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tively on these questions. To those two states alone, then, can we look to any efficient action. The latter is not yet fully prepared for final action; she has less capital, is younger and weaker than the former, and has no seaport. The former should, then, take the lead, and fearlessly and confidently act for herself. This would prevent practical issues from her neighbors. Mississippi would, I feel assured, take position by her side, and soon all the adjoining states would follow her example. Thus you will perceive that I think united action on the part of the slaveholding states, or even a majority of them, out of the question: that there is not even a present prospect of the cotton states authoritatively tak ing joint action. I feel, therefore, convinced that no effective measures will be taken of the states separately. The time and energy of the states would be wasted in fruitless contests about the proper remedy, and differences of opinion on this point would defeat any action at all, even though all the consulting states should favor some remedy. If, therefore, the people of South Carolina have made up their minds to withdraw from the Union at all events, whether joined by other states or not, my advice would be to do so without waiting for the action of any other state, as I believe there would be more probability of favorable action on the part of the other Southern states after her secession than before. So long as the several aggrieved states wait for one another, their action will be over-cautious and timid. Great political movements, to be successful, must be bold, and must present practical and simple issues. There is, therefore, in my opinion, greater probability of the dissatisfied states uniting with a seceding state than of their union for the purpose of secession. The secession of a Southern state would startle the whole South, and force the other states to meet the issue plainly; it would present practical issues, and exhibit everywhere a wider-spread discontent than politicians have imagined. In less than two years all the states south of you would unite their destiny to yours. Should the federal government attempt to employ force, an active and cordial union of the whole South would be instantly effected, and a complete Southern confederacy organized. All these results are problems which the future alone can solve. '"-Vol. ii, PP. 125127.
Already "the future" is "solving" the problem, and the world will soon understand the result. We might give many pages of extracts equally significant,-but we recommend the whole book to the perusal of those, if any such there be, who think the North is to blame for the evils of civil war. They will see that for years the lovers of power in the South, and the advocates of slavery extension, have feared that the free institutions of the North would leave them far behind, and they have left no argument untried to persuade the South to regain in a seperate Confederacy the prestige which they were losing in the Union.
The biographer of General Quitman makes the following comparison between the South and New England. It seems unaccountable that any one can know so much and be so foolish,-can
see so well and reason so ill,—and can fail to acknowledge that it is the institution of slavery itself and not the tariff, nor the increase of Northern wealth and power, nor any New England hostility to slavery, which has depressed the South.
Says Mr. Claiborne:
"New England is our opposite in every thing. A black and wintry sky frowns upon a sterile and rock-bound soil. Her forest, compared with ours, is a wood of dwarfs. Industry, and science, and labor and capital, are indispensable there to production. Nothing comes spontaneously or kindly; and with all the caressing and pampering, she never produces enough for her own consumption. Her factories would stop, and her operatives starve but for the fleecy staple and the cereal crops of the South. Winter binds up her water power, and her rivers and canals, four months in the year; and the cost of fuel, much of which is brought from the South, diminishes the profits of her steam-machinery. She relieves herself every year of a redundant population by sending South for a living thousands of her stoutest-bodied men, and other thousands tempt seas the most remote, leaving at home a large majority of females and consumers.
"Yet in despite of all this annual expenditure of capital and productive labor, she is ahead of us in the career of prosperity. Her population multiplies faster. She has ten school-houses where we have one. She has whole navies of merchantmen and lines of steamships. Where are ours? She has millions invested in insurance companies, in national stocks, and in the English funds. She buys from us our staples to sell them again, transformed into starch, maccaroni, arrowroot, biscuit, whisky, brandy, rum, candies, snuff, prints, cambrics, Lowells, and a thousand other fabrics, under the protection of a principle which gives her a decided advantage in our markets over the foreign manufacturer of the same articles. And, under the system, she grows richer and richer, and more importunate and more exacting every year; and in the same ratio we become poor, and more cringing and more timid.
"Our revolutionary fathers rose in arms, at the hazard of property and life to resist a tax not half so unjust and oppressive. A single obnoxious law overthrew the administration of John Adams, a statesman burnished with the lustre of the Revolution, and surrounded and supported by its ablest and bravest instruments. The legislative action of Virginia alone more than once rolled back the tide of federal aggression that threatened to submerge and destroy the limited and strictly defined character of our government. But now so much are we accustomed to encroachment-so drilled to act as 'hewers of wood and drawers of water' for the North-so much absorbed and distracted by their war on our institutions, which under the most insidious professions, they continue to wage, that we scarcely see, or, if seen, we dare not denounce the colossal evil which has so long pressed us to the ground. We see, and we are ready to resist, the flaming brand that fanaticism levels at our institutions, but we do not perceive that the PROTECTIVE SYSTEM is a fiend, in the shape of a trusted domestic, who drugs our food and our cup, and slowly, but surely, drains away our vitality.
"This monster haunts us like a phantom in all the occupations of life; is a tax
on our labor and on our pleasures; drives us from our fields, and like the obscene birds of Virgil, pollutes even our feasts.
