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hero, after sacrificing their whole lives to their families, are not united, but have indeed to learn that virtue is its own reward. Signor Boratini writes a long article on the military condition of China, and concludes that everything induces the observer to believe that China is seriously preparing for war. Signor Erculei gives a short description of the mural paintings discovered in the palace of the Conservatori in the Capitol. The literary notice criticises Fornaciari's edited and inedited Studies of Dante. The Political and Bibliographical Reviews speak of the usual topics of the day, and Italian works. RIVISTA EUROPEA (June).-The first number for this month contains a lecture on Poor Girls,' delivered last April at Trieste ; an article by A. Medin; the conclusion of the story 'Guancibella ;' and more chapters of 'Akbah.' The Literary review besides French and German works, notices Andrew Wilson's Chapters on Evolution, saying that the author has undertaken one of the most difficult tasks, and that it seems he has not sufficiently developed the geological part, though it was demanded by the plan of the book. The second part, June 16th, commences with an article on Witches, Sorceresses and Wizards in Rome in the 16th Century,' by A. Barloletti, containing an account of the supposed witch, Bellezza Orsini Fallucchiera and giving many curious facts. Thereafter follow the continuation of the List of Unusual Gifts and Donations made by Sovereigns from 1729 to 1816,' and a short article in French by N. Plaffaine, on a ' Passage in the Divine Comedy,' supposed to allude injuriously to St. Louis, King of France.' The next paper is the first part of a comparative study of the Universities of England and America." More chapters of Akbah' are given, and an historical sketch called 'On the Slopes of Etna,' being an incident of 1869, and the story of a spy named Gambacorta. In the Review of Foreign Books we find noticed Murphy's Cromwell in Ireland, and Haweis's American Humourists.

THE RASSEGNA NAZIONALE.-The May number opens with an article by G. B. on the Records of the Parisian Communists, describing their origin and proceedings. The author closes by saying that rather than being a political party, the communists are nothing but a handful of unhappy persons perverted in heart and mind by vice, pride, presumption, and half education. Signor Pietro Pasello writes on the Government of Sardinia after the close of the Dominion of the Byzantine Emperors.' The 'Glances at the Political and Literary Papers of Marchese Luigi Dragonetti' is continued. Signor Tarra writes a memorial of Father Tommaso Pendola, who introduced the oral intuitive method of instructing deaf mutes. A little society tale by Signor Checchi occupies a short half hour not very pleasantly. Signor A. Vezzani concludes his careful and valuable papers on Agriculture and the Agricultural Classes in the Province of Emilia.' Signor G. Talorsi writes a short article on Raphael, for the fourth centenary of the great painter's birth. Signor Norsa writes on 'The Reform of Communal and Provincial Laws,' and Signora Malaspina on The Fine Arts in Rome.' Professor de Johannis has another article on the abolition of the forced currency in Italy. The Political Review speaks of home affairs; of the finances of France, Italy, and England; of the colonial jealousy between France and Englandsaying that though the latter has proved that she possesses a peculiar talent for the difficult science of colonization almost unknown to the other states, it requies great boldness on her part to accuse France of being over-ambitious for colonies, while she herself accomplishes such facts as the recent annexation of a large part of the West Coast of Africa, and all New Guinea.

RASSEGNA NAZIONALE. -The June number contains the conclusion of precedrig articles on Rome and the French-Italian Government from 1796 to 1855.' There are also articles on 'True Democracy' by Signor Brunialti, and on Taine's Les Origines de la France Contemporaine, by Signor Boglietti. Signora Malaspina writes a story entitled the Marriage of Maria;' and then follows the first of a series of articles on The Principles of Exegetical Criticism,' by Professor Stoppani. Signor Ricci has a discourse on Ercole Ricotti; Signor Mazzei, an article on the labour question; Signor Alfiere, some Notes on Italian Affairs;'

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Signor Fontanelli, a paper on 'The School of Social Science,' and the number closes with a letter in French from Eugéne Rendu to Ruggero Bonghi on the Pope and the Italian government. The Literary Review notices exclusively Italian books, and the Political Review the topics of the day.

RASSEGNA NAZIONALE.-The number for July commences with an article by Signor Grabinski on Religious Interests and Italian Interests in Palestine and Syria. A translation is given of A. Franck's article, published in the Annales de Philosophie Chrétienne, on the Moral Situation of the Israelites.' The descriptive articles entitled From Salerno to Cilento' are continued, as is also the paper on the Principles of Exegetical Criticism. The first five chapters of Miss Montgomery's Misunderstood are well translated. C. F. Bardi writes an article called 'What is the Mediterranean?' and answers the question by saying that it is the peaceful messenger of true civilization.' Signor Catapano gives his readers A Little Philology; and we are favoured with more glances at the literary papers of Marchese Dragonetti. Professor de Johannis criticises Martello's book on 'Money;' and Signor Bonghi replies to Rendu's letter. The Bibliographical Review notices Italian books, and the Political Summary, besides home affairs, talks of Prince Bismarck and the end of the Kultur-Kampf.

