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the few who remained faithful to the authority they had most imprudently set up. On the 16th, at seven o'clock in the evening, "the gates of the Tower upon a sudden were shut, and the keys carried up to the queen Jane." Her supposed friends were fast deserting her. Cecil was practising with the Lord Privy Seal to cause Windsor Castle to serve the queen Mary. He was opening himself to the lord Arundel. He purposed to have stolen down to the queen's highness. He was ready with what he calls "the pardonable lie." Arundel, who prayed God to speed Northumberland, desired Cecil and others to remove out of the Tower, for frank speech to be had in council, saying that he liked not the air; and thereupon they went to Baynard's Castle. So the lady Jane was left almost alone with her mock-royalty; and the keys of the Tower-gates were carried to her—a precaution against open force, but none against hidden treachery. Ridley was preaching in her favour at Paul's Cross on that day; but Arundel and Cecil were more effectually conspiring against her at Baynard's Castle.

Framlingham is about twenty miles from Kenninghall, from which house Mary wrote to the Council on the 9th. She determined to move to a place of strength, and was soon in comparative safety within the strong walls and deep moats of Framlingham. This castle of the Howards' had been forfeited to the crown upon the attainder of the duke of Norfolk, who, at this time, was still a prisoner in the Tower. Here Mary remained till the last day of July. She entered the gates of Framlingham after a hurried ride of secresy and fear. She went forth, surrounded with armed thousands, in the state of a queen. The termination of the march of Northumberland to the eastern counties is a pitiable exhibition of the unhonoured fall of inordinate ambition. He had retreated to Cambridge with his small army. Letters of discomfort had reached him. On the 19th, at night, he heard that Queen Mary had been proclaimed at London. "The next morning he called for a herald and proclaimed her himself." A letter of the period describes the proclamation of Mary in London :

"Great was the triumph here at London; for my part I never saw the like, and by the report of others the like was never seen. The number of caps that were thrown up at the proclamation were not to be told. The earl of Pembroke threw away his cap full of angelletes. I saw myself money was thrown out at windows for joy. The bonfires were without number, and what with shouting and crying of the people, and ringing of the bells, there could no one hear almost what another said, besides banquettings and singing in the street for joy. There was present at the proclamation the earl of Pembroke, the earl of Shrewsbury, the earl of Arundel, my lord warden, my lord mayor, sir John Mason, sir John Cheeke, and divers others; and after the proclamation made in Cheapside, they all went to Paul's to even-song. The duke of Suffolk being at the Tower, at the making of the proclamation, and, as some say, did not know of it, but so soon as he heard of it, he came himself out of the Tower, and commanded his men to leave their weapons behind them, saying that he himself was but one man, and himself proclaimed my lady Mary's grace queen on the Tower-hill, and so came into London, leaving the lieutenant in the Tower."

* See "A Brief Note of my Submission," the paper which he sent to Queen Mary; Tytler, vol. ii. p. 192.




Where was the lady Jane? Did she go with her father to some place of refuge? Did she return to her old retirement at Sion? Or did she remain within those walls to gaze upon ghastly sights, and shadow out her own fate? For a few weeks history drops her as a forgotten thing; and then takes her up again, "looking through the window" to see Northumberland going to the church within the Tower to perform one more act of dissimulation. His fate was very speedily sealed. The mayor of Cambridge arrested him after the proclamation, but upon his remonstrance let him go free. He stayed at Cambridge one night. Though his son Warwick was "booted," they did not carry out their purpose to ride in the morning.

"Then came the earl of Arundel, who had been with the queen, to the duke into his chamber; and when the duke knew thereof he came out to meet him; and as soon as ever he saw the earl of Arundel, he fell down on his knees and desired him to be good to him, for the love of God. 'And consider (saith he), I have done nothing but by the consent of you and all the whole council.' 'My lord (quoth he), I am sent hither by the queen's majesty, and in her name I do arrest you.' 'And I obey it my lord (quoth he), and I beseech you my lord of Arundel (quoth the duke), use mercy towards me, knowing the case as it is.' My lord (quoth the earl), ye should have sought for mercy sooner; I must do according to my commandment.' And therewith he committed the charge of him to divers of the guard and gentlemen that stood by."