"Professing loyalty to the Union-which implies a defense of the South against the fanaticism of the North-the government supports a system which effectually strengthens the party it proposes to rebuke, and cripples the party it promises to defend. There is just this difference. The abolitionist would rob us of our slaves; the government will let us retain them, but contrives to diminish the profits of their labor, well knowing that thus the institution itself is sapped. So they each accomplish, by different means, the same end, the ruin of the slaveholder." pp. 187-189.
NEW EDITIONS OF STANDARD WORKS.
It would seem as if the present disturbed state of the country was to have a beneficial effect in quite an unexpected quarter. The "Publishers' Circular," of New York, which gives, every Saturday, very full and reliable information respecting all that is doing in the book-trade, shows us that, aside from military works and the publications of the different religious societies, by far the greater part of the new books, that have come from the press since the first of last January, have been new editions of some of the best of our standard authors. If we could be sure that the reading public would confine themselves strictly, for the next few years, to works of this description, we could predict that a wonderful change for the better would soon be observed in the taste of our people! The extent to which the best works in the language have been superseded by the most ephemeral publications, has long been really lamentable. We commend, then, most heartily, the enterprise of those publishers who have continued the costly publications which they had commenced in more prosperous times. They are deserving of all praise; and if, for the next half a dozen years, the public is forced, by the absolute want of other books, to pay more attention to our English and American classics, they themselves will certainly be the gainers, and we hope that the publishers, too, will reap what they richly deserve-a rich pecuniary recompense. Our limits will allow us, at present, to do little more than announce the valuable works which they have brought out during the past three months.
MILMAN'S LATIN CHRISTIANITY-The eight volumes of this well-known history, which the Messrs. Sheldon, of New York, began to reprint about a year ago, are now all before the public,
and are offered for sale at a price which places them within the reach of almost every purchaser. In elegance of appearance, they are fully equal to the English edition. For years to come, this work will undoubtedly be the standard history, in the English language, of the rise and growth of the papal power to the period of the Reformation. Every church should see to it that these beautiful volumes have a place in their pastor's library.
LORD BACON'S WORKS.-Messrs. Brown and Taggard, of Boston, still continue to issue, monthly, with commendable regularity, their superb reprints of Mr. Spedding's new English edition of the works of Lord Bacon. The literary and professional works have now all been published, and are presented complete in five volumes, which are unsurpassed in beauty of typography by anything which has appeared from the American press. The publishers inform us that notwithstanding the present unfavorable state of things in the country, they have already nearly a thousand subscribers, and therefore feel encouraged to proceed immediately with the printing of the philosophical works, which will be issued in ten volumes. The first of these, which commences with the Novum Organum, is already before the public. It contains a very interesting statement from the pen of Mr. Spedding, with regard to the plan on which he and his fellow editors have proceeded in the preparation and management of this edition. striking engraving of Lord Bacon accompanies this first volume, which is particularly worthy of notice. It represents him in the full maturity of his powers as "Lorde Highe Chancellour of Englande, and one of his Majesties most honorable privie coun
It is from an old print by Simon Pass, and is engraved by H. Wright Smith. The reasons that determined Mr. Spedding in his selection of this portrait from those which are preserved at Gorhambury, are stated by him in his preface, with much particularity, and will be read with much interest. We bespeak for this really princely edition the patronage which it merits. [For sale in New Haven by T. H. Pease.]
COOPER'S NOVELS.-We would call attention to this beautiful edition of the complete works of the great American novelist, which was commenced over two years ago by Messrs. W. A. Townsend & Co. of New York. Since the late change in the firm,
the publication of the volumes of this very extended series has been continued by Mr. F. T. Gregory, one of the former partners, with the greatest regularity, and now in the course of a few weeks we may expect that it will be successfully completed. The last volume, which will be issued September 1st, will contain a portrait of Mr. Cooper from a painting by Elliott; a view of Otsego Hall; and a biographical sketch by Mr. William C. Bryant. Each volume contains two admirable engravings on steel and a number of sketches on wood, designed by Darley expressly for this edition, and engraved by the first artists of the country.
DICKENS'S NOVELS.-Mr. Gregory is also continuing the beautifully illustrated series of Dickens's novels which was lately commenced by Messrs. W. A. Townsend & Co. ; and now the Pickwick Papers in four volumes, Oliver Twist in two volumes, and Nicholas Nickleby in four volumes, are before the public.
This edition far surpasses all others which have yet been published. The volumes are of a most convenient size-rather small duodecimoprinted upon exquisitely tinted paper, and each one is illustrated with two engravings from drawings by F. O. C. Darley and John Gilbert. Their appearance is really superb, and we cannot doubt that the enterprise and the taste which the publisher has displayed will be well rewarded.
IRVING'S WORKS.-Mr. George P. Putnam is advancing rapidly towards the completion of his "national edition" of the works of Washington Irving. Since the last number of the New Englander appeared, the Crayon Miscellany, the Alhambra, and the Adventures of Captain Bonneville have been added to the series. The admirable engravings with which this edition is so amply provided add very much to its attractiveness and value.
REBELLION RECORD.*—The time has been when it was a practicable thing to preserve a file of newspapers, and so to retain from week to week, and from month to month, a tolerably convenient record of the current events, and of contemporary documents for
* The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events, 1860-'61. Edited by FRANK MOORE, Author of Diary of the American Revolution. New York: G. P. Putnam. Parts I, II.