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ness and 'dying falls' (as Shakspeare calls them,) but should still remember that he ought to accommodate himself to an English audience: and by humouring the tone of our voices in ordinary conversation, have the same regard to the accent of his own language, as those persons had to theirs whom he professes to imitate. It is observed, that several of the singing birds of our own country learn to sweeten their voices, and mellow the harshness of their natural notes, by practising under those that come from warmer climates. In the same manner, I would allow the Italian opera to lend our English music as much as may grace and soften it, but never entirely to annihilate and destroy it. Let the infusion be as strong as you please, but still let the subject-matter of it be English.

A composer should fit his music to the genius of the people, and consider that the delicacy of hearing, and taste of harmony, has been formed upon those sounds which every country abounds with. In short, that music is of a relative nature, and what is harmony to one ear, may be dissonance to another.

and Alpheus, instead of having his head covered with sedge and bull-rushes, making love in a full-bottomed periwig and a plume of feathers; but with a voice so full of shakes and quavers, that I should have thought the murmurs of a country brook the much more agreeable music.

I remember the last opera I saw in that merry nation was the Rape of Proserpine, where Pluto, to make the more tempting figure, puts himself in a French equipage, and brings Ascalaphus along with him as his valet de chambre. This is what we call folly and impertinence: but what the French look upon as gay and polite.

I shall add no more to what I have here offered, than that music, architecture, and painting, as well as poetry and oratory, are to deduce their laws and rules from the general sense and taste of mankind, and not from the principles of those arts themselves; or, in other words, the taste is not to conform to the art, but the art to the taste. Music is not designed to please only chromatic ears, but all that is capable of distinguishing harsh from disagreeable notes. A man of an ordinary ear is a judge whether a passion is expressed in proper sounds, and whether the melody of those sounds be more or less pleasing. C.

The same observation which I have made upon the recitative part of music may be applied to all our songs and airs in general. Signior Baptist Lully acted like a man of sense in this particular. He found the French music extremely defective, and No. 30.] Wednesday, April 4, 1711. very often barbarous. However, knowing the genius of the people, the humour of their language, and the prejudiced ears he had to deal with, he did not pretend to extirpate the French music, and plant the Italian in its stead; but only to cultivate and civilize it with innumerable graces and modulations which he borrowed from the Italians. By this means the French music is now perfect in its kind; and when you say it is not so good as the Italian, you only mean that it does not please you so well; for there is scarce a Frenchman who would not wonder to hear you give the Italian such a preference, The music of the French is indeed very properly adapted to their pronunciation and accent, as their whole opera wonderfully favours the genius of such a gay airy people. The chorus in which that opera abounds, gives the parterre frequent opportunities of joining in concert with the stage. This inclination of the audience to sing along with the actors, so prevails with them, that I have sometimes known the performer on the stage to do no more in a celebrated song, than the clerk of a parish to his discourse, but at once, as he is seatchurch, who serves only to raise the psalm, ing himself in his chair, speaks in the and is afterwards drowned in the music of thread of his own thoughts, She gave me the congregation. Every actor that comes a very obliging glance, she never looked so on the stage is a beau. The queens and well in her life as this evening;' or the like heroines are so painted, that they appear as reflection without regard to any other ruddy and cherry-cheeked as milk-maids. member of the society; for in this assembly The shepherds are all embroidered, and they do not meet to talk to each other; but acquit themselves in a ball better than our every man claims the full liberty of talking English dancing-masters. I have seen a to himself. Instead of snuff-boxes and couple of rivers appear in red stockings; canes, which are the usual helps to dis

Si Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore jocisque Nil est jucundum; vivas in amore jocisque. Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. vi. 65. If nothing, as Mimnermus strives to prove, Can e'er be pleasant without mirth and love, Then live in mirth and love, thy sports pursue. Creech. ONE common calamity makes men extremely affect each other, though they differ in every other particular. The passion of love is the most general concern among men; and I am glad to hear by my last advices from Oxford, that there are a set of sighers in that university, who have erected themselves into a society in honour of that tender passion. These gentlemen are of that sort of inamoratos, who are not so very much lost to common sense, but that they understand the folly they are guilty of; and for that reason separate themselves from all other company, because they will enjoy the pleasure of talking incoherently, without being ridiculous to any but each other. When a man comes into the club, he is not obliged to make any introduction

course with other young fellows, these have each some piece of riband, a broken fan, or an old girdle, which they play with while they talk of the fair person remembered by each respective token. According to the representation of the matter from my letters, the company appear like so many players rehearsing behind the scenes; one is sighing and lamenting his destiny in beseeching terms, another declaiming he will break his chain, and another, in dumb-show, striving to express his passion by his gesture. It is very ordinary in the assembly for one of a sudden to rise and make a discourse concerning his passion in general, and describe the temper of his mind in such a manner, as that the whole company shall join in the description, and feel the force of it. In this case, if any man has declared the violence of his flame in more pathetic terms, he is made president for that night, out of respect to his superior passion.

