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be read with interest by all interested in the personality and scientific work of this brilliant Pole and renowned physicist. Mrs. Cunningham's sympathetic and informing little work has grown out of her lecture on Radium and its Discoverer.” As Lady Muir-Mackenzie very truly says in her foreword : Mrs. · Cunningham understands the art of telling a story, and the reader will be drawn on and on to finish at a sitting her animated account, warm with appreciation, of the famous woman, Polish by birth, French by marriage, of whom both nations are so proud. This little book is a worthy record of a woman who has caused a revolution in scientific thought and conferred rich benefits on humanity.

rent issue contains a number of important communications by well-known experts. The editor also continues his valuable “Index Catalogue of a Library on the Care and Education of Crippled Children,” giving references to official publications of foreign institutions. Dr. McMurtrie also provides “A Compilation of State Laws relating to Provision for Crippled Children." This valuable quarterly should be in the hands of all who are responsible for the organization and administration of measures making for the betterment of cripples.

The Sierra Educational News. - The official organ of the California Teachers' Association. Published monthly by the California Council of Education at Monadriock Buildings, San Francisco. Single numbers 20 cents. Annual subscription $2.00.

This is one of the numerous virile educational journals which are exercising. widespread influence throughout the States of America. The last number to reach us contains valuable signed educational articles bearing on America's participation in the Great War, together with numerous notes and records referring to educational progress on the other side of the Atlantic.

"Gold and Dross." By S. Horton. Pp. 280. London: J. Johnson, Holborn Hall, Clerkenwell Road, E.C. 1. 1917. Price 3s. 6d. net.

Mr. Horton is the author of many much appreciated stirring story-books, and as a delineator of Yorkshire character, with its quaint, humorous, and common-sense outlook on life, he has justly won distinction. The present volume will add to the author's reputation. The pictures of the Wentworth brothers and the records of their thoughts and ways and wise sayings are set forth with the skill of a real artist. The hero of the book, Joe Wentworth, is inimitable, and his generosity, egotism, shrewdness, and rollicking humour are portrayed in a way which will cheer discouraged and doubting souls, and bring laughter into many an anxious home circle. This is just the book to read in these sad war days. We commend the volume to the attention of all our readers. We trust Mr. Horton will give us another “ Wentworth" novel before long.


NOTES. “Renovation of the Home in War Time,” by Arthur Seymour Jennings, of 365, Birkbeck Bank Chambers, High Holborn, W.C.1, published by Messrs. Constable and Co., Ltd. (price is. net), is a thoroughly practical manual by an expert in decorating work. It is full of sensible suggestions, reliable hints and helps, instructions and directions regarding renovation of the home and decorating the house under war conditions. Those responsible for the upkeep of schools and other institutions will do well to study it.

“ Problems for the Married,” by the Rev. Bernard M. Hancock, St. James's Vicarage, 3, East Park Terrace, Southampton, is now in its second edition (price 3d.). It sets forth in temperate language the author's objections to SeoMalthusian doctrines and practices. The brochure is published by John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd.

American Journal of Care for Cripples The official organ of the Federations of Associations for Cripples and the Welfare Com mission for Cripples. Edited by Doug las C. McMurtrie. Published Quarterly at 2,929, Broadway, New York City. Annual Subscription $3.00.

This journal is devoting special attention to the care, vocational training and reconstruction of war cripples. The cur


Space for correspondence is necessarily limited. Communications containing suggestions, serviceable

information, criticism, and anything likely to be of general interest or value should be condensed into a short letter. Writers must in all cases give their name and address, although not necessarily for publication.


UNION. SIR,-We, the undersigned, respectfully ask your perusal of the enclosed memorandum on the subject of Gardening Centres. The Gardening Section and the full Executive Committee of the School Nature Study Union have given a great deal of time and attention to the question of providing more general and systematic instruction in what is one of the oldest and most natural arts. We believe that instruction in gardening fulfils in an almost unique way the ideals of combining the theoretical and the practical, of making full use of the pupils' natural activities, and of giving knowledge of fundamental value. We earnestly hope that you will give serious consideration to the recommendations of the memorandum.

W. G. SLEIGHT, Chairman.
A. J. Potts, Hon. Secretary,

Gardening Section.
H. E. TURNER, Hon. General

Secretary, School Nature

Study Union. 1, Grosvenor Park,

Camberwell, S.E.5.


periment and research. The discovery of scientific principles upon the application of which successful gardening depends is the result of ceaseless experiment, and this is frequently impossible in school gardens and allotments owing to lack of space. A central garden, by means of its demonstration and experimental plots and, in the course of its development, by means of a laboratory, would provide the facilities necessary for research in connection with the practical problems of gardening. (2) A more comprehensive training would be afforded than is at present possible, and would affect larger number of pupils from elementary, secondary, and continuation schools. (3) The spirit and ideal of co-operation would find new and fruitful opportunities for action. Frequently it languishes owing to the lack of a central organization. Central gardens would promote this : (a) By acting as centres for the distribution of seeds, manures, and plants from nursery beds and other sources, and also of nature specimens for science and drawing lessons. (b) By serving as centres for lectures and demonstrations, and for the distribution of literature. (c) By placing at the disposal of the pupils reference libraries of gardening books and a supply of current gardening literature. (4) The effect on the life of the citizen, and especially on that of the town dweller, would be far-reaching. Work in a well-ordered garden provides a counter-attraction to many so-called pleasures, especially those peculiar to the age of adolescence, by employing leisure time profitably. It affords also a means of improving the physical and mental capabilities of all concerned, and particularly of the many weakly children to whom gardening would prove distinctly beneficial. (5) The production of food would be increased and effective stimulus to further effort provided. Food-production is and will continue to be a matter


