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from his having made so very little matter, at least gentle degrees ascend upward from us towards his g creatures Tea what falls within our knowledge, that does not infinite perfection, as we see they gradually deered with the swarm with life. Nor is his goodness less seen in scend from us downward: which if it be probable, the diversity than in the multitude of living crea- we have reason then to be persuaded that there tures. Had he only made one species of animals, are far more species of creatures above us than none of the rest would have enjoyed the happiness there are beneath; we being in degrees of perd with sof existence; he has, therefore, specified in his fection much more remote from the infinite being creation every degree of life, every capacity of of God, than we are from the lowest state of bebeing. The whole chasm of nature, from a plant ing, and that which approaches nearest to nothing. to a man, is filled up with diverse kinds of crea- And yet of all those distinct species we have no tures, rising one over another, by such a gentle clear distinct ideas,'

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and easy ascent, that the little transitions and de- In this system of being, there is no creature so viations from one species to another are almost in-wonderful in its nature, and which so much desensible. This intermediate space is so well hus- serves our particular attention, as man, who fills banded and managed, that there is scarce a degree up the middle space between the animal and intelof perception which does not appear in some one lectual nature, the visible and invisible world, and part of the world of life. Is the goodness or wis-is that link in the chain of beings which has been dom of the Divine Being more manifested in this often termed the nexus utriusque mundi. So that his proceeding? he who in one respect is associated with angels and There is a consequence, besides those I have archangels, may look upon a Being of infinite already mentioned, which seems very naturally perfection' as his father, and the highest order of deducible from the foregoing considerations. If spirits as his brethren, may in another respect say the scale of being rises by such a regular progress to corruption, Thou art my father; and to the so high as man, we may, by a parity of reason, worm, Thou art my mother and my sister.' suppose that it still proceeds gradually through 0. those beings which are of a superior nature to him;, since there is an infinitely greater space and room for different degrees of perfection, between the Supreme Being and man, than between man and the most despicable insect. The consequence of so Candig great a variety of beings which are superior to us, from that variety which is inferior to us, is made by Mr Locke, in a passage which I shall here set down, after having premised, that notwithstanding there is such infinite room between man and his Maker for the creative power to exert itself in, it is impossible that it should ever be filled up, since there will be still an infinite gap or distance between the highest created being and the Power which produced him.

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N° 520. MONDAY, OCTOBER 27, 1712.

Quis desideria sit puder aut modus
Tam chari capitis?

HOR. Od. xxiv. I. 1. ver. 1.
And who can grieve too much? What time shall end
Our mourning for so dear a friend?
CREECH.

MR. SPECTATOR,

THE just value you have expressed for the matrimonial state is the reason that I now venture to write to you, without fear of being ridiculous, and "That there should be more species of intelligent confess to you, that, though it is three months since creatures above us, than there are of sensible and I lost a very agreeable woman, who was my wife, material below us, probable to me from hence: my sorrow is still fresh; and I am often, in the that in all the visible corporeal world we see no midst of company, upon any circumstance that rechasms, or no gaps. All quite down from us the vives her memory, with a reflection what she would descent is by easy steps, and a continued series of say or do on such an occasion: I say, upon any octhings, that in each remove differ very little one currence of that nature, which I can give you a from the other. There are fishes that have wings, sense of, though I cannot express it wholly, i am and are not strangers to the airy region; and there all over softness, and am obliged to retire and give are some birds that are inhabitants of the water; way to a few sighs and tears before I can be easy. whose blood is cold as fishes, and their flesh so like I cannot but recommend the subject of male wiin taste, that the scrupulous are allowed them on dowhood to you, and beg of you to touch upon it fish days. There are animals so near of kin both by the first opportunity. To those who have not to birds and beasts, that they are in the middle lived like husbands during the lives of their spouses, between both. Amphibious animals link the ter- this would be a tasteless jumble of words; but to restrial and aquatic together. Seals live at land such (of whom there are not a few) who have enand at sea, and porpoises have the warm blood and joyed that state with the sentiments proper for it, entrails of a hog; not to mention what is con- you will have every line, which hits the sorrow, fidently reported of mermaids, or sea-men, there are attended with a tear of pity and consolation; for I some brutes that seem to have as much knowledge know not by what goodness of Providence it is and reason as some that are called men; and the that every gush of passion is a step towards the animal and vegetable kingdoms are so nearly relief of it; and there is a certain comfort in the joined, that if you will take the lowest of one, and very act of sorrowing, which, I suppose, arises from the highest of the other, there will scarce be per- a secret consciousness in the mind, that the afflicceived any great difference between them: and tion it is under flows from a virtuous cause. My so on, till we come to the lowest and the most in-concern is not indeed so outrageous as at the first organical parts of matter, we shall find every where transport; for I think it has subsided rather into a that the several species are linked together, and sober state of mind than any actual perturbation differ but in almost insensible degrees. And, when of spirit. There might be rules formed for men's we consider the infinite power and wisdom of the behaviour on this great incident to bring them from Maker, we have reason to think that it is suitable that misfortune into the condition I am at present; to the magnificent harmony of the universe, and which is, I think, that my sorrow has converted all the great design and infinite goodness of the archi- roughness of temper into meekness, good-nature, tect, that the species of creatures should also by and complacency. But indeed, when in a serious

