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'SIR, 'Your most humble servant.'
N° 345. SATURDAY, APRIL 5, 1712.
common sense could be thus engaged, is hard to fine hand, I am in hopes she may give herself no determine; but the occasion of this is, to desire further trouble in this matter. On Sunday was you to inform several gluttons of my acquaintance, sevennight, when they came about for the offer who look on me with envy, that they had best mo-ing, she gave her charity with a very good air, but derate their ambition in time, lest infamy or death at the same time asked the churchwarden if he attend their success. I forgot to tell you, sir, with would take a pinch. Pray, sir, think of these what unspeakable pleasure I received the accla- things in time, and you will oblige, mations and applause of the whole board, when I had almost eat my antagonist into convulsions. It was then that I returned his mirth upon him with such success, as he was hardly able to swallow, though prompted by a desire of fame, and a passionate fondness for distinction. I had not endeavoured to excel so far, had not the company been so loud in their approbation of my victory. I do not question but the same thirst after glory has often caused a man to drink quarts without taking breath, and prompted men to many other difficult enterprises; which, if otherwise pursued, might turn very much to a man's advantage. This ambition of mine was indeed extravagantly pursued; however I cannot help observing, that you hardly ever see a man commended for a good stomach, but he immediately falls to eating more (though THE accounts which Raphael gives of the battle of he had before dined), as well to confirm the person that commended him in his good opinion of him, as to convince any other at the table, who may have been unattentive enough not to have done justice to his character.
'I am, SIR,
'Your most humble servant,
Sanctius his animal, mentisque capacius aktæ
OVID. Met. lib. i. ver. 76,
A creature of a more exalted kind
angels, and the creation of the world, have in them site to an episode. They are nearly related to the those qualifications which the critics judge requi principal action, and have a just connection with the fable.
passion and esteem for Eve, would have been improper for her hearing, and has therefore devised very just and beautiful reasons for her retiring:
So spake our sire, and by his count'nance seem'd
The eighth book opens with a beautiful descrip tion of the impression which this discourse of the archangel made on our first parents. Adam afterwards, by a very natural curiosity, inquires con'I HAVE Wrote to you three or four times, to desire cerning the motions of those celestial bodies which you would take notice of an impertinent custom the make the most glorious appearance among the six women, the fine women, have lately fallen into, of days' work. The poet here, with a great deal of taking snuff. This silly trick is attended with such art, represents Eve as withdrawing from this part a coquette air in some ladies, and such a sedate of their conversation, to amusements more suitable masculine one in others, that I cannot tell which to her sex. He well knew that the episode in this most to complain of; but they are to me equally book, which is filled with Adam's account of his disagreeable. Mrs. Santer is so impatient of being without it, that she takes it as often as she does salt at meals; and as she affects a wonderful ease and negligence in all her manner, an upper lip mixed with snuff and the sauce, is what is presented to the observation of all who have the honour to eat with her. The pretty creature her niece does all she can to be as disagreeable as her aunt; and if she is not as offensive to the eye, she is quite as much to the ear, and makes up all she wants in a confident air, by a nauseous rattle of the nose, when the snuff is delivered, and the fin. gers make the stops and closes on the nostrils. This, perhaps, is not a very courtly image in speaking of ladies: that is very true; but where arises the offence? Is it in those who commit, or those who observe it? As for my part I have been so extremely disgusted with this filthy physic hanging on the lip, that the most agreeable conversation, or person, has not been able to make up for it. The angel's returning a doubtful answer to As to those who take it for no other end but to Adam's inquiries, was not only proper for the give themselves occasion for pretty action, or to moral reason which the poet assigns, but because fill up little intervals of discourse, I can bear with it would have been highly absurd to have given the them; but then they must not use it when another sanction of an archangel to any particular system is speaking, who ought to be heard with too much of philosophy. The chief points in the Ptolemaic respect, to admit of offering at that time from hand and Copernican hypotheses are described with to hand the snuff-box. But Flavilla is so far taken great conciseness and perspicuity, and at the same with her behaviour in this kind, that she pulls out time dressed in very pleasing and poetical images. her box (which is indeed full of good Brazil) in the Adam, to detain the angel, enters afterwards middle of the sermon; and, to show she has the upon his own history, and relates to him the cir audacity of a well-bred woman, she offers it the cumstances in which he found himself upon his men as well as the women who sit near her: but creation; as also his conversation with his Maker, since by this time all the world knows she has a and his first meeting with Eve. There is no part
Of what was high: such pleasure she reserv'd,
The may give bese matter. On Sa me about for the
ay, sir, think a
SIR, most humble se
of the poem more apt to raise the attention of the sented as discovering by the light of reason, that reader, than this discourse of our great ancestor; he, and every thing about him, must have been as nothing can be more surprising and delightful to the effect of some Being infinitely good and powith a very goods, than to hear the sentiments that arose in the erful, and that this Being had a right to his worship first man, while he was yet new and fresh from the and adoration. His first address to the sun, and to hands of his Creator The poet has interwoven those parts of the creation which made the most every thing which is delivered upon this subject in distinguished figure, is very natural and amusing holy writ, with so many beautiful imaginations of to the imagination: his own, that nothing can be conceived more just and natural than this whole episode. As our au thor knew this subject could not but be agreeable to his reader, he would not throw it into the relation of the six days' work, but reserved it for a disAPRIL 5, tinct episode, that he might have an opportunity of expatiating upon it more at large. Before I enter on this part of the poem, I cannot but take notice of two shining passages in the dialogue between Adam and the angel. The first is that wherein our ancestor gives an account of the plea
in caterp OVID. Met B
a beac fle this discr
with a g
Wing tra Tents E
the ers n's acce old hare e
sure he took in conversing with him, which con.