runs counter to that of the place wherein
we live: for in love there are no doctors,
and we all profess so high a passion, that
we admit of no graduates in it. Our pre-
sidentship is bestowed according to the
dignity of the passion; our number is un-
limited; and our statutes are like those of
the Druids, recorded in our own breasts
only, and explained by the majority of the
company. A mistress, and a poem in her
praise, will introduce any candidate. With-
out the latter no one can be admitted; for
he that is not in love enough to rhyme, is
unqualified for our society. To speak dis-
respectfully of any woman is expulsion
from our gentle society. As we are at pre-
sent all of us gown-men, instead of duel-
ling when we are rivals, we drink together
the health of our mistress. The manner
of doing this sometimes indeed creates de-
bates; on such occasions we have recourse
to the rules of love among the ancients.
"Nævia sex cyathis, septem Justina bibatur."
Mart. Epig. i. 72.
"Six cups to Nævia, to Justina seven."
her name, occasioned the other night a dis-
This method of a glass to every letter of
who is in love with Mrs. Elizabeth Dim-
pute of some warmth. A young student
ple, was so unreasonable as to begin her
health under the name of Elizabetha;
which so exasperated the club, that by
We look upon a man as no company that
common consent we retrenched it to Betty.
does not sigh five times in a quarter of an
hour; and look upon a member as very ab-
surd, that is so much himself as to make a
direct answer to a question. In fine, the
whole assembly is made up of absent men,
that is, of such persons as have lost their
locality, and whose minds and bodies never
keep company with one another. As I am
an unfortunate member of this distracted
society, you cannot expect a very regular
account of it; for which reason I hope you
will pardon me that I so abruptly subscribe
myself, Sir, your most obedient humble


T. L. 'I forgot to tell you, that Albina, who has six votaries in this club, is one of your R. readers.'

We had some years ago in this town a set of people who met and dressed like lovers, and were distinguished by the name of the Fringe-glove club; but they were persons of such moderate intellects, even before they were impaired by their passion, that their irregularities could not furnish sufficient variety of folly to afford daily new impertinences; by which means that institution dropped. These fellows could express their passion in nothing but their dress; but the Oxonians are fantastical now they are lovers, in proportion to their learning and understanding before they became such. The thoughts of the ancient poets on this agreeable frenzy are translated in honour of some modern beauty; and Chloris is won to-day by the same compliment that was made to Lesbia a thousand years ago. But as far as I can learn, the patron of the club is the renowned Don Quixote. The adventures of that gentle knight are frequently mentioned in the society under the colour of laughing at the passion and themselves: but at the same time, though they are sensible of the extravagancies of that unhappy warrior, they do not observe, that to turn all the reading of the best and wisest writings into rhapsodies of love, is a frenzy no less diverting than that of the aforesaid accomplished Spaniard. A gentleman who, I No. 31.] Thursday, April 5, 1711. hope, will continue his correspondence, is lately admitted into the fraternity, and sent me the following letter:

Sit mihi fas audita loqui

Virg. En. vi. 266. What I have heard, permit me to relate.

LAST night, upon my going into a coffechouse not far from the Haymarket theatre, I diverted myself for above half an hour with overhearing the discourse of one, who, by the shabbiness of his dress, the extravagance of his conceptions, and the hurry of his speech, I discovered to be of that species who are generally distinguished by the title of Projectors. This gentleman, for I found he was treated as such by his audience, was entertaining a whole table


SIR---Since I find you take notice of clubs, I beg leave to give you an account of one in Oxford, which you have no where mentioned, and perhaps never heard of. We distinguish ourselves by the title of the Amorous Club, are all votaries of Cupid, and admirers of the fair sex. The reason that we are so little known in the world, is the secrecy which we are obliged to live under in the university. Our constitution