CIVILTA CATTOLICA (July).—The first number commences with the third part of the paper on 'The Decline of Literature in Italian Schools.' It would occupy too much space to follow the writer's arguments against the government, the monopoly of which in the matter of education he says has now-a-days become as ridiculous as it was always unjust,' but the following, the last sentence of the paper, will give some idea of the tenor of the whole. 'The education which prepares 23,000 minors annually for crime and the galleys; which gives Italy 116,000 admonished persons in nine months; which raises the number of actual prisoners to about 80,000, and presses out of the people more than 32,000,000 franes annually for the maintenance of the prisons; which involves all Italy in a thick net of houses of correction, and multiplies vice everywhere; this education, which excites the youth of Italy to give the name of republican league to such facts as that of the Borgo-Nuovo at the Vatican, and that of Piazza Sciarra in Rome, and spurs those youths to celebrate the apotheosis of Overbeck ;-this education, as all liberals may be persuaded, is very differently pernicious to their aims and idolized institutions, than could ever be the liberty so much feared of the priests being permitted to teach the catechism and the decalogue as well as classic literature. In our opinion, a liberal, who, from hatred to the christian teaching of the decalogue, is eager to fasten a chain on the teaching of Italian, Greek and Latin literature, and prefers rather the barbarizing of his country than its moral dignity, is, without doubt, either a mere animal, or a great rascal.' Then comes an article on the last Babylonian King, and the continuation of the papers on 'The Cell and Life.' More chapters of the journey in India and China, and the usual literary notices and chronicle close the number. The second number for this month contains an article on The Reports of an Agreement between the Vatican and the Quirinal; the continuation of the paper on the state of linguistic study; an article on 'A Golden Work by Cardinal Pecci;' 'The Journey to India and China;' reviews of Italian books, and the contemporary chronicle.

LE LIVRE (May).-In this number bibliophiles will find a highly interesting and valuable notice of a work, lately published by M. Clouard, on the Bibliography of the Works of Alfred de Musset.' M. L. Derôme, the writer of the article reproduces, as a rarissimum, a song of which M. Clouard seeems to have known only two verses. It is the song of Stenio, which appeared in the second edition of George Sand's Lélia, but which has dropped out of later reprints, probably owing to the rupture which occurred, about 1834, between the novelist and the poet. As a literary curiosity the Inno Ebbrioso' may be worth preserving, but even its force and undoubted poetical merit can scarcely reconcile us to a production absolutely reeking with drunkenness and sensuality. At the age of eighteen Alfred de Musset wrote a translation of de Quincey's Con

