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CHILD WELFARE AND STATE SERVICES.
In this section are inserted records of the progress of Child Welfare Work as carried out by various
State Services dealing with Health, Education, Industry, Delinquency, Defectiveness, and other questions relating to the care and control of the young. e shall be glad to receive copies of reports and all other official publications as soon after issue as may be possible.
THE EDUCATION BILL.
The new Education Bill now before the country deserves the serious study and fullest support of all patriots. It is the first of the great measures of reconstruction which are to secure the establishment of a great British Commonwealth. Mr. Fisher's Bill is a statesmanlike endeavour to provide means for the physical and intellectual development of the coming generation. At last the right of youth is recognized. As far as the Bill goes it is excellent, but in some respects it scarcely seems to go far enough at least in regard to what we may consider its medico-educational provisions. The organization and administration required by a comprehensive measure of educational reform will take years to complete, so while we are about the reconstruction of our educational machinery our work should be as complete as possible. War has convinced all serious patriots of the necessity for a far-reaching measure, but it may well be that in the days which are to come we may lose something of our present enthusiasm for education, and, moreover, our spiritual strength and economic resources may be such as make us as a people unwilling to continue in service and sacrifices. On all grounds it is most desirable that the Bill now before Parliament should be made as adequate and as practicable as possible. At the present time we desire to refer only to some few points of medicoeducational and medico-sociological importance. Clause 19 of the Bill empowers local authorities to establish nursery schools for children over 2 and under 5 years of age “ whose attendance at such a school is necessary or desirable for their healthy physical or mental development." Lately there has been an increasing tendency to exclude young children from school. In 1907 459,034 children between
the ages of 5 and 3 were attending elementary schools in England and Wales. By January, 1916, only 268,908 were in attendance. It is most desirable that the establishment of a sufficient number of nursery schools should be made obligatory and not left merely optional. Further nursery schools should be open to all children whose parents wish them to attend. Medical inspection is to be extended through all departments of our educational life, and provision is to be made whereby agencies for furthering physical development may be available. A local education authority may maintain holiday or school camps, centres and equipment for physical training, playing fields, school baths, and other facilities for social and physical training. A local education authority is also to have, in relation to children in secondary schools and continuation schools, the same powers and duties with regard to medical inspection and treatment as it has with regard to children in elementary schools. That is to say, while it must provide for inspection it may arrange for treatment. Medical inspection of the children in the elementary schools of the land have demonstrated the prevalence of widespread disorder and disease, most of which is certainly preventable. Sir George Newman, Chief Medical Officer to the Board of Education, has declared that “ a million children of school age are so physically or mentally defective or diseased as to be unable to derive reasonable benefit from the education which the State provides." We are strongly of opinion that if the terrible wastage of child life is to be arrested the Bill should be so amended as to make it compulsory and not merely permissive for all local education authori. ties to set up and maintain an adequate medical and dental service. There should also be powers for an extension and improvement in the existing system for pro
viding school meals. Moreover, it is trust that it may be so amended and essential that proper facilities should be strengthened as to make safe for postertaken to secure means for proper physical ity the high ideals of the statesmanlike training, the organization of games, and President of the Board of Education. where possible instruction in swimming. The Bill very rightly provides for the protection of school children from the
MEMORANDA. stress and strain of labour, but it does not appear to afford suiticient protection. A
The Board of Education have made prechild under 12 years of age may not be
liminary arrangements for short courses employed at all by way of trade or for
for teachers in secondary schools to be purposes of gain outside school hours. held next August, as follows : English at A child over 12 may not be employed on
Cambridge (Women's Training College) a school day before the close of school and Oxford (St. Hugh’s); History at Eton hours, or on any day before 6 a.m. and College and a centre in the North of after 8 p.m.
A child may not be em- England; Geography at Aberystwyth ployed in any factory or workshop under (University College of Wales); French the Factory and Workshops Act, or in any
at London (Bedford College) and Durmine or quarry. A local authority may
ham; Latin at a centre to be determined prohibit or regulate the employment of later; Vathematics at London and any child if it is satisfied that such em- centre in the North; Botany at Leeds; ployment is injurious to the child's health Voice Training at Bristol. Details of the or education. The prejudicial influence various courses will be circulated to all of fatigue in childhood on mental powers secondary schools recognized by the and physical growth must not be for- Board, probably before the end of April, gotten. The Bill as it now stands will
and directions as to the manner of appliallow a school-going child to be em- . cation for admission will be given. It is ployed after school hours between 4.30
possible that one or two additional courses and 8 p.m. from Monday to Friday inclu- may also be arranged. sive, and between 6 a.m. and 8 p.m. on In Circular 1035 the Board of EducaSaturday and other holidays. There is tion, acting in concert with the Ministry nothing to prevent selfish parents from of Food, have issued instructions to local allowing their children to labour on Sun- education authorities with regard to the days. We certainly think that at all costs establishment of national kitchens and Sunday should be conserved a rest day for the provision of meals for school chldren. all school children. If the employment of
The Children's Court is now to have an school children is to be permitted along- assured position. It is good to know also side of a system of compulsory school at- that in London arrangements are being tendance not only will educational services made whereby all summonses under the and opportunities for physical develop- Education Acts, the Employment of Chilment be wasted, but the bodily, mental, dren Act, 1903,and the Children Act, 1908, and moral powers of the children will are to be removed from the police court suffer. The Bill must be so amended as and heard by the local justices of the to prohibit the prejudicial employment of peace. Three districts, Hampstead, Kenchildren during the period of compulsory sington, and the Tower-we understand, full-time school attendance. Mr. Fisher have already adopted this method, and it has directed us to a consideration of the is to be extended to Newington, Paddingold Greek ideals, which looked upon edu- ton, St. Marylebone, St. Pancras, and the cation as a turning of the soul to the Strand. light, and as being also an association of The Ministry of Munitions have issued friends in search of happiness. We are in booklet form The Boy in Industry eager to bring light and health and hap- (price 3d.), consisting of a reprint of piness into the lives of those who will articles which have appeared in the Daily soon be active citizens of the British Telegraph. This little work should be Commonwealth. We therefore welcome studied by employers and all workers for the great Education Bill of 1918, and boy betterment.