name.

and lonely hour I present my departed consort to reflection of the use of virtue in the hour of affic my imagination, with that air of persuasion in her tion. I sat down with a design to put you upon countenance when I have been in passion, that giving us rules how to overcome such griefs as sweet affability when I have been in good-humour, these, but I should rather advise you to teach men that tender compassion when I have had any thing to be capable of them. which gave me uneasiness; I confess to you I am 'You men of letters have what you call the fine inconsolable, and my eyes gush with grief, as if I taste in your apprehensions of what is property had seen her but just then expire. In this condi- done or said. There is something like this deeply tion I am broken in upon by a charming young grafted in the soul of him who is honest and faith. woman, my daughter, who is the picture of what ful in all his thoughts and actions. Every thing her mother was on her wedding-day. The good which is false, vicious, or unworthy, is despicable girl strives to comfort me; but how shall I let you to him, though all the world should approve it know that all the comfort she gives me is to make At the same time he has the most lively sensibility my tears flow more easily? The child knows she in all enjoyments and sufferings which it is proper quickens my sorrows, and rejoices my heart at the for him to have, where any duty of life is con same time. Oh, ye learned! tell me by what word cerned. To want sorrow when you in decency to speak a motion of the soul for which there is no and truth should be afflicted, is, I should think, a When she kneels, and bids me be com- greater instance of a man's being a blockhead than forted, she is my child; when I take her in my not to know the beauty of any passage in Virgil arms, and bid her say no more, she is my very wife, You have not yet observed, Mr. Spectator, that and is the very comforter I lament the loss of. 1 the fine gentlemen of this age set up for hardness banish her the room, and weep aloud that I have of heart, and humanity has very little share in their lost her mother, and that I have her. pretences. He is a brave fellow who is always Mr Spectator, I wish it were possible for you ready to kill a man he hates, but he does not stand to have a sense of these pleasing perplexities; you in the same degree of esteem who laments for the might communicate to the guilty part of mankind woman he loves. I should fancy you might work that they are incapable of the happiness which is up a thousand pretty thoughts, by reflecting upon in the very sorrows of the virtuous. the persons most susceptible of the sort of sorrow But pray spare me a little longer; give me leave I have spoken of; and I dare say you will find to tell you the manner of her death. She took upon examination, that they are the wisest and leave of all her family, and bore the vain applica- the bravest of mankind who are the most capable tion of medicines with the greatest patience ima- of it. ginable. When the physician told her she must certainly die, she desired, as well as she could, that all who were present, except myself, might depart the room. She said she had nothing to say, for she was resigned, and I knew all she knew that concerned us in this world; but she desired to be alone, that in the presence of God only she might, without interruption, do her last duty to me, of thanking me for all my kindness to her; adding, that she hoped in my last moments I should feel the same comfort for my goodness to her, as she did in that she had acquitted herself with honour, truth, and virtue, to me.

Norwich, 7° Octobris,

1712.

STEELE.

'I am, SIR, 'Your most humble servant, 'F. J." T.

N° 521. TUESDAY, OCTOBER 28, 1712

Vera redit facies, dissimulata perit.

The real face returns, the counterfeit is lost.