fessions of an Opium Eater. Translation is perhaps scarcely the right name, for Musset translates only when he thinks fit. Most of the time he comments, expands, or improvises. As a specimen of these interpolations M. Derôme gives us what has been called the Anatomical Dream,' a production in which the morbid imagination of later years already begins to make itself felt.-The studies on 'The Illustrators of Books in the Nineteenth Century' are continued by M. Eug. Forgues who makes Gustave Doré the subject of an article illustrated with several unpublished sketches by the great master. Not the least interesting parts of the article are those where the writer avails himself of the autobiographical notes put at his disposal by a near relative of Dore's. From this we reproduce the passage in which the artist relates his first visit to Paris, and his first steps in the career which was destined to become so brilliant. In September 1847,' writes Doré, my parents having been called to Paris on urgent business, took me with them. Our stay was intended to last only three weeks, and the idea of going down again into the country, after having seen this centre of light and learning, made me feel very disconsolate. I at once set my uind to the discovery of some means or other of remaining behind, for I had no other wish but that of following the career of an artist, though in this I met with the greatest opposition on the part of my parents. Their intention was that, like my two brothers, I should join the Ecole polytechnique. One day, I happened to pass by Auber and Philippon's shop, in the Place de la Bourse, and, on returning to the hotel, it occurred to me to pencil a few caricatures in the style of those which I had noticed in the window. Taking advantage of my parents' absence, I went and presented these few attempts to the editor. M. Philippon looked at my sketches with attention and kindness, questioned me as to my position, and sent me back to my parents with a letter in which he requested them to call upon him. They did so, and M. Philippon, making use of the most pressing language, and calling to his aid all the arguments that he could think of, overcame my parents' opposition and the dread which they felt at the idea of my becoming an artist. He then persuaded them to leave me in Paris, assuring them that he could make use of my works and remunerate me for them. From that day it was decided that I should follow my taste. But for M. Philippon's kindly initiative (I say kindly, for, at that time, what I turned out was very incorrect and very childish), I should have had to go back and lose several years in the depths of my provincial home.' And so, at the age of fourteen, Doré found a publisher, and one of the first in Paris, the maker of Gavarni, Grandville, and of so many others, the king of caricature, the purveyor of fun and laughter to the capital and the provinces.-The London Letter, which is intended to give French readers correct notions--indeed the notions of an Englishman-on the subject of contemporary literature, is written by Mr. J. Knight. Amongst the works noticed by the reviewer we find: American Literature: an Historical Sketch. Mr. Knight concludes it with a hope that his judgment may not become known on the other side of the Tweed.' We are happy in being able to frustrate his hope, and we think it but right that Scotsmen in general, and Professor Nichol in particular, should know how greatly they are indebted to Mr. J. Knight. We are the better able to help them to this knowledge, as Mr. Knight's French is edifyingly free from any but English idioms. After introducing the Professor of English at the University of Glasgow as 'a distinguished scholar, an original thinker, and a man of talent,' and allowing that many of his judgments are admirable,' the reviewer continues :-Nevertheless, he has two defects. Although brought up in England he has never made himself completely master of our language, and, for poetry, he has the ear of a Scotchman. I know that Professor Nichol is spoken of as a brilliant writer. But in literature, as in the other branches of art, we are beginning to require a care, a perfection of work, not dreamt of before our time. For my part, I can not accept as a master of the English tongue a writer who, in speaking of two objects, uses, for example, the one in opposition to the other, without knowing to which of the two, according to the genius of the language, each of these terms is applicable. There are other analogous delicate points concerning which Professor Nichol falls into similar errors. If I were to say that a Scotchman is rarely a good judge of the music of English verse, and that he rarely has an ear capable

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of feeling high poetry, I should, probably, draw a whole nestful of hornets about my own ears. I shall, therefore, content myself, dear reader, with whispering to you in confidence that such is my conviction, and I hope that no report of my heresy may reach the other side of the Tweed.'

LE LIVRE (June). -In its sitting of the 12th of March, the municipal Council of the city of Paris authorized the erection of a statue of Alexander Dumas. Two full page engravings representing, respectively, the statue which is to adorn the Place Malesherbes, and the group in basso relievo intended for the pedestal, are the chief attractions in this number. They are doubly interesting, for, as is well known, this monument is the last work undertaken by Gustave Doré. — 'Les Protecteurs des Lettres au XIXe Siècle' opens with a first instalment for the subject of which M. Champfleury has selected an eccentric publisher who, on his visiting card, styled himself Eug. Pick de l'Isère, and emphasized the appellation by the double motto: 'Dieu et l'Empereur,' and 'Je dois tout à Dieu, Rien aux Hommes.'-The labours of the 'Société des Bibliophiles Bretons,' the youngest, but by no means the least important of the associations formed with the view of preserving and publishing literary monuments of local interest, are recorded in an interesting article by M. Olivier de Gourcoff. -This is followed by a translation of a chapter from Petrarch's philosophical work: 'Remedies for Good and Evil Fortune.' This fragment, which the translator, M. Victor Develay gives under the title The Love of Books,' contains curious particulars concerning books before the invention of printing.-M. Emile Colombey's paper 'On the Abuse of Retrospective Love in the Books of a Philosopher' is directed, we presume, against Victor Cousin, the biographer of the celebrated heroine of the Fronde, Madame de Longueville. As the work was published some thirty years ago, it is difficult to understand what called for this rather spiteful and not very witty criticism.

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LE LIVRE (July).—Mr. Ashbee contributes a short notice of the 'Index Society.' The titles of the eleven volumes published by this society since its foundation in 1879, with a few introductory remarks of a very general character, and a brief explanation, sometimes contained in less than two lines, of the object of each index, can scarcely be said to constitute a very interesting article. The curator of the National Library of Florence, Dr. Guido Biagi, communicates a number of letters written by members of the Bonaparte family, and ranging from 1580 to 1834. This 'Bonapartiana' contains a fac-simile of Jérome's handwriting. Many of the letters are written in Italian, and no special interest or historical value attaches to any of them. Not the least curious is that which shows us Letitia, the Corsican Niobe, signing herself Madame, in the old imperial style, long years after death had deprived her of her eagle-eyed son,' as the writer of the article styles him.-M. Achille Duvan has discovered 'une petite épave d'un grand poète.' This great poet is Racine, the waif is a copy of very loose verses written as an answer to a still more indecent song composed by Mme de Longuval.-In the London Letter, Mr. J. Knight, who lately communicated to the readers of Le Livre such valuable information concerning Scotsmen, now takes the opportunity afforded him by the publication of the Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle' to edify them with this judgment: 'One of the most delightful and charming of women was sacrificed to the vanity and self-love of one of the most selfish men that ever existed.' The whole question may now be considered settled beyond the possibility of further controversy.