Queen Mary arrived triumphantly in London, at the head of a great band of friends, on the 3rd of August. Her sister Elizabeth had joined her on her progress, having most wisely determined, from the first, to make common cause against those who sought to set aside their inheritance under the Act of Succession. The queen went to the Tower, where the aged duke of Norfolk, the bishop of Winchester, and the dowager-duchess of Somerset welcomed her to the place of their captivity. Mary raised them from their knees, with the words "These are all my own prisoners;" and they were immediately set free. The prison had soon many new tenants. The duke of Northumberland and his son the earl of Warwick, the earl of Northampton, sir Andrew Dudley, sir John Gates, sir Henry Gates, and sir Thomas Palmer were tried and convicted of high-treason on the 18th and 19th of August. On the 22nd, Northumberland, sir John Gates, and sir Thomas Palmer were executed. An extraordinary scene took place on the 21st, which is thus related by the Resident in the Tower: "Note, on Monday the xxist of August, it was appointed the duke with others should have suffered, and all the guard were at the Tower; but howsoever it chanced he did not; but he desired to hear mass and to receive the sacrament according to the old accustomed manner. So about ix of the clock the altar in the chapel was arranged, and each thing prepared for the purpose; then Mr. Gage went and fetched the duke; and sir John Abridges and Mr. John Abridges did fetch the marquis of Northampton, sir Andrew Dudley, sir Henry Gates, and sir Thomas Palmer to mass, which was said both with elevation over the head, the peace-giving, blessing, and crossing on the crown, breathing, turning about, and all the other rites and incidents of old time appertaining. And when the time came the prisoners should receive the sacrament, the duke turned himself to the people and said first these words, or such like, 'My masters, I let you




all to understand that I do most faithfully believe this is the very right and true way, out of the which true religion you and I have been seduced these xvi years past, by the false and erroneous preaching of the new preachers, the which is the only cause of the great plague and vengeance which hath light upon the whole realm of England, and now likewise worthily fallen upon me and others here present for our unfaithfulness. And I do believe the holy sacrament here most assuredly to be our Saviour and Redeemer, Jesus Christ; and this I pray you all to testify, and pray for me.' After which words he kneeled down and asked all men forgiveness, and likewise forgave all men. Amongst others standing by, were the duke of Somerset's sons. Then all the rest confessed the declaration aforesaid, and so received the sacrament most humbly. Note, that a little before mass was begun, there was sent for into London for divers of the best commoners and commoncouncil of the city to come and hear the conversion of the duke, amongst whom one Hartop, a goldsmith, and one Baskerfield were there. The lady Jane looking through the window saw the duke and the rest going to the church."

A week after the execution of Northumberland we find, in the curious diary from which we have quoted several passages, the following picture of lady Jane Grey in her prison. Her father had been set free, and she herself had some liberty within the Tower precincts. The conversation here recorded not only illustrates her character, but shows what was her own feeling of the attempt at usurpation of which she had been made the unwilling instrument:* "Note, that on Tuesday, the xxixth of August, I dined at Partridge's house with my lady Jane, being there present, she sitting at the board's end, Partridge, his wife, Jacob, my lady's gentleman, and her man. She commanding Partridge and me to put on our caps, amongst our communication at the dinner, this was to be noted: after she had once or twice drunk to me and bade me heartily welcome, saith she, 'The queen's majesty is a merciful princess; I beseech God she may long continue, and send his bountiful grace upon her.' After that we fell in [discourse of] matters of religion; and she asked what he was that preached at Paul's on Sunday before; and so 'it was told to be one [blank in MS.] 'I pray you,' quoth she, 'have they mass in London ?' 'Yea, forsooth,' quoth I, in some places.' 'It may be so,' quoth she, it is not so strange as the sudden conversion of the late duke; for who would have thought,' said she, 'he would have so done?' It was answered her, 'Perchance he thereby hoped to have had his pardon.' 'Pardon?' quoth she; 'woe worth him! he hath brought me and our stock in most miserable calamity and misery by his exceeding ambition. But for the answering that he hoped for life by his turning, though other men be of that opinion, I utterly am not; for what man is there living, I pray you, although he had been innocent, that would hope of life in that case; being in the field against the queen in person as general, and after his taking so hated and evil-spoken of by the commons? and at his coming into prison so wondered at, as the like was never heard by any man's time. Who was judge that he should hope for pardon, whose life was odious to all men? But what will ye more? like as

This extract was printed by Sir Simonds d'Ewes; but, as the editor of the "Chronicle of Queen Jane" remarks, has been unknown to her biographers. Who the writer of the Diary was, is not ascertained; nor what office Master Partridge held.




his life was wicked and full of dissimulation, so was his end thereafter. I pray God, I nor no friends of mine die so. Should I, who [am] young and in my few years, forsake my faith for the love of life? Nay, God forbid! Much more he should not, whose fatal course, although he had lived his just number of years, could not have long continued. But life was sweet, it appeared: so he might have lived, you will say, he did [not] care how. Indeed the reason is good; for he that would have lived in chains to have had his life, by like would leave no other mean attempted. But God be merciful to us, for he sayeth, Whoso denieth him before men, he will not know him in his Father's kingdom.' With this and much like talk the dinner passed away; which ended, I thanked her ladyship that she would vouchsafe accept me in her company; and she thanked me likewise, and said I was welcome. She thanked Partridge also for bringing me to dinner. 'Madam,' said he, we were somewhat bold, not knowing that your ladyship dined below until we found your ladyship there.' And so Partridge and I departed."