MR. SPECTATOR,

P. ARB.

I curb myself, and will not tell you that this kindness cut my heart in twain, when I expected an accusation for some passionate starts of mine, I HAVE been for many years loud in-this asser in some parts of our time together, to say nothing tion, that there are very few that can see or hest but thank me for the good, if there was any good I mean, that can report what they have seen or suitable to her own excellence! All that I had heard; and this through incapacity or prejudice, ever said to her, all the circumstances of sorrow one of which disables almost every man who talks and joy between us, crowded upon my mind in the to you from representing things as he ought. For same instant and when, immediately after, I saw which reason I am come to a resolution of believ the pangs of death come upon that dear body which ing nothing I hear; and I contemn the man given to I had often embraced with transport; when I saw narration under the appellation of "a matter-ofthose cherishing eyes begin to be ghastly, and their fact man ;" and, according to me, a matter-of-fact last struggle to be to fix themselves on me, how did man is one whose life and conversation is spent in 1 lose all patience! She expired in my arms, and the report of what is not matter of fact. 'I remember when Prince Eugene in my distraction I thought I saw her bosom still heave. There was certainly life yet still left. I there was no knowing his height or figure, till you cried, "She just now spoke to me." But alas! Mr. Spectator, gave the public satisfaction in that grew giddy, and all things moved about me, from matter. In relations, the force of the expression the distemper of my own head; for the best of lies very often more in the look, the tone of voice, or the gesture, than the words themselves; which, Now the doctrine I would, methinks, have you being repeated in any other manner by the undis raise from this account I have given you, is, that cerning, bear a very different interpretation from there is a certain equanimity in those who are the original meaning. I must confess I formeny good and just, which runs into their very sorrow, have turned this humour of mine to very good a and disappoints the force of it. Though they must count; for whenever I heard any narration uttered pass through afflictions in common with all who with extraordinary vehemence, and grounded upon are in human nature, yet their conscious integrity

women was breathless, and gone for ever.

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considerable authority, I was always ready to lay | hear from others as literally as their parts or zeal any wager that it was not so. Indeed I never will permit, and are called "reciters." Here was pretended to be so rash as to fix the matter any a fellow in town some years ago, who used to diparticular way in opposition to theirs; but, as vert himself by telling a lie at Charing-cross in the there are a hundred ways of any thing happening, morning at eight of the clock, and then following besides that it has happened, I only controverted it through all parts of the town till eight at night; its falling out in that one manner as they settled it, at which time he came to a club of his friends, and and left it to the ninety-nine other ways, and con- diverted them with an account what censure it had sequently had more probability of success. I had at Will's in Covent-garden, how dangerous it was arrived at a particular skill in warming a man so believed to be at Child's, and what inference they far in his narration, as to make him throw in a drew from it with relation to stocks at Jonathan's. little of the marvellous, and then, if he has much I have had the honour to travel with this gentlefire, the next degree is the impossible. Now this man I speak of in search of one of his falsehoods; is always the time for fixing the wager. But this and have been present when they have described requires the nicest management, otherwise very the very man they have spoken to, as him who first probably the dispute may arise to the old deter reported it, tall or short, black or fair, a gentleman mination by battle. In these conceits I have been or a raggamuffin, according as they liked the intelvery fortunate, and have won some wagers of those ligence. I have heard one of our ingenious writers who have professedly valued themselves upon in- of news say, that, when he has had a customer telligence, and have put themselves to great charge come with an advertisement of an apprentice or a and expense to be misinformed considerably sooner wife run away, he has desired the advertiser to than the rest of the world. compose himself a little before he dictated the de'Having got a comfortable sum by this my op- scription of the offender: for when a person is put position to public report, I have brought myself into a public paper by a man who is angry with now to so great a perfection in inattention, more him, the real description of such person is hid in especially to party-relations, that at the same time the deformity with which the angry man describes I seem with greedy ears to devour up the discourse, him; therefore this fellow always made his customI certainly do not know one word of it, but pursue ers describe him as he would the day before he my own course of thought, whether upon business offended, or else he was sure he would never find or amusement, with much tranquillity; I say inat-him out. These and many other bints I could sugtention, because a late act of parliament has se gest to you for the elucidation of all fictions; but cured all party-liars from the penalty of a wager, I leave it to your own sagacity to improve or neand consequently made it unprofitable to attend to glect this speculation. them. However, good-breeding obliges a man to 'I am, SIR, maintain the figure of the keenest attention, the 'Your most obedient, true posture of which in a coffee-house I take to consist in leaning over a table with the edge of it pressing hard upon your stomach: for the more pain the narration is received with, the more gracious is your bending over; besides that the narrator thinks you forget your pain by the pleasure No 522. WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1712. of hearing him.

