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Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Era, 62.



kindleth-And the Tongue is a Fire kindling a Mass Jerusalem.
of Iniquity-So is the Tongue among our Members de-
filing our Bodies with its Iniquity; speaking ill of God
and Man; setting on Fire the Wheel or Frame of our
Nature; or the successive Generations of Man; being
itself set on Fire of Hell, by the infernal Spirit influenc-
ing the Heart-Every Nature of wild Beasts, their
Strength and Fierceness, the Swiftness of Birds, the Poi-
son of Serpents, the exceeding great Force of Sea Mon-
sters, is tamed, and hath been tamed by the Reason and
Ingenuity of Man; but the Tongue of Man can
Man tame-It is an unruly evil Thing; and like the
Tongue of a Serpent or Adder, it is full of deadly Ve-
nom (Psalm cxl. 3.)—It is applied to the most opposite
Purposes-With it we bless God, even the Father of us
all; and with it we curse Men, who are made after the
similitude of God-From the same Tongue, out of the
same Mouth, goeth both a Blessing and a Curse-Such
Inconsistency is not to be found in the natural World,
where it would be considered contradictory and unnatural.


1 My brethren, be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation.

2 For in many things we offend all. If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man, and able also to bridle the whole body.

3 Behold, we put bits in the horses' mouths, that they may obey us; and we turn about their whole body.

4 Behold also the ships, which though they be so great, and are driven of fierce winds, yet are they turned about with a very small helm, whithersoever the governor listeth.

5 Even so the tongue is a little member, and boasteth great things. Behold, how great a matter a little fire


6 And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell.

7 For every kind of beasts, and of birds, and of serpents, and of things in the sea, is tamed, and hath been tamed of mankind:

8 But the tongue can no man tame; it is an unruly evil, full of deadly poison.

9 Therewith bless we God, even the Father; and therewith curse we men, which are made after the similitude of God.

10 Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not so to be. .11 Doth a fountain send forth at the same place sweet water and bitter?

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12 Can the fig-tree, my brethren, bear olive-berries? Jerusalem. either a vine, figs? so can no fountain both yield salt water and fresh.

§ 7. JAMES iii. 13, to the end.

The Apostle exhorts the Jews, who were great_Pretenders
to knowledge, particularly those who were Teachers, to
give Proof of their Wisdom by a holy Life and Conver-
sation; in all their Actions shewing the Meekness and
Gentleness of true Religion-But if they taught either
the Law or the Gospel with bitter Zeal against their Op-
ponents, they should not boast of their religious Know-
ledge, for they lied against that Truth which they pre-
tended to teach-For this Wisdom originates in the Gra-
tification of the earthly Man and his sensual Passions,
and is the Wisdom of Devils; for where there is fiery
and intolerant Zeal and Animosity, there is Confusion
and Disorder, Irregularity, and every Unchristian Prac-
tice-But the Wisdom which Christ himself or the Spirit
brought down from above, is first pure from Sensuality
and Earthliness, gentle and peaceable (not contentious)
easy to be intreated to forgiveness-full of Compassion to
the Afflicted, abounding in the good Fruits of Holiness and
Righteousness, without Partiality in Judgment, and with-
out Dissimulation and Hypocrisy; for all the opposite
Vices of which the Jews had been reproved-And this ex-
cellent and heavenly Temper and Wisdom, the Fruit of the
Christian Religion, is sown, not in Strife and Contention,
but in Peace and Concord, by those who practise and
promote Peace among Mankind.

13 Who is a wise man and endued with knowledge
among you? let him shew out of a good conversation his
works with meekness of wisdom.

14 But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth.

15 This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish.

16 For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work.

17 But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.

18 And the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace of them that make peace.

$8. JAMES iv. 1-10.

The Apostle after having described the Effects of that Wis-
dom which is from above, insinuates that their furious Zeal
could not, as they asserted, proceed from the Spirit of God,

Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Æra,


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whose Fruit was Peace and Harmony, but from that Wisdom Jerusalem. which is from beneath-the Cause of all their Wars and Fightings proceeding from their own sensual Appetites and Passions, which war in their Members against their Knowledge and Conscience-They lust for Dominion over the Heathen, and freedom from Tribute, but their sensual Desires are not gratified-They kill the Heathen in their Zeal to destroy Idolatry, but they cannot obtain this Object of their earnest Desire-They fight and war for Dominion over them, yet their Attempts are unsuccessful, because they do not ask if it is the Will of God-And when they pray they do not receive the Things for which they petition, because they ask them for wicked Purposes, -They have broken their marriage Contract with God, for loving the World more than him—And know they not that the inordinate Love of the present World is open Enmity against God-Do they think that the Scripture falsely condemns such a worldly Temper (Rom. viii. 7.) that the Spirit of God, from which the true Wisdom proceeds, produces Envy, Covetousness, and Worldly-Mindedness? By no means; for his Spirit gives greater Degrees of Grace, imparting Humility and Love to Man, and Moderation as to earthly Things, according to the Words of Scripture (Prov. iii. 34. the LXX.)-They are called upon to submit to the Dispensations and the Will of God, to resist the great Enemy of their Salvation, the Author of their Wars and Strife-He will flee from them if they are holy in their Conduct-To draw nigh to God with pure, humble, and devout Affections.

