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Page 62.-Convers Francis (REV.), an American writer, born at West Cambridge, Mass., about 1796. He was pastor of a Unitarian church at Watertown, Mass., from 1819 to 1842, and then became Professor of Pulpit Eloquence at Harvard College. He wrote several biographies, etc. Died in 1863.

Page 62.-Bishop Heber (Reginald), 1783-1826; a native of Malpas, Cheshire, England; he graduated at Oxford University, and early distinguished himself as a writer of both prose and poetry. In 1822 he was elected preacher at Lincoln's Inn, and in the following year was appointed to the bishopric of Calcutta, where he labored with great zeal and success until his sudden death from apoplexy in 1826.

Page 69.-James Russell Lowell was born at Cambridge, Mass., in 1819; he was graduated at Harvard College in 1838, entered the profession of law in Boston, but soon abandoned it and devoted himself to literature. His productions, both in prose and poetry, are numerous and of a high character. In 1855 he was elected Professor of Modern Languages and Belles-Lettres in Harvard University, which position he still holds.

Page 72.-Lord Chatham (William Pitt), 1708-1778, was son of Robert Pitt, of Boconnoc, Cornwall, Eng. He studied for a time at Oxford, and then obtained a cornetcy in the army. In 1736 he was elected to Parliament, where his brilliant and commanding oratory soon gained him a most exalted position. He was made prime minister in 1757, and resigned in 1761. In 1766 he was made a peer of the realm, with the title of Viscount Pitt and Earl of Chatham. As a member of the House of Lords he was a powerful friend of the American colonies at the outbreak of the war of independence, and some of his most impassioned speeches were made in their behalf.

Page 74.-H. W. Longfellow (Henry Wadsworth) was born at Portland, Me., 1807; was graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825, and


was soon after appointed Professor of Modern Languages and Literature in the same college, which office, after spending four years in Europe, he filled until 1835, when he was appointed Professor of Modern Languages and Belles-Lettres in Harvard University. After a further sojourn of two years in Europe, he discharged the duties of his pro-` fessorship most acceptably for seventeen years, when he resigned. I s contributions to literature are mainly poetical; they are numerous, and characterized by a remarkable sweetness, purity, and refinement of sentiment. He died March 24, 1882.

Page 87.-J. G. Whittier (John Greenleaf) is a native of Haverhill, Mass., born in 1807, but has resided at Amesbury since 1840. His parents belonged to the Society of Friends, and his early education was acquired chiefly at home, where he worked on the farm until eighteen years of age. In 1829 he edited a political newspaper in Boston, and subsequently was connected with various publications, literary and political. He took an active part in the agitation against slavery, in opposition to which he wrote, both in prose and verse, with great vigor. His miscellaneous writings are numerous and popular, and his religious poems are highly esteemed.

Page 88.-John Byrom, 1691–1763, was a native of Kersall, near Manchester, Eng., and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1711. He wrote on various subjects, chiefly in verse, and was the inventor of a system of stenography, on which he published two treatises.

Page 90.-Edward Everett, 1794-1865, was born in Dorchester, Mass., entered Harvard College at the age of thirteen, graduated when seventeen, and was made tutor in Latin the next year. At the age of nineteen he was chosen minister of Brattle Street Church, in Boston, and achieved high distinction as a pulpit orator. In 1815 he was elected Professor of the Greek Language and Literature in Harvard College, but made a tour in Europe before entering upon his duties. In 1824 he was elected to Congress, where he continued for ten years. Subsequently he filled the offices, successively, of Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to England, President of Harvard College, Secretary of State of the United States, and U. S. Senator from Massachusetts. The latter position he resigned in 1854 on account of ill health, and thereafter devoted himself through a long life mainly to the preparation and delivery of public orations and speeches on a great variety of topics and occasions. His productions are characterized by great learning, a rare grace of style, and peculiar eloquence. Few Americans have filled so large a place in public affairs or general literature.

Page 93.-G. H. Lewes (George Henry) was born in London in 1817. His early education was obtained mainly on the Continent, and he commenced life as a merchant's clerk, but left this for the study of medicine, which in turn he soon abandoned for literature and philosophy. In these departments he produced several works of merit, but later in life turned his attention to physical science, of which he became a popular exponent. He died in 1878.

Page 99.-Charles Dickens, 1812-1870. He was born at Ports mouth, Eng., and was educated at London. His father intended him for the profession of law, but not liking that pursuit, he engaged in the employment of newspaper reporter, and soon attracted public attention as a writer of sketches of life and character. His numerous productions were received with extraordinary favor wherever the English language is read, and he gained the distinction of being the most popular novelist of the day, which he held without a rival until his death in 1870. He visited America in 1841, and again in 1867.

Page 101.-Sir Walter Scott, 1771-1832. He was born in Edinburgh, and obtained his education in the High School and University of that city. He entered the profession of law in 1792, and subsequently held the offices of deputy-sheriff of Selkirkshire and clerk in the Scottish Court of Sessions. But his favorite occupation was the composition of ballads, poems, romances, and historical tales of his native land, to which the latter part of his life was wholly devoted. He was the originator of that department of literature termed the Historical Novel, and his voluminous productions are unrivaled of their kind.