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STEELE.

'humble servant.'

T.

'Fort Knock has occasioned several very per-Adjuro nunquam eam me deserturum ; plexed and inelegant heats and animosities; and Non, si caiundos mihi sciam esse inimicos omnes homines. there was one the other day in a coffee-house where Hane mihi expetivi, contigit: conveniunt moves: valeant, Qui inter nos discidium volunt: hanc, nisi mors, mi adimet nemo.

I

TER. Andr. act. iv. se. 2.

swear never to forsake her; no, though I was sure to make all men my enemies. Her I desired; her I have obtained; our humours agree. Perish all those who separate us; Death alone shall deprive me of her.

I was, that took upon him to clear that business to me, for he said he was there. I knew him to be that sort of man that had not strength of capacity to be informed of any thing that depended merely upon his being an eye-witness, and therefore was fully satisfied he could give me no information, for the very same reason he believed he could, for he 1 SHOULD esteem myself a very happy man if my was there. However, I heard him with the same speculations could in the least contribute to the greediness as Shakspeare describes in the follow-rectifying the conduct of my readers in one of the ing lines:

"I saw a smith stand on his hammer, thus,

With open mouth, swallowing a taylor's news."

most important affairs of life, to wit, their choice in marriage. This state is the foundation of community, and the chief band of society; and I do not think I can be too frequent on subjects which may give light to my unmarried readers in a par'I confess of late I have not been so much ticular which is so essential to their following hapamazed at the declaimers in coffee-houses as Ipiness or misery. A virtuous disposition, a good formerly was, being satisfied that they expect to understanding, an agreeable person, and an easy be rewarded for their vociferations. Of these liars fortune, are the things which should be chiefly rethere are two sorts: the genius of the first consists garded on this occasion. Because my present view in much impudence and a strong memory; the is to direct a young lady, who I think is now in others have added to these qualifications a good doubt whom to take of many lovers, I shall talk at understanding and smooth language. These there- this time to my female readers. The advantages, fore have only certain heads, which they are as as I was going to say, of sense, beauty, and riches, eloquent upon as they can, and may be called are what are certainly the chief motives to a pruembellishers;" the others repeat only what they dent young woman of fortune for changing her