'For while I sit with thee, I seem in heaven,
Then fruits of palm-tree (pleasantest to thirst
The other I shall mention, is that in which the
For I that day was absent as befel,
There is no question but our poet drew the
Fast we found, fast shut
The dismal gates, and barricado'd strong;
Adam then proceeds to give an account of his
As new wak'd from soundest sleep,
Soft on the flow'ry herb I found me laid
Adam is afterwards described as surprised at his
Thou sun, said I, fair light, And thou enlighten'd earth, so fresh and gay, Ye hills, and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains, And ye that live and move, fair creatures, tell, Tell, if ye saw, how came I thus ? how here?" His next sentiment, when upon his first going to sleep he fancies himself losing his existence, and falling away into nothing, can never be sufficiently admired. His dream, in which he still preserves the consciousness of his existence, together with for his reception, are also circumstances finely imahis removal into the garden which was prepared gined, and grounded upon what is delivered in sacred story.
These, and the like wonderful incidents in this part of the work, have in them all the beauties of novelty, at the same time that they have all the graces of nature.
They are such as none but a great genius could have thought of, though, upon the perusal of them, they seem to rise of themselves from the subject of which he treats. In a word, though they are natural, they are not obvious; which is the true character of all fine writing.
The impression which the interdiction of the tree of life left in the mind of our first parent, is described with great strength and judgment; as the image of the several beasts and birds passing in review before him, is very beautiful and lively: Each bird and beast behold Approaching two and two, these cow'ring low With blandishment; each bird stoop'd on his wing: I nam'd them as I pass'd
which he held with his Maker upon the subject of Adam, in the next place, describes a conference solitude. The poet here represents the Supreme Being as making an essay of his own work, and putting to the trial that reasoning faculty with which he had endued his creature. Adam urges, in this divine colloquy, the impossibility of his being happy, though he was the inhabitant of Paradise, and lord of the whole creation, without the conversation and society of some rational creature, who should partake those blessings with him. This dialogue, which is supported chiefly by the beauty of the thoughts, without other poetical ornaments, is as fine a part as any in the whole poem. The more the reader examines the justness and delicacy of its sentiments, the more he will find himself pleased with it. The poet has wonderfully preserved the character of majesty and condescension in the Creator, and at the same time that of humility and adoration in the creature, as particularly in the following lines:
Thus I presumptuous; and the vision bright,
And humble deprecation, thus reply'd:
Adam then proceeds to give an account of his
"Under his forming hands a creature grew,
Adam's distress upon losing sight of this beauti ful phantom, with his exclamations of joy and gratitude at the discovery of a real creature who resembled the apparition which had been presented to him in his dream; the approaches he makes to her, and his manner of courtship, are all laid together in a most exquisite propriety of sentiments.
"Neither her outside form'd so fair, nor aught
it a deference and gratitude agreeable to an infe Adam's speech, at parting with the angel, has in rior nature, and at the same time a certain dignity and greatness suitable to the father of mankind in his state of innocence.
No 346. MONDAY, APRIL 7, 1712.
Consuetudinem benignitatis largitioni muncrum longe antepona Hæc est gravium hominum atque magnorum; illa quan er sentatorum populi, multitudinis levitatem voluptate quasi titillantium.