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of listeners with the project of an opera, which he told us had not cost him above two or three mornings in the contrivance, and which he was ready to put in execution, provided he might find his account in it. He said that he had observed the great trouble and inconvenience which ladies were at, in travelling up and down to the several shows that are exhibited in different quarters of the town. The dancing monkeys are in one place; the puppetshow in another; the opera in a third; not to mention the lions, that are almost a whole day's journey from the politer part of the town. By this means people of figure are forced to lose half the winter, after their coming to town, before they have seen all the strange sights about it. In order to remedy this great inconvenience, our projector drew out of his pocket the scheme of an opera, entitled 'The Expedition of Alexander the Great;' in which he had disposed all the remarkable shows about town, among the scenes and decorations of his piece. The thought, he confessed, was not originally his own, but that he had taken the hint of it from several performances which he had seen upon our stage: in one of which there was a rareeshow; in another a ladder-dance; and in others a posture-man, a moving picture, with many curiosities of the like nature.

This project was received with very great applause by the whole table. Upon which the undertaker told us, that he had not yet communicated to us above half his design; for that Alexander being a Greek, it was his intention that the whole opera should be acted in that language, which was a tongue he was sure would wonderfully please the ladies, especially when it was a little raised and rounded by the Ionic dialect; and could not but be acceptable to the whole audience, because there are fewer of them who understand Greek than Italian. The only difficulty that remained was how to get performers, unless we could persuade some gentlemen of the uni

This Expedition of Alexander opens with his consulting the oracle at Delphos, in which the dumb conjuror, who has been visited by so many persons of quality of late years, is to be introduced as telling his fortune. At the same time Clinch of Barnet is represented in another corner of the temple, as ringing the bells of Delphos, for joy of his arrival. The tent of Darius is to be peopled by the ingenious Mrs. Salmon, where Alexander is to fall in love with a piece of wax-work that represents the beautiful Statira. When Alexander comes into that country, in which Quintus Cur-versities to learn to sing, in order to qualify tius tells us the dogs were so exceeding themselves for the stage; but this objection fierce, that they would not loose their soon vanished, when the projector informhold, though they were cut to pieces limbed us that the Greeks were at present the by limb, and that they would hang upon only musicians in the Turkish empire, and their prey by their teeth when they had that it would be very easy for our factory nothing but a mouth left, there is to be a at Smyrna to furnish us every year with a scene of Hockley-in-the-Hole, in which is colony of musicians, by the opportunity of to be represented all the diversions of the Turkey fleet; besides, says he, if we that place, the bull-baiting only excepted, want any single voice for any lower part in which cannot possibly be exhibited in the the opera, Lawrence can learn to speak theatre, by reason of the lowness of the Greek, as well as he does Italian, in a fortroof. The several woods in Asia, which night's time. Alexander must be supposed to pass through, will give the audience a sight of monkeys dancing upon ropes, with many other pleasantries of that ludicrous species. At the same time, if there chance to be any strange animals in town, whether birds or beasts, they may be either let loose among the woods, or driven across the stage by some of the country people of Asia. In the last great battle, Pinkethman is to personate King Porus upon an

elephant, and is to be encountered by Powell, representing Alexander the Great, upon a dromedary, which nevertheless Mr. Powell is desired to call by the name of Bucephalus. Upon the close of this great decisive battle, when the two kings are thoroughly reconciled, to show the mutual friendship and good correspondence that reigns between them, they both of them go together to a puppet-show, in which the ingenious Mr. Powell, junior, may have an opportunity of displaying his whole art of machinery, for the diversion of the two monarchs. Some at the table urged, that a puppet-show was not a suitable entertainment for Alexander the Great; and that it might be introduced more properly, if we suppose the conqueror touched upon that part of India which is said to be inhabited by the pygmies. But this objection was looked upon as frivolous, and the proposal immediately overruled. Our projector further added, that after the reconciliation of these two kings, they might invite one another to dinner, and either of them entertain his guest with the German artist, Mr. Pinkethman's heathen gods, or any of the like diversions, which shall then chance to be in vogue.