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'MADAM,

lents, with a moderate estate, and an agreeable thus obliged, is ever contriving the happiness of her person, is preferable to him who is only rich, if it who did him so great a distinction; while the foo! were only that good faculties may purchase riches, is ungrateful without vice, and never returns a fabut riches cannot purchase worthy endowments. I vour because he is not sensible of it. I would, me do not mean that wit, and à capacity to entertain, thinks, have so much to say for myself, that, if 1 is what should be highly valued, except it is founded fell into the hands of him who treated me ill, be upon good-nature and humanity. There are many should be sensible when he did so. His conscience ingenious men, whose abilities do little else but should be of my side, whatever became of his inmake themselves and those about them uneasy. clination. I do not know but it is the insipid choice Such are those who are far gone in the pleasures which has been made by those who have the care of the town, who cannot support life without quick of young women, that the marriage state itself has sensations and gay reflections, and are strangers to been liable to so much ridicule. But a well-chosen tranquillity, to right reason, and a calm motion of love, moved by passion on both sides, and perfected spirits, without transport or dejection. These in- by the generosity of one party, must be adorned genious men, of all men living, are most to be with so many handsome incidents on the other side, avoided by her who would be happy in a husband. that every particular couple would be an example They are immediately sated with possession, and in many circumstances to all the rest of the species. must necessarily fly to new acquisitions of beauty I shall end the chat upon this subject with a co to pass away the whiling moments and intervals of ple of letters, one from a lover, who is very well life; for with them every hour is heavy that is not acquainted with the way of bargaining on these joyful. But there is a sort of man of wit and occasions; and the other from his rival, who has sense, that can reflect upon his own make, and less estate, but great gallantry of temper. As to that of his partner, with the eyes of reason and my man of prudence, he makes love, as he says, as honour, and who believes he offends against both if he were already a father, and, laying aside the these, if he does not look upon the woman who passion, comes to the reason of the thing. chose him, to be under his protection in sickness and health, with the utmost gratitude, whether from that moment she is shining or defective in person Mr counsel has perused the inventory of your or mind: I say, there are those who think them-estate, and considered what estate you have, which selves bound to supply with good-nature the fail- it seems is only yours, and to the male-heirs of your ings of those who love them, and who always think body; but, in default of such issue, to the right those the objects of love and pity who came to heirs of your uncle Edward for ever. Thus, madam their arms the objects of joy and admiration. I am advised you cannot (the remainder not being Of this latter sort is Lysander, a man of wit, in you) dock the entail; by which means my estate, learning, sobriety, and good-nature; of birth and which is fee-simple, will come by the settlement estate below no woman to accept; and of whom it proposed to your children begotten by me, whe might be said, should he succeed in his present ther they are males or females: but my children wishes, his mistress raised his fortune, but not that begotten upon you will not inherit your land she made it. When a woman is deliberating with except I beget a son. Now, madam, since thing herself whom she shall choose of many near each are so, you are a woman of that prudence, and other in other pretensions, certainly he of best un- understand the world so well, as not to expect! derstanding is to be preferred. Life hangs heavily should give you more than you can give me. in the repeated conversation of one who has no 'I am, MADAN, imagination to be fired at the several occasions and "(with great respect) objects which come before him, or who cannot 'Your obedient humble servant, strike out of his reflections new paths of pleasing 'T. W. discourse. Honest Will Thrush and his wife, though not married above four months, have scarce had a word to say to each other these six weeks; and one cannot form to one's self a sillier picture than these two creatures in solemn pomp and plenty, unable to enjoy their fortunes, and at a full stop I HAVE given in my estate to your counsel, and among a crowd of servants, to whose taste of life desired my own lawyer to insist upon no terms they are beholden for the little satisfactions by which your friends can propose for your which they can be understood to be so much as ease and advantage; for indeed I have no notion barely in being. The hours of the day, the dis. of making difficulties of presenting you with what tinctions of noon and night, dinner and supper, cannot make me happy without you. are the greatest notices they are capable of. This is perhaps representing the life of a very modest woman, joined to a dull fellow, more insipid than it really deserves; but I am sure it is not to exalt the commerce with an ingenious companion too You must know the relations have met upon this, high, to say that every new accident or object and the girl, being mightily taken with the latter which comes into such a gentleman's way, gives his epistle, she is laughed at, and uncle Edward is to wife new pleasures and satisfactions. The appro- be dealt with to make her a suitable match to the bation of his words and actions is a continual new worthy gentleman who has told her he does not feast to her; nor can she enough applaud her good care a farthing for her. All I hope for is, that the fortune in having her life varied every hour, her fair lady will make use of the first light night to mind more improved, and her heart more glad, show B. T. she understands a marriage is not to be from every circumstance which they meet with. considered as a common bargain. He will lay out his invention in forming new pleasures and amusements, and make the fortune she has brought him subservient to the honour and reputation of her and hers. A man of sense, who is

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No 523. THURSDAY, OCTOBER 30, 1712.

Nunc augur Apollo,

Nunc Lycia sortes, nunc et Jove missus ab ipso
Interpres divum fert horrida jussa per auras.
Scilicet is superis labor ———

VIRG. Æn. iv. ver. 376.

Now Lycian lots, and now the Delian god;
Now Hermes is employ'd from Jove's abode,
To warn him hence, as if the peaceful state
Of heav'nly pow'rs were touch'd with human fate!
DRYDEN.

pa

natural beauty to this way of writing, by substituting in the place of these antiquated fables, the superstitious mythology which prevails among the shepherds of our own country.