Though this part of the poem is worked up with great warmth and spirit, the love which is described in it is every way suitable to a state of innocence. If the reader compares the description which Adam here gives of his leading Eve to the nuptial bower, with that which Mr. Dryden has made on the same occasion in a scene of his "Fall of Man," he will be sensible of the great care which Milton took to avoid all thoughts on so delicate a subject that might be offensive to religion, or good manners. The sentiments are chaste, and not cold; and convey to the mind ideas of the most transporting passion, and of the greatest purity. What a noble mixture of rapture and innocence WHEN we consider the offices of human life, there has the author joined together, in the reflection is, methinks, something in what we ordinarily call which Adam makes on the pleasures of love com- generosity, which when carefully examined seems pared to those of sense!
Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought
As, us'd or not, works in the mind no change
Nor vehement desire; these delicacies
I mean of taste, sight, smell, herbs, fruits, and flowers,
I esteem a habit of benignity greatly preferable to munifi The former is peculiar to great and distinguished persons; the latter belongs to flatterers of the people, who court the applause of the inconstant vulgar.
to flow rather from a loose and unguarded temper, than an honest and liberal mind. For this reason it is absolutely necessary that all liberality should have for its basis and support, frugality. By this means the beneficent spirit works in a man from the convictions of reason, not from the impulses of passion. The generous man in the ordinary ac ceptation, without respect of the demands of his own family, will soon find upon the foot of his account, that he has sacrificed to fools, knaves, flatterers, or the deservedly unhappy, all the op portunities of affording any future assistance where it ought to be. Let him therefore reflect, that if to bestow be in itself laudable, should not a man take care to secure an ability to do things praise worthy as long as he lives? or, could there be a more cruel piece of raillery upon a man who should have reduced his fortune below the capacity of acting according to his natural temper, than to say of him, That gentleman was generous? My be loved author therefore has, in the sentence on the top of my paper, turned his eye with a certain satiety from beholding the addresses to the people by largesses and public entertainments, which he asserts to be in general vicious, and are always to be regulated according to the circumstances of time, and a man's own fortune. A constant benignity in commerce with the rest of the world, These sentiments of love in our first parent gave which ought to run through all a man's actions, the angel such an insight into human nature, that has effects more useful to those whom you oblige, he seems apprehensive of the evils which might and less ostentatious in yourself. He turns his re befal the species in general, as well as Adam in commendation of this virtue on commercial life: particular, from the excess of his passion. He and, according to him, a citizen who is frank in therefore fortifies him against it by timely admoni- his kindnesses, and abhors severity in his demands; tions; which very artfully prepare the mind of the he who, in buying, selling, lending, doing acts of reader for the occurrences of the next book, where good neighbourhood, is just and easy; he who ap the weakness, of which Adam here gives such dis- pears naturally averse to disputes, and above the tant discoveries, brings about the fatal event which sense of little sufferings; bears a nobler character, is the subject of the poem. His discourse, which and does much more good to mankind than any follows the gentle rebuke he received from the other man's fortune, without commerce, can possi angel, shows that his love, however violent it might bly support. For the citizen, above all other men, appear, was still founded in reason, and conse- has opportunities of arriving at that highest fruit quently not improper for Paradise:
of wealth, to be liberal without the least expense of a man's own fortune. It is not to be denied
fair, not ought
but such a practice is liable to hazard; but this one. Your good offices are always suspected, and therefore adds to the obligation, that, among it is with them the same thing to expect their fatraders, he who obliges is as much concerned to vour as to receive it. But the man below you, who keep the favour a secret, as he who receives it. knows, in the good you have done him, you reThe unhappy distinctions among us in England are spected himself more than his circumstances, does so great, that to celebrate the intercourse of com- not act like an obliged man only to him from whom mercial friendship (with which I am daily made he has received a benefit, but also to all who are acquainted) would be to raise the virtuous man so capable of doing him one. And whatever little with the many enemies of the contrary party. I am obliged offices he can do for you, he is so far from magniagreeable to conceal all I know of Tom the Bounteous, who fying it, that he will labour to extenuate it in all lends at the ordinary interest, to give men of less his actions and expressions. Moreover, the regard father of fortune opportunities of making greater advan-to what you do to a great man, at best is taken notages. He conceals, under a rough air and distant tice of no further than by himself or his family; behaviour, a bleeding compassion and womanish but what you do to a man of an humble fortune tenderness. This is governed by a most exact cir- (provided always that he is a good and a modest cumspection, that there is no industry wanting in man,) raises the affections towards you of all men APRIL 7, the person whom he is to serve, and that he is guilty of that character (of which there are many) in the of no improper expenses. This I know of Tom; whole city.'