1 From whence come wars and fightings among you? come they not hence, even of your lusts that war in your members?

2 Ye lust, and have not ye kill, and desire to have, and cannot obtain: ye fight and war, yet ye have not, because ye ask not.

3 Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts.

4 Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world, is the enemy of God.

5 Do ye think that the Scripture saith in vain, The
spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy?

6 But he giveth more grace: wherefore he saith, God
resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.
7 Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the
devil, and he will flee from you.

8 Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you.
M m


Julian Pe- Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts,
riod, 4775. double-minded.
Vulgar Era.



9 Be afflicted, and mourn, and weep: let your laugh-
ter be turned to mourning, and your joy to heaviness.
10 Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and
he shall lift you up.

$9. JAMES iv. 11, 12.

The Apostle cautions them against all detraction, more par-
ticularly the zealous Jewish Converts, against censuring
and speaking evil of those who differ with them in religi
ous Opinions, and who thought themselves released from
all Obligation to the Ceremonial Law; for those who con-
demn others for asserting their Christian Liberty, speak
in effect against the Christian Lan (Lev. xix. 16.; Ps.
xv. 3.; Matt. vii. 1.; Luke vi. 37).

11 Speak not evil one of another, brethren. He that
speaketh evil of his brother, and judgeth his brother,
speaketh evil of the law, and judgeth the law: but if
thou judge the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a

12 There is one Lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy who art thou that judgeth another?


$10. JAMES iv. 13, to the end.

The Apostle next reproves them for placing too much de-
pendance on all their worldly Schemes and Projects, and
on the Continuance of their Life without taking into con-
sideration its frailty and uncertainty; acting as if all
Events were at their disposal-The folly of such Con-
duct shewn from the evanescent and fleeting Nature of
human Life-He who knows his Duty, and does not per-
form it, to him his Sin is aggravated.

13 Go to now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we
will go into such a city, and continue there a year, and
buy and sell, and get gain:

14 Whereas ye know not what shall be on the mor-.
row: For what is your life? It is even a vapour, that
appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away.
15 For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we shall
live, and do this, or that.

16 But now ye rejoice in your boastings: all such re-
joicing is evil.

17 Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth it not, to him it is sin.

§ 11. JAMES v. 1-6.

The Apostle having reminded the Jews of the Uncertainty
of this Life, and of their precarious Success in worldly


Julian Period, 4775. Vulgar Æra, 62.



Pursuits, more particularly addresses himself to the Un- Jerusalem.
believing part of the Nation, who were extremely addicted
to covetousness, and to the amassing of Wealth, and re-
presents to them with the Spirit and Energy of a Pro-
phet, the dreadful Desolation and Calamities that were
coming upon them, and to shew the Folly of trusting in
these Things which they must so soon lose-When the
anful Judgments of God pronounced against their Na-
tion shall be poured out, they will be plundered of their
ill-gotten Wealth-The cry of the Labourers they have
defrauded (Deut. xxiv.; Lev. xix. 13.) has ascended
into Heaven, requiring Vengeance from the Deity-They
have lived in the full Indulgence of all their sensual Appe-
tites-They have pampered their Hearts as Beasts are
fed for a Day of Slaughter-They have condemned and
killed the Just One, and God has not as yet resisted them.

1 Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your
miseries that shall come upon you.

2 Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are moth-eaten.

3 Your gold and silver is cankered; and the rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days.

4 Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth.

5 Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter.

6 Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you.

§ 12. JAMES V. 7-12.

From the consideration that the unbelieving Jews had not as
yet received the Punishment which must necessarily follow
on their unparalleled Crimes, the Jewish Christians who
are persecuted by them, are exhorted, in imitation of their
blessed Master, to await with Patience the coming of the
Lord, who will execute Judgment on their Nation, and
provide the Means of their Deliverance-He desires them
not to groan or to pray for Vengeance against their
Persecutors, lest they also be condemned with them, for
Christ has alone the Power of judging, and is about to
execute it on the Disobedient-Further to encourage them
in Faith and Patience, St. James calls upon them to take
the Prophets who had spoken to their Fathers, by the

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