THE enthusiasm with which the bloodless revolution in favour of queen Mary was hailed by the people, has been considered as a proof that the majority were Roman Catholic, and would gladly lay aside all the doctrine and discipline of the Church which had been so completely settled in the reign of Edward. We are inclined to receive this notion with considerable doubt. Another theory was set forth in the bitter satire of the Venetian ambassador, Micheli, that the English "would be full as zealous followers of the Mahometan or Jewish religion did the king profess either of them, or commanded his subjects to do so; that, in short, they will accommodate themselves to any religious persuasion, but most readily to one that promises to minister to licentiousness and profit." At the accession of Mary the English were neither wholly devoted to Catholicism, nor indifferent to all religion. They accepted Mary with joy because, without entering into the subtleties of the divorce question of her mother, they knew that she was the direct heir to the crown, and that the attempt to set her aside was the unjust act of a few ambitious and unscrupulous men. There were many decided Protestants amongst her first adherents. They could not doubt that she would firmly cleave to the Mass and to the ceremonies of the Church, as in the time of her father; but they could not assume that she would venture to force the papal domination again upon England, or think it possible to take away the Bible from the people which her father had consented to give them. Mary herself saw the necessity of proceeding with great caution. The news of her accession was received in Rome with exultation; and the pope resolved to send cardinal Pole as legate to England. That measure was determined in a consistory as early as the 5th of August. But Pole was too discreet to risk such a demonstration before the temper of the people had been farther tried. Mary herself received a secret agent of Rome, Francis Commendone; and to him she professed her attachment to the Romish Church, and her desire to

*Ellis, Second Series, vol. ii.




bring back its worship. But she implored him to be cautious; for much was still unsettled. Mary, however, sent letters to the pope by this agent, which were so acceptable to Julius III., that he wept for joy, that his pontificate should be honoured by the restoration of England to its ancient obedience.

The coronation of Mary took place on the 1st of October. The old chroniclers, who are abundantly diffuse in their relations of these pageants, describe her appearance as she passed on the previous day, in procession from Westminster to the Tower, sitting in a chariot of tissue, drawn by six horses. "She sate in a gown of blue velvet, furred with powdered ermine, hanging on her head a cloth of tinsel beset with pearl and stone, and about the same upon her head a round circlet of gold, much like a hooped garland, beset so richly with many precious stones that their value was inestimable; the said caul and circle being so massy and ponderous that she was fain to bear up her head with her hands." The person of this queen and her qualities were described, four years later, by the Venetian ambassador: "She is of short stature, well made, thin and delicate, and moderately pretty; her eyes are so lively, that she inspires reverence and respect, and even fear, wherever she turns them; nevertheless she is very short sighted. Her voice is deep, almost like that of a man. She understands five languages, English, Latin, French, Spanish, and Italian, in which last, however, she does not venture to converse. She is also much skilled in ladies' work,such as producing all sorts of embroidery with the needle. She has a knowledge of music, chiefly on the lute, on which she plays exceedingly well. As to the qualities of her mind, it may be said of her that she is rash, disdainful, and parsimonious rather than liberal. She is endowed with great humility and patience, but withal high spirited, courageous, and resolute; having during the whole course of her adversity been guiltless of any the least approach to meanness of comportment; she is, moreover, devout and staunch in the defence of her religion. Some personal infirmities under which she labours are the causes to her of both public and private affliction; to remedy these recourse is had to frequent blood-letting, and this is the real cause of her paleness, and the general weakness of her frame." In this coronation procession there was a remarkable memento of the past, in the presence of Anne of Cleves, who rode in a chariot with the princess Elizabeth.

The first parliament of Mary met on the 5th of October, Gardiner being lord chancellor. The first session was a very short one, and the only public Act was that for repealing certain treasons and felonies, and all offences within the case of premunire. The object of this Act was to sweep away the penalties for denying the king's supremacy, and especially to relieve cardinal Pole from his dangers under the laws of Henry VIII. The people might dimly see from this measure how the course of the government was tending; if they could have doubted of it, after Latimer had been committed to the Tower on the 13th of November, and Cranmer on the 14th, and when the deprived bishops were restored to their sees. The second parliamentary session commenced on the 24th of October. The anti-reformers now went more boldly to work. "An Act concerning the queen's highness to have been born in a most just and lawful matrimony, and also repealing all Acts of parliament and sentences of divorce had and made to the contrary," might be soothing to the feelings of the queen; but the

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