GARDENING CENTRES. The School Nature Study Union has had under consideration the question of gardening centres and is of opinion that, owing to the widespread interest now taken in gardening, the time has arrived when such centres can be profitably established. It is not desirable that they should in any way supplant the present or future gardening activities of any schools, but that centres for teaching, experiment, and research should supplement and co-ordinate such work. The functions of the proposed gardening centres may be briefly stated as follows : (1) They would serve as centres for ex


of vital importance to the nation. Hence as many of the older children as possible should have some training in gardening so that, on becoming adult citizens, they may be able to render to the community such service in an efficient Many schools, through lack of ground or through having no member of the staff sufficiently qualified, are unable to give such instruction. A central garden would supply this deficiency.

(6) The manual training and cookery centres would derive benefit from the establishment of gardening centres. The former would be provided with useful outlets for their work in the making of fences, tool sheds and garden implements, and the latter with material for the study of food values and for purposes of cookery.

The area of the ground would vary according to local conditions, but generally an acre would be a convenient size. This would allow each contributory school to possess its own plot of ten rods—the usual allotment size-and allow space for use by evening schools and for demonstration and experimental plots. And since the culture of fruit and flowers is an integral part of the art of gardening, the remaining area could be set aside for the purpose of instruction in these branches. The number of children under one instructor per plot should not exceed twenty. The age of the children should be from 12 upwards. The time devoted to this subject should be one school session per week as in the manual training. A room sufficiently large and convenient to be used as a classroom would be of great educational value, as the outdoor work could thus be more closely associated with instruction, note-taking, keeping of diaries, and with other activities carried on in the open air with difficulty. A toolshed would be indispensable. The need for keeping gardening tools clean and fit for use, of having a place for everything and everything in its place, is obvious. Under such conditions one set of tools would serve the needs of a number of schools.


The gardening centre as outlined is an educational centre, and as such should be under the control of an educationist. The instructor should be an experienced teacher, possessing a sound knowledge or both the theoretical and practical aspects of gardening, so that the mechanical operations should be based upon sound principles. Since the work of the gardening centre would continue throughout the year, a caretaker, preferably a gardener, living on or near the ground, would be necessary. Thus, during the period of the holidays, nothing would suffer from lack of attention. It would not be a difficult matter in country districts to obtain a suitable and easily accessible site. In towns the public parks, recreation grounds and gardens under the control of the local authority could be utilized for the purpose.

As at the present time these places are extensively occupied by allotments, gardening centres so situated would be extremely valuable. In many public grounds, too, there are, owing to war time conditions, disused glass-houses, sheds, and frames, of which use might be made without further delay or expense.

The School Nature Study Union ventures to bring forward the above suggestions in the hope that they may receive serious attention at the present moment. It feels confident that if they be adopted, the children will benefit physically and mentally, and that they will become capable, even as adolescents, of rendering to the nation vital and efficient service. Copies of this memorandum in leaflet form, together with full particulars regarding the aims and work of the School Nature Study Union, may be obtained on application to the Hon. General Secretary, at 1, Grosvenor Park, Camberwell, S.E.5.


Under this heading descriptions are given of preparations and appliances, new and old, likely to be

of service in the study and management of child life. Every care is taken to procure reliable notices based upon practical knowledge. In this way trustworthy information is available regarding the work of inventors and the products of manufacturers, which it is believed will afford valuable guidance to all engaged in the care of infants and the protection and education of children.


A FLOWER BOOK. Flowers are Nature's best teachers. Children instinctively turn to flowers as revealers of Divine Love. The tiniest little ones hear the call of the flowers and hasten to respond. And no child of man who keeps his soul open to the refreshing dews of Heaven but gives thanks for the lessons learnt amidst the flowers. Both science and art have combined to secure the establishment of school gardens for our delicate children. Some day we may become wise enough to place all our educational centres in gardens. Man began his existence in a garden, and every child should have his earliest impressions surrounded by trees and flowers. We have recently received a copy of a charming volume on flowers, which we particularly commend to parents and teachers and all true educationists who realize the incalculable value of flowers in the home and in the schoolroom, as well as in the fields and in the hedgerows, in the development of the artistic sense and the love of beauty in the soul of the child. The book is entitled “Everybody's Flower Book.” It has been written with rare grace and much practical knowledge by Mrs. F. M. Ramsay, and it is delightfully illustrated by a series of dainty reproductions of drawings by Mr. Martin Snape. The volume is published by Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co., Ltd., 4, Stationers' Hall Court, E.C.4. The volume is full of the true spirit of the artist who seeks to be a revealer of truths and an educator of souls. But it is a thoroughly practical little book, overflowing with sound sense, helpful suggestions, wise hints, and artistic tips regarding the selection, combination, arranging and preservation of flowers. Parents and teachers should make a point of entrusting the collection and care of flowers for room and table decoration to their chil

