more does he who renders that learning more attractive, and facilitates the student's progress in it, by removing the asperities that obstruct his path. If he renders a service to ancient literature who, by showing its importance, persuades men to overcome the obstacles to its attainment, yet more does he who, by diminishing those obstacles, renders the attainment less difficult. This is the peculiar merit of Professor Anthon. He has conferred a benefit not more upon the ancient classics than upon the cause of sound learning, by facilitating the acquisition of the Greek and Roman tongues, and rendering the wit and wisdom of antiquity more accessible to the many than they have hitherto been.
"If there be any one cause," he observes in the preface to the work before us, "which has tended more powerfully than the rest to bring classical studies into disrepute among us, it is the utter incompetency of many of those who profess to be classical instructIt is very natural that such preceptors should be strongly averse to bestowing too much assistance upon their pupils; and perhaps it is lucky for the latter that such a state of things should exist; but certainly, for the credit of our common country, it is high time that some change should be effected, and that if the learner cannot obtain from oral instruction the information which ought to be afforded him, he may procure it at least from the notes of his text
book. We may be very sure of one thing, that the style of classical instruction which prevails at the present day in so many of our colleges and seminaries of learning, of translating merely the language of an ancient author, without any attempts whatever at illustration or analysis, will never produce any fruits either of sound learning or intellectual improvement."
The evil here alluded to is one of no trifling magnitude. That "the style of classical instruction which prevails at the present day" is much less thorough than it ought to be, and is productive of serious injury to the literature of antiquity, is a truth confirmed by too many illustrations. But while Professor Anthon deplores the evil, he is also doing much to cure it. The style of his illustrations and the character of his commentaries, while they render essential aid to the pupil by increasing his interest in, and facilitating his progress through, the ancient writers, are no less calculated to stimulate the instructor to aim at a higher standard of teaching.
The volume before us contains a brief but well written account of the life and writings of Cicero, and a copious commentary, occupying nearly twice the space of the text. Its value is also much enhanced by the addition of indexes illustrating the biography, history, geography, and laws of the republic at the time in which the author lived. "If there be any author," the editor justly observes, "that stands in need of full and copious illustration, it undoubtedly is Cicero, in the orations which have come down to us. The train of thought must be continually laid open to the young scholar, to enable him to appreciate, in their full force and beauty, these brilliant memorials of other days; and the allusions in which the orator is so fond of indulging must be carefully and fully explained. Unless this be done, the speeches of Cicero become a dead letter, and time is only wasted in their perusal."
The character and writings of Cicero will be studied with intense interest as long as eloquence, philosophy, or literature shall be held in esteem among men. His versatile talents, his untiring zeal in the pursuit of knowledge, his varied attainments, and, above all, the unequalled success with which he cultivated the rhetorical art, have imparted a splendor to his name, and an interest to his biography, which it is the lot of but few to acquire. Whether we estimate his eloquence by the impressions produced upon the minds of his hearers, or by the more deliberate opinion of his countrymen, or by the still more impartial opinion of later posterity, there is but one judgment recorded, and that judgment assigns to the "man of Arpinum" the first place in oratory.
Agreeable as the task would be to analyze the character and productions of such a man, it does not come within our present design. Without, therefore, discussing any farther the merits of either Cicero or his commentator, we pass to a theme possessing for us a still greater interest-the value of the ancient literature.
The considerations favorable to the study of the Greek and Latin tongues will be found, upon reflection, more numerous and weighty than a slight view would lead us to suppose. For the sake of clearness and brevity we shall consider them under two heads:
I. The advantages necessarily resulting from the study of those languages.
II. The treasures of knowledge laid open by an acquaintance with them.
VOL. IX.-July, 1888.