The projector having thus settled matters to the good-liking of all that heard him, he left his seat at the table, and planted himself before the fire, where I had unluckily taken my stand for the convenience of overhearing what he said. Whether he had observed me to be more attentive than ordinary, I cannot tell, but he had not stood by me above a quarter of a minute, but he turned short upon me on a sudden, and catching me by a button of

world his sincere desire to be a member, with a recommendatory description of his phiz; and though our constitution has made no particular provision for short faces, yet his being an extraordinary case, I believe we shall find a hole for him to creep in at; for I assure you he is not against the canon; and if his sides are as compact as his joles, he need not disguise himself to make one of us." I presently called for the paper, to see how you looked in print; and after we had regaled ourselves awhile upon the pleasant image of our proselyte, Mr. President told me I should be his stranger at the next night's club; where we were no sooner come, and pipes brought, but Mr. President began a harangue upon your introduction to my epistle, setting forth with no less volubility of speech, than strength of reason, "That a speculation of this nature was what had been long and much wanted; and that he doubted not but it would be of inestimable value to the public, in reconciling even of bodies and souls; in composing and quieting the minds of men under all corporal redundancies, deficiencies, and irregularities whatsoever; and making every one sit down content in his own carcass, though it were not perhaps so mathematically put together as he could wish." And again, "How that for want of a due consideration of what you first advance, viz. That our faces are not of our own choosing, people had been transported beyond all good breeding, and hurried themselves into unaccountable and fatal extravagancies; as how many impartial looking-glasses had been censured and calumniated, nay, and sometimes shivered into ten thousand splinters, only for a fair representation of the truth? How many head-strings and garters had been made accessary, and actually forfeited, only because folks must needs quarrel with their own shadows? And who," continues he, "but is deeply sensible, that one great source of the uneasiness and misery of human life, especially amongst those of distinction, arises from nothing in

THE late discourse concerning the statutes of the Ugly club, having been so well received at Oxford, that contrary to the strict rules of the society, they have been so partial as to take my own testimonial, and admit me into that select body; I could not restrain the vanity of publishing to the world the honour which is done me. It is no small satisfaction that I have given occasion for the President's showing both his invention and reading to such advantage as my correspondent reports he did: but it is not to be doubted there were many very proper hums and pauses in his harangue, which lose their ugliness in the narration, the world else, but too severe a contemplaand which my correspondent (begging his tion of an indefeasible contexture of our expardon) has no very good talent at repre-ternal parts, or certain natural and invincisenting. I very much approve of the con-ble dispositions to be fat or lean? when a tempt the society has of beauty. Nothing little more of Mr. Spectator's philosophy ought to be laudable in a man, in which his would take off all this. In the mean time will is not concerned; therefore our society let them observe, that there is not one of can follow nature, and where she has their grievances of this sort, but perhaps, thought fit, as it were, to mock herself, we in some ages of the world, has been highly can do so too, and be merry upon the oc- in vogue, and may be so again; nay, in some country or other, ten to one, is so at this day. My Lady Ample is the most miserable woman in the world, purely of her own making. She even grudges herself meat and drink, for fear she should thrive by them; and is constantly crying out, "In a quarter of a year more I shall be quite out of all manner of shape!" Now the lady's misfortune seems to be only this, that she is planted in a wrong soil; for go but to the other side of the water, it is a jest at Haer


my coat, attacked me very abruptly after the following manner. 'Besides, Sir, I have heard of a very extraordinary genius for music that lives in Switzerland, who has so strong a spring in his fingers, that he can make the board of an organ sound like a drum, and if I could but procure a subscription of about ten thousand pounds every winter, I would undertake to fetch him over, and oblige him by articles to set every thing that should be sung upon the English stage.' After this he looked full in my face, expecting I would make an answer, when, by good luck, a gentleman that had entered the coffee-house since the projector applied himself to me, hearing him talk of his Swiss compositions, cried out in a kind of laugh, 'Is our music then to receive further improvements from Switzerland!' This alarmed the projector, who immediately let go my button, and turned about to answer him. I took the opportunity of the diversion which seemed to be made in favour of me, and laying down my penny upon the bar, retired with some precipitaC.


Friday, April 6, 1711.

No. 32.]
Nil illi larva aut tragicis opus esse cothurnis.
Hor. Lib. 1. Sat. v. 64.
He wants no tragic vizor to increase
His natural deformity of face.