REVUE PHILOSOPHIQUE (May).-M. Ch. Bénard opens the number with an article in which he examines and analyzes Herr Karl Köstlin's work on Esthetics. The question to which he gives special consideration is whether there is an æsthetic life in the same manner as there is a scientific, a moral, a political, a religious, or an industrial life, that is, a life existing distinctly and independently, and such that it may be looked upon as a special organ in the total organism of individual and general human life. On this point M. Bénard differs from Herr Köstlin, and is of opinion that the German philosopher has failed to establish a new system of æsthetics or the experimental basis of


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aathetic life.-The causes which have given rise to the sentiment of duty are extremely complex and varied. Some are to be looked for in the passions, others belong to the intellectual order, whilst a third group takes up an intermediate position, and seems to stand in equal relation to both intellect and passion. In an article on Moral Obligation from the Intellectual Point of View,' M. Paulham deals with the second of these three categories. He does not, indeed, pretend to lay down a complete theory of the formation of the idea of moral obligation. His object is to point out the very important part which is borne by a purely intellectual element, expectation. His principal proposition may be resumed as follows:-1st. Moral obligation, at its origin, is confusedly mixed up, in the human mind, with the determination of phenomena in a vague idea of what a being will do under certain given circumstances. The expectation of a phenomenon, determined by certain associations of ideas, is the intellectual foundation of a belief in moral obligation. It becomes associated with the idea that this phenomenon may possibly not take place. The combination of these two ideas constitutes a kind of inferior phase of the idea of duty. 2d. This obligation was first imposed by man on other beings; it was applied to the objective before it was brought to bear upon the subjective world. 3rd. Moral obligation was applied variously according to the various ideas which men formed of other men, or other spiritual beings, being always determined in its form by the ideal, whatever it may be, coarse or retined, moral or immoral, which is imposed on man by the medium in which he lives, but consisting, in substance, of the influence which the conception of the ideal exercises on the actions of man, and being always finally reducible to the expectation or the vivid representation of certain acts. 4th. Moral law tends to become a natural law. In this and the following number M. Fonsegrive sets himself the task of proving that The Alleged Contradictions of Descartes' are merely apparent, that there is no begging of the question in his famous 'Cogito ergo sum,” and no vicious circle in the argument which he uses to demonstrate the existence of Gol.-The works of which summaries are given are:-CH. RICHET: Physiologie des nerfs et des muscles; VALLIER: De l'intention morale; WALLACE: Aristotle's Psychology.

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REVUE PHILOSOPHIQUE (June).-M. Alfred Fouilée is again to the fore with a lengthy paper on Free Will,' which he now considers in connection with future contingencies.' The sub-divisions of the study are:-1st, 'Genesis of the Idea of Contingency and of Liberty in the Individual and the Species; 2nd, Future Contingency and its Alleged Verification in the Equal Chances of Games of Hazard; 3rd, Future Contingency and its Alleged Conciliation with the Laws of Statistics;' 4th, 'Conclusion: The Reaction of the Idea upon the Foreseen Future. A short but interesting paper by M. Beaunis, Professor of Physiology at the Medical Faculty of Nancy, examines how far the various sensations may be compared with regard to the time of reaction. He lays down, as the result of his investigation, that if a comparison of the time of reaction of the various sensations is justified as regards sight, bearing, and touch, it cannot be so as regards taste and smell. The essentially variable duration of the first of the eight stages into which he resolves the time of reaction, that is of the period of the excitation of the sensitive apparatus by the exterior agent, precludes, he says, the comparison of taste and smell not only with the other sensations, but also with each other.-In a former essay on 'The History of the Conception of Infinity in the Sixth Century B.C.,' M. Tannery omitted the second Milesian physiologist, Anaximenes. He now devotes an article to him, in which he, in the first place, endeavours to fix the philosopher's floruit, and then discusses his system of cosmology, and the influences of which it bears traces as well as the influence which it may have exercised upon Heraclitus and other thinkers.-The 'Revue générale' started in this number is a very acceptable innovation. The present review deals with 'Some Italian Criminalists of the New School.'-Two works by G. H. Schneider, the one on The Human Will,' the other on The Will of Animals,' and the Correspondence between Condorcet and Turgot,' are given in the Analyses et Comptes rendus.

REVUE PHILOSOPHIQUE (July).-After having shown, in a former paper, that symphonic music possesses a real power of psychological expression, and that,

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