but who dare say it of so known a tory? The There is nothing gains a reputation to a preacher same care I was forced to use some time ago in the so much as his own practice; I am therefore castreport of another's virtue, and said fifty instead of ing about what act of benignity is in the power of an hundred, because the man I pointed at was a a Spectator. Alas! that lies but in a very narrow whig. Actions of this kind are popular, without compass; and I think the most immediately under ly being invidious: for every man of ordinary circum- my patronage, are either players, or such whose cirstances looks upon a man, who has this known be-cumstances bear an affinity with theirs. All therenignity in his nature, as a person ready to be his fore I am able to do at this time of this kind, is to friend upon such terms as he ought to expect it; tell the town, that on Friday the 11th of this inof her and the wealthy, who may envy such a character, stant, April, there will be performed, in Yorkcan do no injury to its interests but by the imita. buildings, a concert of vocal and instrumental muletion of it, in which the good citizen will rejoice sic, for the benefit of Mr. Edward Keen, the father to be rivalled. I know not how to form to myself of twenty children; and that this day the haughty a greater idea of human life, than in what is the George Powel hopes all the good-natured part of practice of some wealthy men whom I could name, the town will favour him, whom they applauded in that make no step to the improvement of their Alexander, Timon, Lear, and Orestes, with their own fortunes, wherein they do not also advance company this night, when he hazards all his heroic those of other men who would languish in poverty glory for their approbation in the humbler condiwithout that munificence. In a nation, where there tion of honest Jack Falstaff.
No 347. TUESDAY, APRIL 8, 1712.
Quis furor, o cives ! quæ tanta licentia ferri!
LUCAN, lib. i. ver. 8.
What blind, detested madness could afford
are so many public funds to be supported, I know not whether he can be called a good subject who to few does not embark some part of his fortune with the state, to whose vigilance he owes the security of the whole. This certainly is an immediate way of laying an obligation upon many, and extending his benignity the furthest a man can possibly, who is not engaged in commerce. But he who trades, besides giving the state some part of this sort of credit he gives his banker, may, in all the occurrences of his life, have his eye upon removing want from the door of the industrious, and defending the I Do not question but my country readers have unhappy upright man from bankruptcy. Without been very much surprised at the several accounts this benignity, pride or vengeance will precipitate they have met with in our public papers, of that a man to choose the receipt of half his demands species of men among us, lately known by the from one whom he has undone, rather than the name of Mohocks. I find the opinions of the whole from one to whom he has shown mercy. learned, as to their origin and designs, are altoThis benignity is essential to the character of a gether various, insomuch that very many begin to fair trader, and any man who designs to enjoy his doubt whether indeed there were ever any such sowealth with honour and self-satisfaction: nay, it ciety of men. The terror which spread itself over would not be hard to maintain, that the practice the whole nation some years since on account of of supporting good and industrious men, would the Irish, is still fresh in most people's memories, carry a man further, even to his profit, than in-though it afterwards appeared there was not the dulging the propensity of serving and obliging the least ground for that general consternation. fortunate. My author argues on this subject, in The late panic fear was, in the opinion of many order to incline men's minds to those who want deep and penetrating persons, of the same nature. them most, after this manner: We must always These will have it, that the Mohocks are like those consider the nature of things, and govern ourselves spectres and apparitions which frighten several accordingly. The wealthy man, when he has re- towns and villages in her majesty's dominions, paid you, is upon a balance with you; but the though they were never seen by any of the inhaperson whom you favoured with a loan, if he be a bitants. Others are apt to think that these Mogood man, will think himself in your debt after hocks are a kind of bull-beggars, first invented by he has paid you. The wealthy and the conspicuous prudent married men, and masters of families, in are not obliged by the benefits you do them; they order to deter their wives and daughters from takhink they conferred a benefit when they received ing the air at unseasonable hours; and that when
* See No. 248; the letter of W. P.
they tell them 'the Mohocks will catch them,' it is
fathers, when they bid their children have a care of Raw-head and Bloody-bones.
'That the sweat be never given but between the hours of one and two; always provided, that our For my own part, I am afraid there was too hunters may begin to hunt a little after the close much reason for that great alarm the whole city of the evening, any thing to the contrary herein has been in upon this occasion; though at the notwithstanding. Provided also, that if ever they same time I must own, that I am in some doubt are reduced to the necessity of pinking, it shall whether the following pieces are genuine and au- always be in the most fleshy parts, and such as are thentic; and the more so, because I am not fully least exposed to view. satisfied that the name, by which the emperor subscribes himself, is altogether conformable to the Indian orthography.