'MR. SPECTATOR,-Your making public the late trouble I gave you, you will find to have been the occasion of this. Who should I meet at the coffee-house door the other night, but my old friend Mr. President! I saw somewhat had pleased him; and as soon as he had cast his eye upon me, "Oho, doctor, rare news from London," says he; "the Spectator has made honourable mention of the club (man,) and published to the

lem to talk of a shape under eighteen stone.
These wise traders regulate their beauties
as they do their butter, by the pound; and
Miss Cross, when she first arrived in the
Low Countries, was not computed to be so
handsome as Madam Van Brisket by near
half a ton. On the other hand, there is
Squire Lath, a proper gentleman of fifteen
hundred pounds per annum, as well as of
an unblamable life and conversation; yet
would I not be the squire for half his estate;
for if it was as much more, he would freely
part with it all for a pair of legs to his
mind. Whereas in the reign of our first
Edward, of glorious memory, nothing more
modish than a brace of your fine taper sup-
porters; and his majesty, without an inch
of calf, managed affairs in peace or war as
laudably as the bravest and most politic of
his ancestors; and was as terrible to his
neighbours under the royal name of Long-
shanks, as Cœur de Lion to the Saracens
before him. If we look further back into
history, we shall find that Alexander the
Great wore his head a little over the
left shoulder, and then not a soul stirred
out till he had adjusted his neck-bone; the
whole nobility addressed the prince and
each other obliquely, and all matters of im-
portance were concerted and carried on in
the Macedonian court, with their polls on
one side. For about the first century, no-
thing made more noise in the world than
Roman noses, and then not a word of them
till they revived again in eighty-eight.
Nor is it so very long since Richard the
Third set up half the backs of the nation;
and high shoulders, as well as high noses,
were the top of the fashion. But to come
to ourselves, gentlemen, though I find by
my quinquennial observations, that we shall
never get ladies enough to make a party in No. 33.]
our own country, yet might we meet with
better success among some of our allies.
And what think you if our board sat for a
Dutch piece? Truly I am of opinion, that
as odd as we appear in flesh and blood, we
should be no such strange things in mezzo-
tinto. But this project may rest till our
number is complete; and this being our
election night, give me leave to propose
Mr. Spectator. You see his inclinations,
and perhaps we may not have his fellow."

I found most of them (as is usual in all such cases) were prepared; but one of the seniors (whom by the by Mr. President had taken all this pains to bring over) sat still, and cocking his chin, which seemed only to be levelled at his nose, very gravely declared, "That in case he had had sufficient knowledge of you, no man should have been more willing to have served you; but that he, for his part, had always had regard to his own conscience, as well as other people's merit; and he did not know but that you might be a handsome fellow; for as for

your own certificate, it was every body's business to speak for themselves." Mr. President immediately retorted, "A handsome fellow! why he is a wit, Sir, and you know the proverb:" and to ease the old gentleman of his scruples, cried, "That for matter of merit it was all one, you might wear a mask." This threw him into a pause, and he looked desirous of three days to consider on it; but Mr. President improved the thought, and followed him up with an old story, "That wits were privileged to wear what masks they pleased in all ages; and that a vizard had been the constant crown of their labours, which was generally presented them by the hand of some satyr, and sometimes of Apollo himself:" for the truth of which he appealed to the frontispiece of several books, and particularly to the English Juvenal, to which he referred him; and only added, "That such authors were the Larvati, or Larva donati of the ancients." This cleared up all, and in the conclusion you were chose probationer; and Mr. President put round your health as such, protesting, "That though indeed he talked of a vizard, he did not believe all the while you had any more occasion for it than the cat-a-mountain;" so that all you have to do now is to pay your fees, which are here very reasonable, if you are not imposed upon; and you may style yourself Informis Societatis Socius; which I am desired to acquaint you with; and upon the same I beg you to accept of the congratulation of, Sir,

Your obliged humble servant, 'Oxford, March 21.' 'A. C.'


*Dryden in his plates to his translation of Virgil, caused Eneas to be represented with a Roman nose, in

compliment to King William III

Saturday, April 7, 1711.

Fervidus tecum puer, et solutis
Gratiæ zonis, properentque nymphæ
Et parum comis sine te juventas,

Hor. Lib. 1. Od. xxx. 5.
The graces with their zones unloos'd;
The nymphs their beauties all expos'd;

From every spring, and every plain;
Thy pow'rful, hot, and winged boy;
And youth, that's dull without thy joy;
And Mercury compose thy train.


A FRIEND of mine has two daughters, whom I will call Lætitia and Daphne; the former is one of the greatest beauties of the age in which she lives, the latter no way remarkable for any charms in her person. Upon this one circumstance of their outward form, the good and ill of their life seems to turn. Lætitia has not, from her very childhood, heard any thing else but commendations of her features and complexion, by which means she is no other than nature made her, a very beautiful outside. The consciousness of her charms has rendered her insupportably vain and insolent towards all who have to do with her. Daphne, who was almost twenty before one civil thing had been said to her, found herself obliged to acquire some accomplish

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