Virgil and Homer might compliment their heroes, by interweaving the actions of deities with their achievements; but for a Christian author to write in the pagan creed, to make Prince Eugene a favourite of Mars, or to carry on a correspondence between Bellona and the Marshal de Villars, would be downright puerility, and unpardonable in a poet that is past sixteen. It is want of sufficient elevation in a genius to describe realities, and place them in a shining light, that makes him I AM always highly delighted with the discovery have recourse to such trifling antiquated fables; as of any rising genius among my countrymen. For a man may write a fine description of Bacchus or this reason I have read over, with great pleasure, Apollo that does not know how to draw the chathe late miscellany published by Mr. Pope, in racter of any of his contemporaries. which there are many excellent compositions of In order therefore to put a stop to this absurd that ingenious gentleman. I have had a pleasure practice, I shall publish the following edict, by of the same kind in perusing a poem that is just virtue of that spectatorial authority with which I published, On the Prospect of Peace; and which, stand invested:" I hope, will meet with such a reward from its 'Whereas the time of a general peace is, in all trons as so noble a performance deserves. I was appearance, drawing near, being informed that particularly well pleased to find that the author there are several ingenious persons who intend to had not amused himself with fables out of the pa-show their talents on so happy an occasion; and gan theology, and that when he hints at any thing being willing, as much as in me lies, to prevent of this nature he alludes to it only as to a fable. that effusion of nonsense which we have good cause Many of our modern authors, whose learning to apprehend; I do hereby strictly require every very often extends no further than Ovid's Meta- person who shall write on this subject, to rememmorphoses, do not know how to celebrate a great ber that he is a Christian, and not to sacrifice his man, without mixing a parcel of school-boy tales catechism to his poetry. In order to it, I do exwith the recital of his actions. If you read a poem pect of him in the first place to make his own on a fine woman, among the authors of this class, poem, without depending upon Phoebus for any you shall see that it turns more upon Venus or part of it, or calling out for aid upon any one of Helen than on the party concerned. I have known the Muses by name. I do likewise positively fora copy of verses on a great hero highly com- bid the sending of Mercury with any particular mended; but, upon asking to hear some of the message or dispatch relating to the peace, and beautiful passages, the admirer of it has repeated shall by no means suffer Minerva to take upon her to me a speech of Apollo, or a description of Poly-the shape of any plenipotentiary concerned in this pheme. At other times, when I have searched for great work. I do further declare, that I shall not the actions of a great man, who gave a subject to allow the Destinies to have had a hand in the the writer, I have been entertained with the ex- deaths of the several thousands who have been ploits of a river god, or have been forced to attend slain in the late war, being of opinion that all a fury in her mischievous progress, from one end such deaths may be very well accounted for by the of the poem to the other. When we are at school Christian system of powder and ball. I do thereit is necessary for us to be acquainted with the fore strictly forbid the Fates to cut the thread of system of pagan theology: and may be allowed to man's life upon any pretence whatsoever, unless it enliven a theme, or point an epigram with an hea- be for the sake of the rhyme. And whereas I have then god; but when we would write a manly panegyric, that should carry in it all the colours of truth, nothing can be more ridiculous than to have recourse to our Jupiters and Junos.

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No thought is beautiful which is not just; and no thought can be just which is not founded in truth, or at least in that which passes for such.

good reason to fear that Neptune will have a great deal of business on his hands, in several poems which we may now suppose are upon the anvil, I do also prohibit his appearance, unless it be done in metaphor, simile, or any very she.t allusion; and that even here he be not permitted to enter but with great caution and circumspection. I deIn mock heroic poems the use of the heathen sire that the same rule may be extended to his mythology is not only excusable, but graceful, be- whole fraternity of heathen gods, it being my decause it is the design of such compositions to divert, sign to condemn every poem to the flames in which by adapting the fabulous machines of the ancients Jupiter thunders, or exercises any other act of to low subjects, and at the same time by ridiculing authority which does not belong to him: in short, such kinds of machinery in modern writers. If any I expect that no pagan agent shall be introduced, are of opinion that there is a necessity of admit-or any fact related, which a man cannot give cre ting these classical legends into our serious compo. dit to with a good conscience. Provided always, sitions, in order to give them a more poetical turn, that nothing herein contained shall extend, or be I would recommend to their consideration the pas- construed to extend, to several of the female toral of Mr. Philips. One would have thought it poets in this nation, who shall still be left in full impossible for this kind of poetry to have subsisted possession of their gods and goddesses, in the same without fawns and satyrs, wood-nymphs and wa- manner as if this paper had never been written.' ter-nymphs, with all the tribe of rural deities. ADDISON.

But we see he has given a new life and a more

By Tickell. The tendency of this poem (says Johnson) was, to reclaim the nation from the pride of conquest to the pleasures of tranquillity.' Lives of the English poets,

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