I shall only further inform my readers, that it was some time since I received the following letter and manifesto, though for particular reasons I did not think fit to publish them till now.
· TO THE SPECTATOR.
'It is also our imperial will and pleasure, that our good subjects the sweaters do establish their hummums in such close places, alleys, nooks, and corners, that the patient or patients may not be in danger of catching cold.
That the tumblers, to whose care we chiefly commit the female sex, confine themselves to Drury Lane, and the purlieus of the Temple; and that every other party and division of our subjects do each of them keep within their respective quar ters we have allotted to them. Provided neverFINDING that our earnest endeavours for the theless, that nothing herein contained shall in any good of mankind have been basely and maliciously wise be construed to extend to the hunters, who represented to the world, we send you inclosed have our full license and permission to enter into our imperial manifesto, which it is our will and pleasure that you forthwith communicate to the any part of the town wherever their game shall lead them. public, by inserting it in your next daily paper. And whereas we have nothing more at our im We do not doubt of your ready compliance in perial heart than the reformation of the cities of this particular, and therefore bid you heartily fare-London and Westminster, which to our unspeak
TAW WAW EBEN ZAN KALADAR,
Emperor of the Mohocks.'
The Manifesto of Taw Waw Eben Zan Kaladar,
N° 548. WEDNESDAY, APRIL 9, 1712.
Invidiam placare paras, virtute relicta?
able satisfaction we have in some measure already effected, we do hereby earnestly pray and exhort all husbands, fathers, housekeepers, and masters of families, in either of the aforesaid cities, not tations at early and seasonable hours; but also only to repair themselves to their respective habi to keep their wives and daughters, sons, servants, WHEREAS, we have received information, from and apprentices, from appearing in the streets at sundry quarters of this great and populous city, of those times and seasons which may expose them to several outrages committed on the legs, arms, noses, a military discipline, as it is practised by our good and other parts of the good people of England, subjects the Mohocks; and we do further promise, by such as have styled themselves our subjects; in on our imperial word, that as soon as the reforma order to vindicate our imperial dignity from the tion aforesaid shall be brought about, we will false aspersions which have been cast on it, as if forthwith cause all hostilities to cease. we ourselves might have encouraged or abetted "Given from our court at the Devilany such practices; we have, by these presents, tavern, March 15, 1712.' thought fit to signify our utmost abhorrence and detestation of all such tumultuous and irregular proceedings; and do hereby further give notice, that if any person or persons has or have suffered any wound, hurt, damage, or detriment, in his, or their limb or limbs, otherwise than shall be hereafter specified, the said person or persons, upon applying themselves to such as we shall appoint for the inspection and redress of the grievances aforesaid, shall be forthwith committed to the care of our principal surgeon, and be cured at our own expense, in some one or other of those hospitals I HAVE not seen you lately at any of the places which we are now erecting for that purpose." where I visit, so that I am afraid you are wholly And to the end that no one may, either through unacquainted with what passes among my part of ignorance or inadvertency, incur those penalties the world, who are, though I say it, without conwhich we have thought fit to inflict on persons of troversy, the most accomplished and best bred of loose and dissolute lives, we do hereby notify to the town. Give me leave to tell you, that I am the public, that if any man be knocked down or extremely discomposed when I hear scandal, and assaulted while he is employed in his lawful bu- am an utter enemy to all manner of detraction, siness, at proper hours, that it is not done by our and think it the greatest meanness that people order; and we do hereby permit and allow any distinction can be guilty of. However, it is hardly such person, so knocked down or assaulted, to rise possible to come into company, where again, and defend himself in the best manner that find them pulling one another to pieces, and that he is able. from no other provocation, but that of hearing any We do also command all and every our good one commended. Merit, both as to wit, and subjects, that they do not presume, upon any pre-beauty, is become no other than the possession of text whatsoever, to issue and sally forth from their a few trifling people's favour, which you canno respective quarters till between the hours of eleven possibly arrive at, if you have really any thing in and twelve. That they never tip the lion upon you that is deserving. What they would bring to man, woman, or child, till the clock at St. Dun- pass is, to make all good and evil consist in re
stan's shall have struck one.
HOR. Sat. iii. 1. ü. ver. 13. To shun detraction, wouldst thou virtue fly? 'MR. SPECTATOR,
port, and with whispers, calumnies, and imperti