CHILD WELFARE AND THE WORK OF NATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS.
During this period of supreme testing our journal will endeavour to render every possible assistance to
National Associations and Societies, Hospitals, Homes and Orphanages, and all agencies working for child welfare and desirous of publishing particulars regarding their plans, purposes and activities for rendering special assistance to childhood and youth in these days of stress and strain. Particulars should be sent, in as clear and condensed a form as possible, to the Editor, with copies of any publications, appeals, &c., which are being issued to the public.
WOMEN PATROLS AND CHILD
WELFARE. Women Patrols can do much to help in the protection of children as well as adolescents. In August, 1914, rumours were brought to the National Union of Women Workers regarding the bad effects which were being produced by warlike preparations, the massing of troops, &c., on the conduct of many young people. The Union at once took active steps towards coping with the difficulty. The Commissioner of Police was asked for permission to place a band of Women Patrols on the streets of London and provincial centres to guide and advise those who needed help. This suggestion was welcomed and cards were promised signed by the Commissioner directing the police to give Women Patrols any assistance they might need. The chief constables sign those in the provinces. A Special Committee of the N.U.W.W., called “ The Women Patrols Committee,” was formed, and at once proceeded to organize and initiate the scheme. Organizers were carefully trained, who were then sent to various centres to start Women Patrols; altogether some 120 centres have been organized. The original idea was to work round camps and other military centres, but it was at once realized that it was impossible to narrow it to that alone. No work of a preventive nature was precluded, and the scope of the enterprise was greatly enlarged. The pathetic sight of tiny children left outside publichouses, while their natural guardians were drinking inside, could not fail to touch the heart of the Woman Patrol. Many a babe was soothed and comforted, and mother and child taken home when the guardian perhaps was not quite to be
trusted. In one centre the chief constable asked the Women Patrols to assist in the matter of children trading in the streets, and very valuable work was done; this example was followed in other centres. In the metropolitan area the Commissioner of Police employs Women Patrols as auxiliaries to the police. The Board of Works employs them as parkkeepers; in this capacity the service they render to children and young people is of inestimable value. Open spaces are the favourite hunting ground of those depraved men who insult women and children by indecent conduct. This is promptly observed and stopped by the women park-keepers, who have the power of arrest and use it when necessary. In
centre · the whole of the Women Patrols' work is centred on caring for the children of the district, who spend most of their day in a large public park. It is felt, as the main object of the work is “preventive,” it can best be fulfilled by protecting the purity and innocence of the children on whom the future of the race depends. Further particulars can be obtained from Mrs. M. G. Carden, 0.B.E., the Hon. Secretary of the Women Patrols Committee, at the headquarters of the National Union of Women Workers of Great Britain and Ireland, Parliament Mansions, opposite 28, Victoria Street, S.W.1,
The newly elected Executive of the National Baby Week Movement is getting to work. Miss Musson, late Assistant Secretary at the National Association for the Prevention of Infant Mortality, has been appointed Secretary. We understand that the first week in July has
been selected for Baby Week in London. Full particulars may be obtained on application to the Central Offices 27A, Cavendish Square, W.1.
Edinburgh is to have a School of Social Study and Training. A two years diploma course has been arranged for. Full particulars may be obtained from the Hon. Secretary, Professor Seth, at the University of Edinburgh.
The following announcement is addressed “to Students of Education." Essays are invited on “ A suitable curriculum for Girl Shop Assistants in the Retail Drapery Trade, between the ages of 15 and 18.” The competition is open to all.
The curriculum suggested must comply with the requirements of the Scottish Education Bill. The object of the promoters is to adopt the best curriculum which will conduce to sound physical health, to making pupils efficient in business, and to educating them in the broadest sense, and preparing them generally for their duties as citizens. Three prizes—one of £25, one of £15, and one of £10—for the three best essays, in order of merit, will be awarded by the judges-Alexander Darroch, M.A., Professor of Education at Edinburgh University, and J. J. Findlay, Ph.D., Professor of Education at Manchester University, whose decision must be accepted as final. Essays should be received by Professor Darroch not later than June 15, 1918. Those for which prizes are awarded will become the property of the promoters. For fuller particulars, application should be made to Professor Darroch, 12, Abbotsford Park, Edinburgh.
The Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals are now offering prizes to school children for essays. Full particulars may be obtained from the Secretary, Archibald Langwill, C.A., 19, Melville Street, Edinburgh.
The London Teachers' Association have issued a Special Holiday Register Sup..
plement for 1918, containing the names and addresses of quarters recommended by members in 1916-17 (price, post free, 3 d.).
Application should be made to L.T.A. Headquarters, 9, Fleet Street, E.C.4.
In connection with the movement for “ Education as National Service” Mansfield House, Canning Town, has been opened as a residence for students of social and educational problems. For further information application should be made to the Hon. Dean, Mrs. Mackenzie, M.A., Lecture Centre, 11, Tavistock Square, W.C.1.
The London Safety First” Council have issued illustrated poster of “ Dont's for Cyclists,” pointing out the common causes of accidents and giving advice on how to avoid them. Since the war began, it is stated that more than 110 cyclists have been killed and 1,700 injured in the metropolitan area.
The Girl Guides have recently issued from the National Headquarters, 76, Victoria Street, S.W.1, a new Annual Report and Distribution List of Presidents, Commissioners, Secretaries, &c.” (price gd. post free).
The Bradford Education Committee have just issued a valuable booklet prepared under the supervision of Mr. A. C. Coffin, the Director of Education, dealing with “ Careers for Girls.” It provides in convenient tabular form much practical information regarding forms of vocation, with details regarding approximate length and cost of training. From
the Co-operative Reference Library, The Plunket House, Dublin, there has been issued a valuable “Report of a Bacteriological Investigation of the City of Dublin Milk Supply" (price 6d. net), prepared by D. Houston, F.L.S., Lecturer on Agricultural Bacteriology,
al College of Science for Ireland. A preface is provided by Oliver St. John Gogarty, M.D., F.R.C.S.
BOOKS AND PERIODICALS.
Reviews and Notices of Books and Journals dealing with all subjects relating to Child Life appear
under this heading.
"The Dawn of Mind: An Introduction to Child Psychology.' By Margaret Drummond, M.A., Lecturer on Psychology in the Edinburgh Provincial Training Col. lege. Pp. xi + 179, with frontispiece. London : Edward Arnold, 41, Maddox Street, W. 1. 1918. Price 38. 6d. net.
Child psychology is now being recognized as a legitimate and, indeed, an essential department of psychology and a subject necessary to teachers and all others desirous of dealing justly and effectively and righteously with children of all ages. Miss Drummond has proved. her powers as a careful observer and reliable teacher, and her latest book will add to a well-won reputation for skill in the exposition of psychological problems relating to the mental powers of children. The book is based on close and more or less continuous studies of three little children, Margaret, Ruth, and Axel, and around the records of the mental revolution of these small folk is built up a most interesting, instructive, and generally helpful account of the development and expression of early consciousness. There are separate sections on Fundamental Concepts; Memory, Imagination, and Play; Sympathy, Suggestibility, and Selfcontrol; Reasoning; and Spoken and Written Language. Miss Drummond is an original thinker and does not hesitate to make excursions into new fields. Some of her views will doubtless be severely criticized. The book is one which will stimulate thought and incite inquiry. A wise word of warning expressed in the preface is worthy of being reproduced : “ The practical need for a study of child psychology is even more pressing than the theoretical, All lovers of little children have welcomed the recent proposal for the establishment of nursery schools. If, however, the teachers in these schools are not thoroughly versed in child psychology and in the methods of teaching which are naturally founded upon it, there are two grave dangers to be feared. If the school
is regarded simply as a nursery, no use may be made of the enormous capacity for intellectual growth and assimilation of knowledge that characterize the third, fourth, and fifth years. Such a school, while lacking the often objectionable character of a street environment, might prove even more cramping to the developing intelligence. On the other hand, if the school is thought of as a place where children sit quietly in rows and receive instruction, the working out of this idea may lead to even more fatal results. To find the safe middle path between these two dangers, the teacher must be armed with the fullest knowledge of child nature that is yet available. To teach the little people as they ought to be taught, and deserve to be taught, to preserve their spontaneity and keep their eager interest alive, is no easy task; but if this task were well done it would make an incalculable difference to the work of the ordinary school, and in the end to the life of the nation.” The book is throughout full of helpful information and practical suggestions. We could wish that space would allow of many quotations, but we must close this all-too-brief notice with a few sentences from Miss Drummond's concluding chapter : “Trust the child's intelligence. Be ready to help if help is wanted, but never rob the child of the joy of making his own discoveries. To keep the spirit of scientific curiosity alive in him is of far greater moment than to teach him anything whatever. Work with the grain of the child. Knowledge that is given against the grain is a burden rather than a support, and tends to be discarded
as possible. Training given against the grain produces an imperfectly unified character. In working with any material one cannot obtain the best results unless one knows intimately the nature of that material. This is the real reason why it is necessary that parents and teachers should study the psychology of the child. Only