dren, and this informing manual indicates wise ways in which flowers may be employed in the beautifying of the home and the development of artistic powers. There is a splendid little chapter on the packing of flowers, and throughout the book there are brief admonitions which

the most experienced of flower artists will be wise to consider. It is good to know that faith and courage have permitted this venture in the putting forth of a peculiarly appealing volume even in these strenuous and sorrow-laden war days. Mrs. Ramsay and all who have co-operated in the preparation and publishing of this delightful flower book have accomplished a notable service. The price of the volume is 5s. net. LESSONS IN RHYTHMIC

MOVEMENT. The introduction of M. Jaques Dalcroze's system of eurhythmics has done much to stimulate an intelligent study and pursuit of artistic and scientifically directed rhythmic movements in the physical and intellectual development of children. Educationists interested in eurhythmics will do well to procure an interesting new work recently issued by the London School of Dalcroze Eurhythmics, 23, Store Street, W.C.1, of which Mr. Percy B. Ingham, B.A., is Director. The book is entitled “First Lesson in Rhythmic Movement," and it has been prepared by Miss Winifred E. Houghton. It is a suggested sequence of instruction in the Dalcroze Method for use in elementary schools, but the volume is sold only on the understanding that its use is to be confined to teachers who have had at least two terms' tuition from a certified teacher of the Dalcroze Method. The work seeks to outline a course which can be filled in and elaborated by the teacher. The volume is supplied with a musical appendix. We commend this

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highly suggestive publication to all desirous of furthering the serious study and practice of eurhythmics. The price of the work is 3s. net.

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It has been claimed that “Dancing is silent poetry," and be that as it may, properly directed dancing is now realized to be an invaluable educational and recreational influence. In the Playground Movement in America and in this country dancing has a prominent place. The revival of folk dances and other old forms of the dance have done much to bring back to educationists and all inter, ested in the advancement of the health and happiness of children, an understanding of the importance of encouraging and directing dancing along right lines. To those who in play centres and in connection with various forms of recreational work are seeking to render effective guidance we commend a work, a copy of which has just reached us from America. It is entitled "Polite and Social Dances : A Collection of Historic Dances, Spanish, Italian, French, English, German, American; with Historical Sketches, Descriptions of the Dances, and Instructions for their Performance." The volume has been compiled and edited by Mari Ruef Hofer, and is published by Clayton F. Summy Co., 64, E. Van Buren Street, Chicago. The work provides a concise historical sketch of the evolution of the chief forms of dancing, but the greater part of the volume is devoted to an admirable collection of the music for various forms of dance, together with instructive notes and directions. The price is $1.00.

the lowliness of the cradle? Why is it that the greatest of citizens was once a dependent babe ? Why is it so ordered that through all the ages there is a continuous renewal of life? So long as babies appear on the earth their coming is a token that God is not utterly discouraged with the children of men.

In recent years many serviceable works have been written by Americans dealing in original and unconventional ways with the problems of child life, and for all such we do well to give thanks. Whereever a child is to be found there will be limitless fields for observation and inexhaustible mines for valuable research. There is no completion to the study of child life. We can never reach final conclusions. Even if we cling to dogmas they must be submitted to constant revision. Ways and means for the better understanding of child life are ever undergoing evolution and elucidation, and the first essential for those who would see and serve is an understanding heart. We plead for the maintenance of an open mind, an unrestricted soul, a broad highway for advancement, a goal far distant and out of sight. And it is that this attitude may be justified and maintained in this conservative country that we welcome the coming of American influence into our midst. It is our present purpose to direct attention to a new four-volume work which has just reached us. It is entitled “Practical Child Training," and it has been prepared by Ray C. Beery, A.B. (Columbia), M.A. (Harvard), and is published by the Parents' Association, Inc., 449, Fourth Avenue, New York City. The author claims that the work is an attempt “ to show parents just how to develop certain desirable characteristics in their children." Vol. I deals with “ Obedience," and after setting forth the five fundamental principles on which obedience must be based, provides in full detail a course of practical lessons extending from birth to the age of twentyone years.

The volume is attractively illustrated by number of full-page plates. There is a particularly suggestive section on Corporal Punishment. Vol. II is composed of a collection of “Easy Lessons for Teaching Self-Control in the Home," and deals with such subjects as temper, obstinacy, fear, courage, worry,


America, the great land of liberty in thought and the home of men and women who have ever striven for freedom in human action, is teaching us many things essential for us to understand if effective reconstruction and readjustment are to be accomplished in the working ways of this discordant world. And foremost among indispensable measures for educational progress is a truer understanding of the nature and meaning of child life. Why is it that each generation starts in



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