Page 103.-W. H. Prescott (William Hickling) was born in Salem, Mass., 1796; died in Boston in 1859. He graduated at Harvard College in 1814. Having by an accident lost the use of one eye during the last year, excessive use of the other eye soon so impaired it that he became nearly blind. He visited Europe in quest of relief, but with little success. He, however, found means, by the aid of a reader, to make himself acquainted with French, Italian, and Spanish literature, and devoted his life to historical writing. He wrote with the help of an instrument which guided his hand upon the paper, while he was unable to see either lines or characters. His historical works have the highest reputation for thorough research and accuracy.

Page 105.-Zenobia (Septimia) was queen of Palmyra, Asia, in the third century. She was daughter of an Arab chief, and assumed the throne after the assassination of her husband, who was prince of Palmyra. She defended her country against the Romans for several years. but was at length overpowered and made captive by the emperor Aure

lian, A. D. 270; he took her to Rome, where she adorned his triumphal entry into the capital, and passed the remainder of her life in a magnificent villa presented by the emperor, located near the city.

Page 107.-William Ware (REV.), 1797-1852, son of Rev. Henry Ware, D. D., was born in Hingham, Mass., and died in Cambridge. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1816, studied theology, and entered the ministry as pastor of the First Congregational Church (Unitarian) in New York City in 1821. Returning to New England in 1836, he devoted his life, with the exception of short settlements as pastor at Waltham and West Cambridge, Mass., mainly to literary pursuits. He spent a year in Europe in 1848. His chief productions were historical romances, of which "Zenobia" is one.

Page 113.-John Brown, M.D., was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1810, and was educated in the High School and University of that city. He has published two volumes of essays on professional and other subjects.

Page 114.-Alfred Tennyson, poet-laureate of England, was born at Somersby, Lincolnshire, in 1810. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he obtained the prize medal for a poem at the age of nineteen. He issued from time to time numerous poetical productions, of varied merit, but gradually grew in the public favor, until, on the death of Wordsworth, in 1850, he was appointed to the office of poetlaureate, and his pre-eminence as a poet has since been universally acknowledged.

Page 123.-A. H. Everett (Alexander Hill), 1790–1847, was a native of Boston, and an older brother of Edward Everett; like him, he entered Harvard College at the age of thirteen, and graduated with the highest honors in three years. He studied law in Boston with John Quincy Adams, whom he accompanied on a mission to Russia in 1809, and resided at St. Petersburg until 1812. Returning to Boston, he entered upon the profession of law, but soon was appointed secretary of legation to the Netherlands. He afterwards succeeded to the position of chargé d'affaires at the same court, where he remained till 1824. In 1825 he was appointed minister to Spain. Returning in 1829, he became editor and proprietor of the North American Review, and from 1830 to 1835 was member of the Legislature of Massachusetts. In 1840 he was confidential agent of the United States in Cuba, and was appointed President of Jefferson College, Louisiana, but was unable to retain this position on account of ill health. In 1845 he was sent as minister to China, where he died in 1847. His voluminous productions in various departments of literature display great versatility and erudition.

Page 124.-Croesus was the last king of Lydia, in Asia Minor, about 550 years B. C., and was considered the richest monarch of his time.

Page 124.-Khemnitzer (Ivan Ivanowitch-sometimes spelled Chemnitzer) was a Russian fabulist, born in St. Petersburg in 1744. He studied medicine, but afterwards entered the army, and was for some time engaged in mining employments. He was sent as consulgeneral to Smyrna, where he died in 1784.

Page 125.- Catiline (Lucius Sergius) was, a descendant of an ⚫ ancient patrician family of Rome, who, after spending his youth and early manhood in profligacy, sought election as consul. Being defeated, he, though a member of the Senate, conspired with others of like character to assassinate the consuls and magistrates, burn the city, and seize upon the treasures of the republic. The conspiracy was discovered by Cicero, who secured the banishment of the traitor, and Catiline was slain in a battle near Fæsulæ, in the year 62 B. C.

Page 126.-Cicero (Marcus Tullius), 106-43 B.C. He was born at Arpinum, Italy, but educated at Rome, in law, philosophy, and rhetoric. After travel and further study in Greece and Asia, he entered upon public life in Rome. He held several important positions, and was made consul, B. C. 63. During this consulship he discovered and suppressed the conspiracy of Catiline, by which service he earned the title of father of his country, and by his orations secured immortal fame. Five years later, the bitterness of his enemies compelled him to leave Rome for a season, but he subsequently returned, and from time to time took part in public affairs. He was procensul of Cilicia, in Asia Minor, in 51 B. C., where he governed with justice, and displayed great military talents. After his return to Rome he opposed Mark Antony, successor of Cæsar, and lost his head in consequence, in the year 43 BC. He is regarded as the greatest orator, statesman, and philosopher of ancient Rome.

Page 127.-F. Bret Harte (Francis) was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1837. He went to California at the age of seventeen, where he successively taught school, worked in the mines, became a printer, and then editor of a newspaper. Subsequently he held positions under the Government, in the Surveyor-General's and U. S. Marshal's offices, and in the Mint. In 1868 he founded the Overland Monthly at San Francisco, and has become widely known for characteristic poems and sketches of California life.

Page 131.-S. Ferguson (Samuel) is an Irish poet and prose writer, bọrn in Belfast, 1810. He has contributed to the Ulster Magazine,

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